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Notes and Queries, Jan. 28, 1911. 


Sw. U, M 




"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, Jan. 28, 1911. 





ii s. ii. JULY 2, 




CONTENTS.-No. 27. 

NOTES Tottel, Puttenham, and Turbervile, 1-Sir W. 
Jones and the Representation of Oxford University, 3 
T L. Peacock on Fashionable Literature, 4 The 
National Flag 5 Sir Thomas Cooke, Mayor of London 
"Bullion" Portable Railway-" Pepita," a Pattern 
J. R. Smith : Dr. W. Saunders, 6. 

OUERIES: George J.'s Statue at Hackwood Garibaldi 
and his Flag William Penn's Letters Andronicus 
Lascaris Donne's Poems, 7 Spexhall Church Poem on 
Death of George II. Cornelius de Witt-' Sir Edward 
Seaward's Narrative 'The Circle of Loda Doge's Hat 
'The Duenna and Little Isaac' Huguenot Church at 
Provins Prince Eugene of Savoy Commonwealth Grants 
of Arms, 8 Parish Registers burnt in 1337 Stones in 
Earlv Village Life Prior's Salford Church Clergy 
retiring from the Dinner-Table Heworth-Edw. Hatton 
Sir Isaac's Walk Episcopal Visitations Chapel le 
Frith M. de Calonrie's House in Piccadilly, 9-Prince 
Rupertr-Goldsmith and Hackney, 10. 

REPLIES : Bubb Dodington and his Circle, 10 'Rape of 
Proserpine' London Children's Outdoor Games 
" Arabis" "Teart" Buff and Blue as Party Colours, 11 
Flax Bourton Duncan Liddel and Jo. Potinius Wall- 
Papers, 12 "Montjoy et St. Dennis" "Worth" in 
Place-Names "The Cock Tavern " Kempesfeld, 13 
"Onion" Grey Family Earthenware Tombstone, 14 
" Literary Gossip," 15 Strettell-Utterson Column's 
'Man of the People 'Robin Hood's Men "Bmche" 
Hampden and Ship Money, 16 Firegrate Folk-lore 
The Ravensbourne Door-knocker Etiquette, 17 Comets 
and Princes Chevalier de Laurence "Pull" "Tht 
Fortune of War," 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : "The Cornish Coast '' Pride and 
Preiudice ' Abridged' A Collection of Eastern Stories ' 

.'The Time of the Singing of Birds' The Prince of 
Wales Prayer-Books ' L'Interme'diaire.' 


I NOTICED some time ago, when searching 
for certain material in George Turbervile's 
'Tragical Tales and other Poems,' 1587, 
that the author often imitated the songs and 
sonnets in TottePs ' Miscellany,' and that 
occasionally his verse was almost identical 
with quotations from the * Miscellany z 
which I had been able to identify in Putten- 
ham's 'Arte of English Poesie.' Then I 
called to mind the fact that the time of the 
composition of Puttenham' s book is still a 
matter for intelligent speculation, and I 
compared the date of its publication, 1589, 
with that of Turbervile's 'Tragical Tales,' 
1587. And I thought what a good thing 
it would be if I could find the latter quoted 
in Puttenham. But I was doomed to 
disappointment, for I could find no evidence 
to show that Puttenham had read the 

At this time Mr. R. B. McKerrow very 
kindly lent me his copy of Turbervile's 
' Epitaphes, Epigrams, Songs, and Sonnets,' 
1567, and informed me that he had traced 
two quotations from it in Puttenham. To 
make a long story short, I determined to 
work through the book thoroughly, and I 
very soon learned that these ' Songs and 
Sonnets ' shed much light on the mysterious 
' Arte of English Poesie ? and on Turbervile's 
method of composition. Turbervile is the 
" common rimer " who is most often censured 
by Puttenham, no fewer than ten passages 
from his book being dealt with in ' The Arte 
of English Poesie.' 

, Turbervile is mentioned only once by name 
in Puttenham (Arber, p. 75), the passage 
reading as follows : 

" And in her Majesties time that now is are 
sprong up an other crew of Courtly makers Noble 
men and Gentlemen of her Majesties owne 
servauntes, who have written excellently well as 
it would appeare if their doings could be found 
out and made publicke with the rest, of which 
number is first that noble Gentleman Edward 
Earle of Oxford. Thomas Lord of Bukhurst, 
when he was young, Henry Jx>rd Paget, Sir 
Philip Sydney, Sir Walter Rawleigh, Master 
Edward Dyar, Maister Fulke Grevell, Gascon, 
Britton, Turberville and a great many other 
learned Gentlemen, whose names I do not omit 
for envie, but to avoyde tediousnesse, and who 
have deserved no little commendation." 

Knowing that Turbervile was thus com- 
mended, I did not expect to find that he 
is the " rimer " who is belittled and held up 
to censure more often than any other poet 
or poetaster dealt with by Puttenham ; 
and even now I cannot find an explanation 
for the difference between the commenda- 
tion and the censures that follow, all of which 
indicate in the very plainest terms that 
Turbervile was far from being a master of his 
craft, that he was an imitator or mimic of 
other men's work, and that his verse is, in 
truth, very little better than doggerel. 

Now all this seems strange, because the 
faults alleged against Turbervile are faults 
to be found in all poets, good and bad, who 
wrote about that time ; and Puttenham 
need not have gone outside Tottel's ' Mis- 
cellany ' for similar examples for his book. 
Why does he open his criticism of bad verse 
with a quotation from Turbervile, and close 
it with a succession of quotations from the 
same author, and then at the end of his 
book hark back to Turbervile's writings ? 
If this attack on Turbervile is new to us, it is 
hardly likely that it passed unrecognized by 
his contemporaries ; and it would seem that 
Puttenham had quarrelled with Turbervile 
some time after he wrote the words of com- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 2, 1910. 

mendation. Puttenham is a mysterious 
personage about whom we should like to 
know something more than the few bare 
details that have been ascertained up to 
the present ; and therefore it is just possible 
that some day somebody may be able to point 
us to one or more replies to Puttenham by 
Turbervile's friends, or even to something 
by Turbervile himself, in work known to have 
been written subsequent to the production of 
' The Arte of English Poesie.' And then 
we may get to know more about the singu- 
larly able critic, but wretched poetaster, 
who wrote the latter work. 

The first two quotations I shall deal with 
are those which were pointed out to me by 
Mr. McKerrow. 

Puttenham says there uannot be a fouler 
fault in a poet than to falsify his accent to 
serve his cadence, or by untrue orthography 
to wrench his words to help his rime. To 
do either is a sign that the poet or maker 
is not copious in his language, or (as they 
are wont to say) not half his craft's master ; 
that he is but a bungler, and not a 
poet : 

" as he that by all likelyhood. having no word at 
hand to rime to this word [joy], he made his other 
verse ende in [Roy] saying very impudently thus, 

O mightie Lord of love, dame Venus onely joy, 

Who art the highest God of any heavenly Roy." 
Arber, p. 95. 

This quotation (altered) is dealt with 
again on p. 259, where it is cited as an 
instance of ' Soraismus,' or ' The mingle 
mangle,' the false orthography being dealt 
with a second time as an inexcusable vice, 
ignorant, and affected, 

" as one that said using this French word Roy, 
to make ryme with another verse, thus : 

O mightie Lord of love, dame Venus onely joy, 

Whose Princely power exceedes ech other 
heavenly roy. 

In neither case is Turbervile correctly 
quoted, and this circumstance seems to 
mark malice. Turbervile wrote : 
O Mightie lorde of love ! 
Dame Venus onely joy, 

Whose princely powre doth farre surmount 
all other heavenly roy. 

' The Lover to Cupid for Mercie,' &c. 
Collier's reprint, p. 80. 

The verse, says Puttenham, is good, but the 
term peevishly affected ; and at p. 95 he 
says " roy" was never yet received in our 
language for an English word. 

Now Puttenham' s censure, after all, 
amounts to this only, that Turbervile 
wrenched a word to help his rime, and that 
he had no authority for using " roy.' ? But 
I turn to that portion of ' The Mirror for 

Magistrates ' which John Higgins wrote r 
printed in 1575 and again in 1587, or before 
Puttenham's book appeared, and I find 
" roy " twice : 

What thousand tongues (thinke you) could telt 

our joy ! 
This made our hearts revive, this pleas'd our Roy. 

' Legend of Lord Irenglas,' st. 16. 
Without disdayne, hate, discorde or anoye : 
Even as our father raign'd, the noble Roy. 

' Legend of King Forrex,' st. 4. 

Under Macrologia or Long language we 
find : 

" So said another of our rimers, meaning to shew 
the great annoy and difflcultie of those warres of 
Troy, caused for Helenas sake. 
Nor Menelaus was unwise, 
Or troupe of Troians mad, 
When he with them and they with him, 
For her such combat had." 

Arber, p. 264. 

This is correctly quoted from the sonnet 
headed ' In Praise of Ladie P.' (Collier, 
p. 248). 

We are told : 

" These clauses (he with them and they with 
him) are surplusage, and one of them very, im- 
pertinent, because it could not otherwise be in- 
tended, but that Menelaus, fighting with the 
Troians, the Troians must of necessitie fight' 
with him." 

In Tottel's ' Miscellany,' p. 158, a similar 
case of " surplusage n occurs, and in a poem 
from which Puttenham quotes with approval 
elsewhere : 

But gase on them and they on me as bestes are- 
wont of kinde. 

'.The Lover refused lamenteth his Estate.' 

As very much of Turbervjle's work in his 
* Songs and Sonnets * is directly founded on 
poems in Tottel's ' Miscellany,' I have no 
doubt he caught up his phrasing from Tottel 
in this case. But you never find Putten- 
ham speaking slightingly of anything in 
Tottel, although he deals with twenty- 
seven passages to be found in that book,, 
some of. which are quoted twice and even 
three times. - 

Most of the quotations in Puttenham are 
from effusions of his own, which ungrateful 
and ill- discerning men have allowed, with, 
the exception of one poor remnant, to be 
drowned in the black waters of oblivion. 
One hardly knows whether to weep or to 
laugh at these examples of his muse j and 
the suspicion often haunts one's mind that the^ 
terse, eloquent, and clear-headed prose* 
writer is making a May-game of his reader. 
These quotations come in strings ; they are 
often contrasted with passages from the best 
writers ; and occasionally the productions. 

ii s. ii. JULY 2, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

of poets like Surrey, Wyatt, and Sir Philip 
Sidney are alluded to merely to enable 
Puttenham to cite something of his own, 
which he makes you clearly understand is to 
be preferred to things that are to be found 
in the works of the persons named. And 
then he will deal with one of " your ordinary 
rimers ?) It is all done so pleasantly, and 
the assurance of the critic in the merit of 
his own verse is so superbly self-confident, 
that one feels compelled not only to accept 
with good-humoured toleration what he 
says, but also to forget his " side," and 
only remember his supreme ability as a 

Following one of these strings of his 
own verse, pp. 187-8, we come to Endiadis 
or the Figure of Twinnes, a manner of 
speech which seems to make two phrases 
of one : 

'" And as one of our ordinary rimers said. 
Of fortune nor her frowning face, 
I am nothing agast. 
In stead, of [fortunes froivning face.] " 

The " ordinary rimer " is George Turber- 
vile again, but why he should be dragged 
in thus needs explanation, because no fault 
is to be found in the manner of his speech 
that does not occur frequently in all writers 
of poetical compositions, who use the form, 
with more or less judgment, to give euphony 
to their verse. But some of Puttenham's 
readers would know who was aimed at, 
and it may be that in this case, as in others, 
the poet is purposely misquoted. 
Turbervile wrote : 
I will not be agast 
Of Fortune nor her frowning face. 

' That Lovers ought to shunne no Paines 
to attaine their Love,' Collier, p. 237. 

(To be continued.) 




Ix 1780 Jones, who was not knighted until 
three years later, offered himself as a candi 
date for the representation of the University 
of Oxford in the House of Commons. But 
his Liberal opinions and his detestation of 
the American war and of the slave - trade 
were too frankly expressed to be agreeable 
to the electors, and he withdrew from the 
contest in order to avoid an overwhelming 

Sir Roger Newdigate, Bt., D.C.L., of 
University, of which College Jones was 

himself a Fellow, sat for Oxford from 31 
January, 1750, until 1780, when he retired. 

The University was represented in 1780' 
by Sir William Dolben, Bt., D.C.L., some- 
time Student of Christ Church, and Francis 
Page, D.C.L. of New College. Sir William, 
great-grandson of John Dolben, Arch- 
bishop of York, represented Oxford during 
seven Parliaments, from 3 February, 1768, 
until 1806, when he retired. He always 
gave his steady support to Wilberforce's 
measures for the abolition of the' slave- 
trade. Francis Bourne assumed the name 
of Page on inheriting the Oxfordshire estates 
of his great-uncle Sir Francis Page, the judge. 
He was junior member for Oxford from 
23 March, 1768, until 1801. 

The following letter is not among those 
printed by Lord Teignmouth in his life of 
Sir William Jones (1806), vol. i. pp. 358-83 : 

Lamb Building, Temple, 29 April, 1780. 

I beg you will accept a Latin Ode, lately 
written in imitation of Collins by a person 
who has a high respect for you, and who has 
disguised his name in the form of an anagram 
under that of Julius Melesigonus. The writer is 
not ashamed to confess that this little poem 
contains his own political sentiments with some 
poetical amplification and colouring. Very few 
copies have been printed, to save the trouble 
of making many transcripts. 

I had fully intended to send you a copy of this 
ode, without giving you any further trouble ;: 
but I have just received a piece of news, which 
induces me to trouble you with one short question . 
Sir Roger Newdigate having declared his intention 
of vacating his seat for Oxford, the university 
will at the general election be called upon to chuse 
one of their members e qremio Academice to 
represent them, and, " to protect in the legis- 
lature the rights of the republick of letters," for 
which purpose, as Sir W. Blackstone observes, the 
franchise of sending members was first granted to 
our learned body. Now, the great attention 
and kindness, which you have shown me, Sir,, 
tempt me to ask you, who are well able to inform 
me, whether the writer of the enclosed poem,, 
if his friends were to declare him a candidate, 
would have any chance of respectable support 
from such members of the University, as would 
trust the defense of their rights, as scholars and 
as Englishmen, to a man who loves learning as 
zealously as he does rational constitutional 
Liberty. If the little personal influence that he 
has at Oxford, joined to his avowed affection for 
the genuine freedom of our English constitution, 
would make it improbable that he should be at 
all supported, it would be absurd in him to harbour 
a thought of making so fruitless an attempt ; 
but if there were a prospect even of an honourable 
nomination, it would be an honour, which no 
other man or society of men could confer. I 
entreat you to excuse this liberty, and to believe 
me, with infinite respect, Sir, 

Your much obliged and ever faithful servant 


To Dr. Adams, Master of Pembroke Colledge. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. JULY 2> 1910. 

Johnson's friend Dr. William Adams was 
Master of Pembroke College and Canon 
-of Gloucester from 1775 until his death in 
1 789. He was also for some time Archdeacon 
of LlandafL The Ode to Liberty had been 
printed in the preceding March under the 
title of 'Julii Melesigoni ad Libertatem.* 
Tne assumed name is formed by a trans- 
position of the letters of Gulielmus Jonesius. 



THIS hitherto unpublished fragment, to 
which allusion has already been made in 
the pages of * N. & Q.,' is the only work of 
its author which alludes to writers and 
periodicals under their own names, and as 
such is an invaluable addition to our know- 
ledge of Peacock's views as well as a charac- 
teristic specimen of his style. It is contained 
an vol. 36,815 of the MSS. in the possession 
of the British Museum. Admirers of Peacock 
will find his likes and dislikes portrayed in 
the same trenchant style that the novels 
display, and the explanation, perhaps, of 
difficulties which have arisen owing to 
suppression of names. The first part of it 
is as follows : 

" The fashionable metropolitan winter, which 
begins in spring and ends in autumn, is the 
^season of happy reunion to those ornamental 
varieties of the human species who live to be 
amused for the benefit of the social order. It is 
"the season of operas and exhibitions, of routs 
^,nd concerts, of dinners at midnight and suppers 
at sunrise. It is the period of the general muster, 
the levy ' en masse ' of gentlemen in stays and 
Sadies in short petticoats against their arch enemy 
Time. But these are the arms with which they 
assail the enemy in battalion : there are others 
with which in moments of morning solitude they 
are compelled to encounter him single-handed ; 
and one of these weapons is the reading of light 
and easy books which command attention with- 
out the labour of application, and amuse the 
idleness of fancy without disturbing the sleep of 

" This species of literature which aims only to 
amuse and must be very careful not to instruct had 
never so many purveyors as at present : for 
"there never was any state of society in which 
there were so many idle persons as there are at 
present in England, and it happens that these 
udle persons are, for the most part, so circum- 
stanced that they can do nothing if they would, 
and, in the next place, that they are united in the 
links of a common interest which, being based in 
delusion, makes them even more averse than the 
-well -dressed vulgar always are from the free 
exercise of reason and the bold investigation of 

" That the faculty of amusing should be the 
only passport of a literary work in the hands of 
; general readers is not very surprising even, 

especially when we consider that the English are 
the most thinking people in the universe, but that 
the faculty of amusing should be as transient as 
the gloss on a new coat does seem at first view a 
little singular : for though all fashionable people 
read (gentlemen who have been at college ex- 
cepted), yet as the soul of fashion is novelty, the 
books and the dress of the season go out of date 
together, and to be amused this year by that 
which amused others twelve months ago would 
be to plead guilty to the heinous charge of having 
lived out of the world 

" The stream of new books, therefore, floats over 
the parlour window and the drawing-room table 
to furnish a ready answer to the grunt of Mr. 
Donothing as to what Mrs. Dolittle and her 
daughters are reading, and having served this 
purpose, and that of putting the monster Time 
to a temporary death, flows peacefully on towards 
the port of Lethe. 

" The nature of this lighter literature and the 
changes which it has undergone with the fashions 
of the last twenty years deserve consideration for 
many reasons, and afford a subject of specula- 
tion which may be amusing and, I would add, 
instructive, were I not fearful of terrifying 
my readers in the outset. As every age has its 
own character, manners, and amusements, which 
are influenced even in their lightest forms, by the 
fundamental features of the time, the moral 
and political character of the age or nation 
may be read by an attentive observer, even in its 
lightest literature, how remote soever ' prima 
facie ' from morals and politics. 

" The newspaper of the day, the favourite 
magazine of the month, the tour, the novel, and 
the poem which are most recent in date and most 
fashionable in name, furnish forth the morning 
table of the literary dilettante. The springtide of 
metropolitan favour floats these intellectual 
deliciae into every minor town and village in the 
kingdom, where they circle through their little 
day in the eddies of reading societies. 

" It may be questioned how far the favour of 
fashionable readers is a criterion of literary merit. 
It is certain that no work attracts any great share 
of general attention which does not possess 
considerable originality and great power to 
interest and amuse. But originality will some- 
times attract notice for a little space, as Mr. 
Romeo Loates attracted some three or four 
audiences by the mere force of excessive absur- 
dity ; and the records of the Minerva Press will 
shew that a considerable number of readers can 
be both interested and amused by works com- 
pletely expurgated of all the higher qualities of 
mind. And without dragging reluctant dullness 
back to-day, let us only consider the names of 
Monk Lewis and of Kotzebue-^ they have sunk 
in a few years into comparative oblivion and 
we shall see that the condition of a fashionable 
author differs very little in stability from that of 
a political demagogue. 

" Mr. Walter Scott seems an exception to this. 
Having long occupied the poetical throne, he 
seems indeed to have been deposed by Lord 
Byron, but he has risen with redoubled might 
as a novelist, and has thus continued from the 
publication of ' The Lay of the Last Minstrel ' 
the most popular writer of his time perhaps 
the most universally successful in his own day of 
any writer that ever lived. He has the rare talent 

n s. ii. JULY 2, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

of pleasing all ranks and classes of men, from the 
peer to the peasant, and all orders and degrees of 
mind, from the philosopher to the man-milliner 
' of whom nine make a taylor.' On the arrival 
of ' Bob Boy,' as formerly on that of ' Marmion,' 
the scholar lays aside his Plato, the statesman 
suspends his calculations, the young lady deserts 
her hoop, the critic smiles as he trims his lamp, 
thanking God for his good fortune, and the 
weary artisan resigns his sleep for the refreshment 
of the magic page. 

" Periodical publications form a very prominent 
feature in this transitory literature : To any one 
who will compare the Beviews and Magazines of 
the present day with those of thirty years ago, 
it must be obvious that there is a much greater 
diffusion of general talent through them all and 
more instances of greater individual talent in 
the present time than at the former period ; and 
at the same time, it must be equally obvious that 
there is much less literary honesty, much more 
illiberality and exclusiveness, much more sub- 
division into petty gangs and factions, much less 
classicality and very much less philosophy. The 
stream of knowledge seems* spread over a wider 
superficies, but what it has gained in breadth it has 
lost in depth. There is more dictionary learning, 
more scientific smattering, more of that kind of 
knowledge for show in general society to produce 
a brilliant impression on the passing hour of 
literature, and less, far less, of that solid and 
laborious research which builds up in the silence 
of the closet and is the destroyer of perishable 
fashions of mind, the strong and permanent 
structure of history and philosophy. 

" The two principal periodical publications 
of the time the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews 
are the organs and oracles of the two great political 
factions, the Whigs and Tories. Their extensive 
circulation is less ascribable to any marked 
superiority either of knowledge or talent which 
they possess over their minor competitors than 
to the curiosity of the public in general to learn 
or divine from these semi-official oracles what the 
said two parties are meditating. The Quarterly 
Review and The Courier newspaper are conducted 
on the same principle and partly by the same 
contributors. These are the hardy veterans of 
corruption. The British Critic and The Gentleman's 
Magazine are its awkward squad ; The Anti- 
jacobin Review and The New Times are its con- 
demned regiment. 

"The country gentleman appears to be in the 
habit of considering reviews as the joint pro- 
ductions of a body of men who meet at a sort of 
green board where all new literary productions, 
are laid before them for impartial consideration 
and the merits of each having been fairly can- 
vassed, some aged and enlightened censor records 
the opinion of the council and promulgates its 
definite judgment to the world. The mysterious 
we ' of the invisible assassin converts his poisoned 
dagger into a host of legitimate broadswords. 
Nothing, however, can be more removed from the 
facts. Of the ten or twelve articles which com- 
prise The Edinburgh Review, one is manufactured 
on the spot, another comes from Aberdeen, another 
from Herefordshire, another from the coast of 
Devon, another from bonny Dundee, etc., etc., 
without any one of the contributors ever knowing 
the names of his brethren or having any com- 
munication with any one but the editor. The 

only point of union among them is respect for the 
magic circle drawn by the compasses of faction 
and nationality, within which dullness and 
ignorance is sure of favour, and without which 
genius and knowledge are equally certain of 
neglect or persecution. The case is much the 
same with The Quarterly Review, except that the 
contributors are more in contact, being all, more 
or less, kind slaves of the Government, and, for 
the most part, gentlemen pensioners clustering 
round a common centre in the terrible shape of 
their paymaster, Mr. Gifford. This publication 
contains more talent and less principle than it 
would be easy to believe coexistent." 

A. B. YOUNG, M.A., Ph.D. 

(To be concluded.) 

courtesy of Lord Knollys, the question, 
which was long disputed, as to the right of 
British subjects to fly on land the Union 
Jack, now known as the national flag, was 
finally settled in the pages of ' N. & Q.'' 
It is therefore of interest to make a per- 
manent record of the official notice just 
issued respecting the days that have been 
appointed for the hoisting of the Union' Jack 
on Government buildings, the period being 
from 8 A.M. till sunset : 

Feb. 20. Birthday of the Princess Boyal. 

March 18. Birthday of Princess Louise, 
Duchess of Argyll. 

March 31. Birthday of Prince Henry. 

April 14. Birthday of Princess Henry of 

April 25. Birthday of Princess Mary. 

May 1. Birthday of the Duke of Connaught. 

May 6. Anniversary of His Majesty's Accession. 

May 25. Birthday of Princess Christian. 

May 26. Her Majesty's Birthday. 

June 3. His Majesty's Birthday. 

June 23. Birthday of the Duke of Cornwall. 

July 6. Anniversary of their Majesties' wedding 
and birthday of Princess Victoria. 

July 12. Birthday of Prince John. 

Nov. 26. Birthday of the Queen of Norway. 

Dec. 1. Birthday of Queen Alexandra. 

Dec. 14. Birthday of Prince Albert. 

Dec. 20. Birthday of Prince George. 

The national flag is also to be hoisted at the 
opening and closing by His Majesty of the sessions 
of the Houses of Parliament, and on any day 
appointed for the official celebration of His 
Majesty's birthday, should such celebration not 
take place on June 3. 

The Boyal Standard is only to be hoisted when 
the King or the Queen is actually present in the 
building, and never when their Majesties are 
passing it in procession. 

The official reference to the Royal Stand- 
ard confirms the intimation given to us in 
June, 1908, by Lord Knollys. 

Our beloved Alexandra, the Queen-Mother, 
has a special flag of her own, recently 
designed. This was flown for the first 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. JULY 2, 1910. 

time from Buckingham Palace (where she 
is in residence) on Wednesday, the 22nd of 
June ; it is based on a combination of the 
British and Danish standards, a large 
cross being a prominent feature. 


[With ' N. & Q.' for 30 June, 1900, was issued 
a Supplement containing a coloured illustration 
of the National Flag, and an article by Mr. W. H. 
St. John Hope. This Supplement has been re- 
printed, and can be obtained from the office. 
Various questions connected with the National 
Flag are discussed at 9 S. v. 414, 440, 457, 478 ; 
vi. 17, 31, 351, 451, 519 ; -vii. 193 ; viii. 67, 173 ; 
ix. 485 ; x. 31, 94, 118 ; xii. 327, 372, 398, 454, 
508 ; 10 S. ix. 128, 154, 174, 255, 292, 396, 502, 
514 ; x. 72, 130, 193, 331. At 10 S. ix. 502 is 
printed the letter we received from the Tender 
Secretary of State at the Home Office respecting 
the use of the National Flag.] 

The ' D.N.B.* article on this civic worthy 
is not very satisfactory. He is described 
.therein as " Lord Mayor,' 1 which is certainly 
an anachronism. It is also stated in the 
original issue of the ' D.N.B/ that he " was 
elected Alderman of Vintry Ward in 1454," 
and discharged from his office of Alderman of 
Broad Street Ward in December, 1468, but 
reinstated in " the following year." Now 
.his election for Vintry took place on 4 
October, 1456 (Journal 6, fo. 107); he was 
removed to Broad Street in 1458, discharged 
by command of the king (Edward IV.) 
21 November, 1468 (Journal 7, fo. 182), 
and again elected Alderman (but of Bread 
Street, not Broad Street) in October, 1470 
not 1469, as " the following year " of the 
text suggests (Journal 7, fo. 225b). Some of 
these corrections are made, at my instance, 
in the new issue of the 'D.N.B.' The 
writer of the article has missed the fact that 
Cooke was M.P. for London in the Parlia- 
ment of 1460 ; and although he refers to him 
as a member of the Parliament of 1470, 
he does not note that he represented the 
City then, as at the earlier date. 

"Sir n John Stockton is a misnomer in 
the case of the Mayor to whom Cooke acted 
as Deputy in 1470-71, as he was not knighted 
until after Edward's victory at Tewkesbury. 

I do not know upon what authority Cooke 
is stated to have been one of the leaders of 
the Yorkist party in the City. All his 
later associations were with the Lancastrians. 
He had married the daughter of Philip 
Malpas, who was a leading Lancastrian ; 
he was ejected from his Aldermanry by Ed- 
ward IV., and restored to it during the 
short interval (1470-71) of Henry VI.'s 
Restoration, being again turned out on 

Edward's return. It is true that, as is 
pointed out in the ' D.N.B./ he was made a 
K.B. by Edward IV. in May, 1465 ; but so 
also at the same time was John Plomer, who 
was removed from his Aldermanry (and 
charged with treason, on account of his 
Lancastrian sympathies) in 1468, a few 
months before Cooke himself. It is, of 
course, possible that Cooke may have been 
a leader first on one side and then on the 
other ; but, if so, I should like to have 
more certain evidence of bis early Yorkist 
sympathies than the article in the ' D.N.B.' 
supplies. ALFRED B. BEAVEN. 


" BULLION." The 'N.E.D.' tells us that 
this word is first recorded in the Statutes of 
the Realm, A.D. 1336, where it is spelt 
bullion, as now. It is further said that this 
form "appears to point to identity with 
F. bouillon,' 1 which is derived from F. 
bouillir (A.F. boillir), to boil. 

This solution is as good as settled by the 
fact that, in another MS. of the above 
Statutes, the word is actually spelt boillon, 
the connexion of which with the A.F. boillir 
cannot easily be missed. 


PORTABLE RAILWAY. I am sorry not to 
find in the ' N.E.D.' a reference to the 
patent granted 5 Feb., 1770, to " Richard 
Lovell Edge worth, of Hare Hatch (Berks), 
Esq. : For a new invented Portable Railway, 
or Artificial Road, to move along with any 
Carriage to which it is applied." No doubt 
that sort of thing is re -invented every few 
years. (See ' Sixth Report of Deputy 
Keeper,' App. II. 160.) Q. V. 

" PEPITA," A PATTERN. A recent cause 
celebre reminds me that " pepita " is the 
name of the well-known pattern of small 
black-and-white squares in Eastern Europe 
(in heraldry : Chequy sable and argent), 
and that it was called after a famous dancer 
of the name of Pepita more than forty or 
fifty years ago. I have heard English school- 
boys call it "sponge bags," as these useful 
articles are very often made of a fabric of 
the same pattern. L. L. K. 

only reference in Mrs. Frankau's 'John 
Raphael Smith * (1902) to a portrait of Dr. 
Saunders is Smith's exhibit at the Royal 
Academy of 1802 (No. 351). There is 
abundant evidence that Smith published 
an engraving of this portrait by himself, 
inasmuch as a notice of it appeared in The 
Monthly Magazine, July, 1803, where it is 

ii s. ii. JULY 2, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

said to be " extremely well engraved.' 
In Evans's 'Catalogue 2 (No. 9291) the 
portrait is described as three quarters, 
sitting. It is entirely omitted from Mrs. 
Frankau's ' Catalogue.'' When the engraving 
was published the original picture was in the 
possession of Dr. Curry, physician to Guy's 
Hospital. W. ROBERTS. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to -affix their- names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to. them direct. 

In front of this house is an equestrian figure, 
in lead, of George I., presented by him to 
one of the Dukes of Bolton who resided 
here in the eighteenth century. I think 
that it must either have been identical 
.with or have closely resembled the one which 
I remember as a boy in Leicester Square, 
and which came to such an ignominious end. 

I have read somewhere that there was 
another mounted effigy of the same king, 
also of lead, and gilded, which stood in 
front of Canons in Middlesex. 

Readers of ' N. & Q.' have, I believe, 
made a study of the question of royal and 
other statues both in and outside of London. 
I wonder, therefore, if they could refer me 
to any sources of information about any of 
these figures, or could tell me if there is 
any statue of George I. now surviving 
beyond the one here. 

[Royal and other statues in London are discussed 
at considerable length at 10 S. ix. 1, 102, 282, 363, 481 : 
x. 122, 211, 258, 290, 370, 491.] 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton, who lived long in 
France, near Autun, and married a French- 
woman, wrote in his charming book ' Round 
House* a very strange story about 
Garibaldi and his flag during the Franco - 
German War of 1870. 

<i n T ^u i d r 1 ! a i te ^ his arriv al," says Hamerton, 
Garibaldi held a little review and sat in a carriage 

whilst his regiments marched past There was 

unfolded his own personal Garibaldian flag, an 
invention of his own, a very original invention too, 
and. one not by any means calculated to reassure 
the lovers of tranquillity. It was all red, to 
begin with, red as the Sanguinary Revolution, 
this is a colour which the lovers of order 
Admire only when it is worn by the Princes of 

^ 6 vT ij ch< On , the fla S were none ofc the devices 
heraldry, no lions, nor eagles, nor any such 

picturings of the old illiterate ages, but a single 
word in great legible roman capitals, and the word 


And when, at a later period, I heard of the 

smashing and crashing that was effected on so large 
a scale by the Communards, of the falling of ruined 
palaces and streets, of the upsetting of the Vendome 
Column, I said k This is Garabaldi's PatatracS and 
that word on the banner which flapped in the 
November wind seemed a word of baleful prophecy, 
a sinister suggestion of all the evil that was to 
come." Third ed., pp. 389-90. 

Has any one ever seen that flag, with its 
queer motto ? Is it mentioned elsewhere ? 
3, Rue de la Mairie, Quimper, Finistere. 

endorsement and co-operation of the His- 
torical society "of Pennsylvania, I hope to 
arrange for the publication of the complete 
works of William Penn. I shall therefore 
be glad to receive information concerning 
any of Penn's letters in public or private 
collections. Please reply direct. 

Kentmere Lodge, Moylan, Pennsylvania. 

TOPHANES^ Is it known who of the Lascaris 
family had the Christian name Andronicus ? 
I possess a Greek manuscript, apparently 
of the fifteenth century, containing various 
classical poetical works, which, as appears 
from repeated internal evidence, was written 
by one Alexander for Andronicus Lascaris. 
Though 'the manuscript is late, I wish to 
find out all I can about its provenance, seeing 
that it apparently purports (a unique 
feature) to give the actual music of a portion 
of one of the choruses of Aristophanes. 

Little Holland House, Kensington, W. 

DONNE'S POEMS. I should be very 
grateful if any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' 
could give me information on the following 

In ' N. & Q.' for 28 May, 1892 (8 S. i. 440), 
T. R. O'FL., commenting on Grosart's 
edition of Donne, says that he has in his 
possession two copies of the ' First and Second 
Anniversary,' 1612. T. R. O'FL. was, I 
suppose, the T. R. O'Flahertie whose 

ibrary would appear to have been broken 
up, as I have met with MSS. which have 
come from it. Could any one tell me where 

[ could now see a co^Sy of this edition of 
1612, which is the first edition of the Second 
Anniversary ? I have examined and col- 

ated the 1611 edition of the First Anni- 
versary, but I cannot find that- of 161 2 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL JULY 2, 1910. 

Could any one tell me where the Hazle 
wood-Kingsburgh MS., of which Grosart 
made frequent use in his edition of Donne's 
poems, now is ? I have seen a description 
of it at the British Museum, but cannot trace 
its whereabouts. 

I should be obliged for information re 
garding any MSS. of Donne's poems other 
than those which I know of in London 
Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, and Harvard 
and for permission to collate such. 


University of Aberdeen. 

SPEXHALL CHURCH. Our ancient round 
tower fell in 1720. Our squire is about to 
raise it up again, and he and his architect 
would be grateful if they could look at any 
picture or print of the tower as it formerly 
stood. If any readers of ' N. & Q. s possess- 
ing the information would kindly com- 
municate with me, I should be very grateful. 
J. GARFORTH, Rector. 

Spexhall Rectory, Halesworth, Suffolk. 

are in possession of a MS. poem (96 lines) 
' On the Death of the King ' (George II.). 
The opening lines are as under : 
Reclined on Camus' rushy fringed banks, 
Which slowly roll'd along his silent stream, 
Striking her pensive breast, sad Granta thus 
Burst forth into complaints. Ye sisters nine, &c. 
The poem is in a contemporary hand. Can 
readers of ' N. & Q. 1 assist us in tracing its 
author ? CHAS. J. SAWYER, LTD. 

23, New Oxford Street. 

CORNELIUS DE WITT. Can any one suggest 
how I can find the intervening generations 
between Cornelius de Witt (murdered with 
his brother John de Witt in 1672) and John 
Albra de Witt ? I cannot give the exact 
date of the latter, but his wife Mary was born 
in 1734, and died in 1814. John Albra de 
Witt was a sugar merchant in London. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

Can any of your readers give me 
information as to this work ? It has run 
through several editions ; the one before me 
is 1841. It is edited by Miss Jane Porter, 
who was a novelist, and is mentioned in 
the *D.N.B., J and professes to be a copy 
of the diary of the above Sir Edward, 
which was written in the years 1733-49. 

Sir Edward was shipwrecked on some 
unknown islands near the Mosquito Coast of 
Central America, and discovered there a 
pirates' hoard. 

Can any one inform me whether this 
narrative is true, or whether it is due to the 
imagination of Miss Porter or the friend who 
lent her the alleged diary ? Kindly reply 
direct. H. WILSON HOLMAN. 

4, Lloyd's Avenue, E.G. 

[Sir Edward Seaward is an imaginary character.] 

THE CIRCLE OF LODA. Will any reader of 
'N. & Q.' acquainted with Northern myth- 
ology kindly volunteer information con* 
cerning the Circle of Loda ? It was, I 
believe, a circle of stones used as a place 
of worship among the Scandinavians. 


DOGE'S HAT. Can any of your readers 
tell me the correct word for the hat or cap 
of office worn by a Doge of Venice, as, for 
instance, in Giovanni Bellini's ' Portrait of 
Leonardo Loredano in his State Robes * 
in the National Gallery ? M. W. B. 

I have an oval stipple engraving (8^ in. 
by 7^ in.) with this title, engraved by 
W. P. Carey from a painting by T. Row- 
landson. " The duenna ** is, I think, Mrs. 
Billington. Who impersonated " Little 
Isaac JJ ? Who was the author of this play 2 

118, Sutherland Avenue, W. 

was issued this spring, by a Mr. Williamson, 
in which was described the rise of the 
Huguenot Church at Provins, Seine et 
Marne. If any readers know in what 
periodical it appeared, or anything about 
it, they will much oblige the undersigned by 
giving the wished-for information. 

(Mile.) A. IHIRION. 

35, Paulton's Square, S.W. 

to the lists of public statues which have 
appeared in 'N. & Q. ? of late, what has 
become of the statue of this famous general, 
who, in conjunction with Marlborough, 
gained some of the most decisive and 
splendid victories in our military history ? 
[t was by Kent, and there are two drawings 
of it in the Crace Collection, British Museum. 
[t stood in Carlton House Gardens. 

Wroxton Grange, Folkestone. 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
for the 1st of April, 1897, contains grants of 
arms to William Howe, 1651, John Cooke, 
1653, and Thomas Moore, 1654. I have been. 

ii s. ii. JULY 2, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


informed that none of the republican grant 
now remain in the Heralds' College. D 
they exist elsewhere, either in the origina 
grants or in any other form ? It is not to b( 
questioned that a large number of grant 
were issued during that period, and it 
almost certain that some of the arms no* 
in use had their origin in this source. 

L. S. M. 

any record to be found of the destruction 
by fire of the registers in a parish church 
soon after 16 October, 1837 ? This church 
was probably in Sussex, and perhaps in the 
neighbourhood of Lewes. 

121, Hither Green Lane, Lewisham, S.E. 

part did large stones play in early village 
life ? They must have had some signifi- 
cance, to judge by the care that was taken 
of them and the fact that they entered into 
the construction of place-names. Here in 
Eastern Hertfordshire, for example, we have 
three places which derive part of their 
titles from still existing stones Standon 
(or Stondon, as it was originally called), 
Walton-at-Stone, and Stonebury, the last 
now only a farm-house. There are two 
other -stans, Stanstead and Stanborough, 
but there appear to be no stones visible in 
connexion with them. 

The subject has perhaps been dealt with 
before ; if so, references will be valued. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

[Stones are, of course, widely connected with 
pre-Christian religion and astronomy.] 

MONUMENTS. In 1874 the Rev. Thos. 
Procter Wadley, Rector of Naunton Beau- 
champ, co. Worcester, prepared a paper, 
under the name of " Vestigans," upon the 
above. I possess a copy, privately printed 
in recent years, but wish to know if the 
paper ever appeared in the proceedings of 
any local society. R. S. B. 

TABLE. In 'Esmond' Thackeray alludes 
to the custom of the clergy retiring from 
the dinner-table at the entrance of the 
sweets. What was the significance of the 
custom ? When did it commence, and fall 
into desuetude ? Did the prohibition extend 
to bishops and archbishops ? 


of your readers kindly say what was the 
origin of the name Heworth, a suburb of 
York ? It is styled ' ' Heuuarde '* in Domes- 
day Book : Orm had land there. SADI. 

EDW. HATTON. Who and what was he ? 
There is a portrait of him engraved by 

SIR ISAAC'S WALK. In the business part 
of Colchester there is a thoroughfare known 
as Sir Isaac's Walk. Who was the local 
celebrity whose name is thus celebrated ? 

INQUIRY. Can any correspondent refer 
me to publications containing articles of the 
following bishops ? 

Bell, of Worcester, 1540. 

Wakeman, of Gloucester, 1541. 

Hoper, of Gloucester, 1550. 

Brooks, of Gloucester, 1554. 

Cheyney, of Gloucester, 1562. 

Bullingham, of Gloucester, 1581. 

Goldsborough, of Gloucester, 1598. 

Ravis, of Gloucester, 1604. 

Highbury, Lydney. 

CHAPEL LE FRITH. Could any of your 
correspondents give me trustworthy infor- 
mation as to the meaning of " le Frith " 
in the place-name Chapel le Frith ? I have 
been told that the name means " Chapel in 
the Wood,'* but my informant could not 
explain how this meaning was arrived at. 
Here in Devon we are familiar with the word 
vraith, and in Somerset they have vreath, 
which is usually applied to the brushwood 
cut for firing. Is it possible that frith may 

e the harder northern pronunciation of the 
ame word ? OSWALD J. REICHEL. 

Alaronde, Lympstone. 

["Le" is probably "near," as explained earlier in 
N. & Q.'] 

in that excellent work * Round About 

Piccadilly and Pall Mall ' Mr. H. B. Wheatley 
t p. 37 identifies Nos. 146 and 147 as cover- 
ng the site of the handsome building erected 
>y Charles Alexandre de Calonne when he 

fled to this country in 1787. It may be of 
nterest to note that the contents of the 

mansion were sold 13 May, 1793, and eleven 
ollowing days by Skinner & Dyke, on the 
jremises, " the extremity of Piccadilly.'* 
?he pictures were not included in this cata- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. IL JULY 2, 1910. 

logue, so presumably they were sold at the 
date named by Mr. Wheatley March, 1795. 
Was this sale also held on the premises ? 
-It is said (' Memorials of Christie's,'- W. 
Roberts, i. 19) to have been conducted by 
the same firm. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

PRINCE RUPERT. There is a legend that 
the Prince, riding by Shepperton Church, 
fired a pistol at the weathercock and hit it. 
This being considered an accident he fired 
again, and brought the weathercock down. 
I cannot find any authority for this story, 
and ask for help. J. J. FREEMAN. 

that Oliver Goldsmith in 1762 was lodging 
in Canonbury. Is there any record extant 
of the celebrated dramatist showing his 
occasional visits to the neighbouring village 
of Hackney. Milton and Charles Lamb are 
connected with this old borough, and I am 
anxious to discover whether Samuel Johnson 
and Goldsmith and their coterie paid occa- 
sional trips to its rustic shrines. 



(10 S. xii. 461, 504; 11 S. i. 70, 443.) 
I HAVE a long series of letters from Charles 
Ray (domestic chaplain to Robert Butts, 
Bishop of Ely) from 1722 to 1750, written 
to his cousin, my great-grandfather, Samuel 
Kerrich, D.D., Vicar of Dersingham, Nor- 
folk. In the course of a long letter, dated 
29 August, 1741, Ray says : " The Dialogue 
between Earle and Doddington is admired 
in that it is so like Earle's manner of ex- 
pressing himself." I have no means of 
ascertaining whether this peculiar example 
of the literature of the time has ever ap- 
peared in print. It is as follows : 



E. My Dear Pall Mall, I hear you are got in 

And please the Duke by your late damnd 


I live with Walpole You live at his Grace's, 
And thus thank Heaven we have exchangd 

our Places. 
D. Yes on the great Argyle I often wait, 

At charming Sudbrook, or in Bolton Street : 
In Wit, or Politics, he is good at" either, 
. We pass our independent Hours together ! 







By G-d that 's heavenly ! so in turn you talk, 
And round the Groves at charming Sudbrook 

walk ; 

And hear the Cuckow and the Linnet Sing, 
Lord G-d ! that 's vastly pleasant in the 


Dear Witty Marlborow street, for once be wise , 
Nor Happiness you never knew despise. 
You ne'er enjoyd the Triumph of Disgrace, 
Nor felt the Dignity of Loss of Place. 
Not lost my Place ! yes but I did by G-d ! 
Tho' y r Description on't is mighty Odd : 
/ felt no Triumph, found no Dignity, 
/ cryd, and so did all my Family. 
Wliat ! shed a Tear because you lost a Place ! 
Sure tliou art the lowest of the lowest Race, 
God's ! is there not in Politics a time, 
When keeping Places is the greatest Crime ? 
Yes, Yes, that Doctrine I have learnt long 


I once resign'd my Place about the Prince, 
But then I did it for a better Thing, 
And got by that the Green Cloth for the King. 
Thou hast no Taste for popular Applause, 
Which follows those that join in Virtue's 

Cause : 

Argyle and I are prais'd by every Tongue, 
The Burden of each free born Briton's Song ! 
You, and the Duke. d'ye think you are 

popular ? 

By G-d they lye that tell you that you are : 
Walpole now. has got the Nation's Voice 
The People's Idol, and their Monarch's Choice ! 
When the Excise Scheme shall no more be 1 


When the Convention shall no more be nam'd, 
Then shall your Minister and not till then, 
Be popular with unbrib'd Englishmen. 
The Excise and the Convention ! D-mn 

your Blood ! 
You voted for them both, and thought them 

good : 

Or did not like the Triumph of Disgrace, 
And gave up your Opinion, not your Place. 
To Freedom and Argyle I turn my Eyes 1 
For them I fell, for them I hope to rise, 
And after Years in Ignominy spent, 
I own my Crime, I blush, and dare repent. 
S r of Repentance there's one charming kind, 
But that's the voluntary and resign'd : 
Yours is a damn'd enforc'd Reluctance, 
A Newgate Malefactor's after Sentence : 
Who sighs because he has lost the power to 


As you repent, that you're no longer in. 
But since we are Rhiming, pray for once hear 


Whilst I like other Poets prophesy : 
Whenever Walpole dies, (and not before) 
Then shall Arg e come into power : 
And when he shall be paid his long Arrear, 
And got once more 9000 P' year. 
\Vhen every Campbell that attends his Grace, 
Shall be restor'd to Parliament and Place, 
W T hen every Scotch man in his train is serv'd, 
One English man may chance to be preferrd. 
This is a truth, I know it to my Cost, 
Tis he can tell it who has felt it most. 


ii B. ii. JULY 2, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ESE (11 S. i. 328, 398). I have compiled, 
but not yet published, a classified list of 
Italian pictures (earlier than 1580) with 
subjects relating to ancient mythology and 
history ; so I am able to assert that Paul 
Veronese never painted ' The Rape of 
Proserpine.' The subject occurs in the 
School of Lionardo, and was also treated 
by Dosso Dossi (Mells Park), Padovanino 
(Venice Academy), and Jacopo Bassano 
(Doria Panfili Gallery). A beginner may 
have taken the last-named picture (photo- 
graphed by Anderson, No. 5363) for a Paul 
Veronese. S. REINACH. 

Paris, 4, Rue de Traktir. 

(11 S. i. 483). From PRINCIPAL SALMON'S 
list I miss the following : 

1. Woggle, a game on, the principle of 
cricket, but played with a short piece of 
wood instead of a ball, and holes instead of 

2. Tip -cat, which I saw played a few 
days ago in a City lane. 

3. Prisoners' base. WM. H. PEET. 

" ARABIS " : " THLASPI " (11 S. i. 406). 
' ' Arabis " is presumably the Greek 'Apa/fts. 
It could not be for " [in] Arabis locis," 
though strange things have happened before 
now in botanical nomenclature. 0Aao-7ri? 
(or explained by Pape and Liddell 
and Scott as a kind of cress, the seeds of 
which were crushed and used as mustard. 
They offer a derivation from> (crush). 
Liddell and Scott give as a further sug- 
gestion ' ' shepherd's purse." Bishop Cooper, 
' Thesaurus Linguae Romanse et Britannicae,' 
1573, has, s.v. Thlaspi (which is there spelt 
Thlapsi), " An herbe called also Nasturtium 
tectorum, Capsella, and Scandulacium. It 
hath the smacke of mustarde seede, and 
therefore it is called Sinapi rusticum." 
Bailey's ' Forcellini ' calls thlaspi " mithridate 
pustard."- ' ' Drabe " is described in Faber's 
' Thesaurus ' as " nasturtium orientale." 

To determine the precise equivalents in 
modern scientific classification to the terms 
employed by Greeks and Romans to de- 
scribe their own fauna and flora is a very 
difficult business. An interesting work in 
this line is Prof. D'Arcy Thompson's 
'.Glossary of Greek Birds,' published some 
years ago by the Clarendon Press. But one 
may sympathize with the practical method 
said to have been followed as an under- 
graduate by a distinguished Cambridge 
classical scholar, who, as the legend runs, 

when under examination made a point of 
translating every Greek or Latin name for a 
bird by siskin, and every name for a tree 
(or plant 1) by galingale. 


[Replies also acknowledged from MB. JOHN 

"TEART" (11 S. i. 466, 497). This word 
is in use in North Wiltshire at the present 
time (Lhave heard it several times recently) 
with the significance of something " sharp.'* 

It is described in ' A Glossary of Words 
used in the County of Wiltshire,' by Y. E. 
Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard : 

1, painfully tender sore, as a wound ; 

2, stinging, as a blister ; 3, tart, as beer 
turning sour. 

See also Aubrey, ' Nat. Hist. Wilts,' p. 22, 
"it is so cold and tort" applied to a river, 
and " it is so acrimonious,'' 1 p. 28. 

T. S. M. 

I have met with the word " teart "- in 
Gloucestershire, where it means something 
that smarts or is painful. If any one is 
suffering from a wound or a sore spot, the 
question there will be, not " Does it hurt ? " 
but "Is it teart ? n as an expression of sym- 
pathy. J. BAGNALL. 

Is not this word the adjective " teart " 
used as a substantive ? The word (pro- 
nounced " teert ") used to be continually 
heard in Gloucestershire when I lived in 
the Cotswold district, and can hardly have 
become obsolete yet. A painful cut, boil, 
or wound, too tender to be touched, was 
always described as " terrible teart." The 
stinging sensation inflicted by severe cold 
would often draw forth some such greeting 
as " Zharp this marnin', zur, yent it ? I 
d'vind it main teart to the vengers.'* 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

i. 486). I am glad, in response to W. M.'s 
request, not only to point to, but supply, 
an early allusion to Mrs. Crewe's historic 
toast, which should fairly be held to settle 
the matter as against either " that rascal 
Wraxall " or any subsequent narrator who 
trusted to hearsay or memory. In Parker's 
General Advertiser of 20 May, 1784, it was 
recorded : 

" Mrs. Crew's Ball in honour of Mr. Fox's 
victory, was the most pleasant and jovial ever 
given in the circle of high life ; and united all the 
charms of elegance, ease, and conviviality. The 
company (which included the Prince of Wales) 
was select, though numerous, and assembled 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. JULY 2, 1910. 

about ten o'clock in blue and buff uniforms. . . . 
After supper Captain Morrice was placed in the 
chair, and sang the ' Baby and Nurse ' in his 
very best stile, and the Fair Assembly chorussed 
with the most heartfelt spirit. The Ladies then 
drank his health, and cheered him three times 
with true festive glee ; upon which Captain M., 
after thanking the fair company for the honour of 
their charming approbation, gave as a toast 

Buff and Blue, and Mrs. Crew ; 
which Mrs. Crew very smartly returned in a glass 

Buff and Blue, and all of you." 

This disposes of the more romantic story 
of how the Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV.) 

" after supper concluded a speech sparkling 
with gallantry by proposing, amidst rapturous 
acclamation : 

Buff and Blue, 

And Mrs. Crewe. 
To which the lady merrily replied : 

Buff and Blue, 

And all of you." 

But it is easy, of course, to see how a tale;pf 
this kind grows with gossip. 


FLAX BOURTON (11 S. i. 389, 438, 497). 
The explanation of a place-name does not 
depend upon whether it is acceptable or not. 
It depends solely upon evidence. 

The guess that Bourton is short for 
Bournton is idle ; for if this were the case, 
such a spelling could be found. And there 
would then be evidence, and speculation 
would cease. 

Meanwhile, we know that the name is 
not uncommon. There is a Bourton in 
Berkshire, and another in Gloucestershire, 
both found in Anglo-Saxon charters. 

In Birch, ' Cartularium Saxonicum,' i. 516, 
in a charter dated 821, we find " Scriuen- 
ham, Burgtun,' 1 &c. This refers to Bourton 
near Shrivenham, Berkshire, in which Bour- 
stands for burg, another spelling of burh, 
which is now spelt borough. It therefore 
means *' borough -to wn. n 

In the same, iii. 37, we find " to burhtune"; 
where burhtune is the dative of burhtun, as 
above. The reference is to Bourton-on- 
the-Water in Gloucestershire. Hence this 
likewise means " borough -to\vn. n 

These two independent examples at once 
establish the probability that the same 
explanation is applicable to other cases. 

The spelling with ou proves nothing at all ; 
Burton is a form that arose in the thirteenth 
century, and Bourton is a later form, 
commoner in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. This is easily verified by referring 
to the 'N.E.D.* or to Stratmann. In 

Chaucer's 'Wife of Bath's Tale,' D. 870, 
we find the plural burghes ; and in ' Lyd- 
gate's Minor Poems,' p. 210, we find the 
plural bourghes. The modern pronunciation 
is no sure guide, because in a large number 
of instances it has been affected by the 
insinuating influence of the usual spelling. 

Any one who desires further information 
will find it in Ellis's great work on ' English 
Pronunciation * ; he convincingly shows 
that the Anglo-Saxon u was replaced by the 
Norman ou in hundreds of instances, chiefly 
in the thirteenth century or later. 


(11 S. i. 447). Dr. Irving, in a brief 
sketch of Duncan Liddel contained in his 
' Lives of Scottish Writers, * implies that he 
wrote various mathematical and astro- 
nomical treatises as well as the medical 
publications which generally appear after 
his name. The * Propositiones Astronomicse l 
was no doubt one of the treatises to which 
Irving refers. His sketch, however, deals 
mainly with the medical works which Liddel 
produced. Potinius is not mentioned ; 
neither is Schindler nor Volcer. Even 
Moreri apparently knows them not. 

Is there not some mistake about Schindler? 
No. 10 in MR. ANDERSON'S query appears 
to be the title of some sort of funeral oration 
or order of service at the death of Schindler 
in 1604. Yet in Darling's * Cyclopaedia 
Biblio graph ica * it is distinctly stated that 
Prof. Valentine Schindler of Helmstadt did 
not die until 1611, some years after Liddel 
had returned to Scotland. Which of the 
two dates 1604 or 1611 is correct ? Or 
were there two professors named Schindler 
in succession at Helmstadt ? W. SCOTT. 

WALL-PAPERS (11 S. i. 268, 350). The 
printing of paper for wall coverings seems 
to have become an established industry in 
England at the close of the seventeenth 
century. Houghton, * A Collection for Im- 
provement of Industry and Trade,* 30 June, 
1699, states : 

" The next in course is printing, which is said to 
be known in China and other eastern countries long 
before it was known in Europe : But their printing 
was cutting their letters upon blocks in whole pages 
or forms, as among us our wooden pictures are cut : 
And a great deal of paper is now-a-days so printed 
to be pasted upon walls, to serve instead of hang- 
ings ; and truly if all parts of the sheet be well and 
close pasted on, it is very pretty, clean, and will 
last with tolerable care a great while; but there 
are some other done by rolls in long sheets of thick 
paper made for the purpose, whose sheets are 
pasted together to be so long as the height of a 

n s. ii. JULY 2, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

room; and they are managed like woollen hangings; 
and there is a great variety with curious cuts which 
are cheap, and if kept from wet, very lasting." 

In 1702 wall-paper is advertised in The 
Postman : 

" At the Blue Paper Warehouse in Aid erm anbury 
(and nowhere else) in London, are sold the true 
sorts of figur'd Paper Hangings, some in pieces of 
12 yards long, others after the manner of real 
Tapistry, others in imitation of Irish stitch, flower'd 
Damasks, &c." 

In 1752 The Covent Garden Journal 
states : 

"Our printed paper is scarcely distinguished 
from the finest silk, and there is scarcely a modern 
house which hath not one or more rooms' lined with 
this furniture." 


NIS ?? (11 S. i. 447). At the Battle of Agin- 
court in 1415, when a certain knight of 
France hurled himself and his horsemen upon 
the English archers, his battle-cry was 
"Montjoie! St. Denis!" This incident, 
derived from contemporary chroniclers, and 
related in several popular English histories, 
proves that the French war-cry must have 
been in use long before Shakespeare's day. 
See Brewer's 'Dictionary of Phrase and 
Fable,' p. 856. According to Brewer, even 
the kings of England had as their war-cry 
" Montjoie St. George." W. S. S. 

389, 458). A more probable derivation of 
the word is that from O.E. weorthan, pre- 
served in Scott's "Woe worth the chase,' s 
&c. It thus corresponds to the Norfolk 
a Being, familiar to readers of ' David Copper - 
field, and more satisfactorily explains such 
words as Padworth, Tadworth, the place 
of toads or frogs. Cp. Molesworth ? 

H. P. L. 

xii. 127, 190, 254, 414 ; 11 S. i. 190, 472). 
There is, I think, a slight error in MR. UDAL'S 
interesting reminiscences of " The Cock " 
in Fleet Street. He says that "the gilt 
effigy " (claimed to be of Grinling Gibbons's 
carving) "reappeared in its old place over 
the doorway " of the premises occupied on 
the south side of Fleet Street, which were 
built in the place of the old tavern on the 
north side. The Cock sign, however, outside 
22, Fleet Street, is, I believe, but a facsimile 
of the original, now in the grill-room. 
This I learnt from personal inquiries some ten 
years ago, and I was informed that a portion 
of the original bird had been cut away, for 

the purpose of more conveniently fixing it 
in its place. 

A few years before the reign of the " plump 
head waiter,'* a pleasant picture of the 
tavern is afforded by a peep into ' The 
Epicure's Almanack ' of 1815 : 

" How we came to think of the Cock at Temple 
Bar, by daylight, we cannot tell. It has the best 
porter in London, fine poached eggs and other 
light things seldom, called for before seven or 
eight hi the evening. There are two good reasons 
for this : Istly, the room at Mid-day is almost as 
dark as Erebus, so that the blazing-faced Bar- 
dolph himself would hardly be able to quaff a 
tankard by the light of his own countenance. 
2ndly, the situation of the Cock is just half way 
between the heart of the city and the purlieus of 
Covent Garden and Drury Lane .... One box at 
the end of the room is occupied by a knot of 
sages who admit strangers into their fraternity 
on being presented with a crown bowl of punch. 
Mine host used to smoke his pipe among them 
nightly. Marsh, the oyster-man, attends here 
the whole season with his Natives, Miltons and 
Pyfleets : he hath the constancy of the swallow, 
and in the opening of the shells the dexterity of 
the squirrel.' 

But some considerable time before Tenny- 
son patronized the chops and steaks and the 
port of the old tavern, to say nothing cf its 
oysters, and long before the poet jocularly 
resented on a certain occasion the omnibus 
conductor's remark " Full inside " as he 
entered the vehicle after a meal in which the 
flavour of the meat was quite independent 
of sauces, William the head waiter had 
been known to habitues of the place. A 
writer in The Sportsman's Magazine of, 
I think, the year 1857 (p. 104), says that he- 
" had, like others, no thought superior to the 

Cock stout from the glass William knew our 

ways, and Charles was getting into them. We are 
inclined, however, to give our more particular 
directions to James. We think the Cock chops 
superior to the steaks," &c. 

Charles, who for twenty years had been 
well known to a large circle of barristers and 
journalists who dined daily at " The Cock,'* 
and whose real name was Edward Thorogood,. 
died in July, 1905, having been the successor,, 
as head waiter, of Tennyson's " William." 


Wroxton Grange, Folkestone. 

478). PROF. SKEAT and the 'N.E.D.' 
had already been consulted, and it is accepted 
that A.-S. cempa became Middle English 
kempe, meaning a fighter, a warrior ; but 
one desires to find out whether in some cases 
land named from association with the words 
owes its origin to having been occupied or 
owned by a warrior of the local manor r 
soldiers provided by the manorial lord, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. jews. mo. 

or from the ownership of one having Kemp 
for his surname. Of course after the fif- 
teenth century places newly named "Kemp's 
field " would denote such designation to be 
due to possession or holding ; but when the 
field-name dates from a much earlier period, 
it would seem likely that the land was 
attached to an official post rather than to an 
individual. For instance, Parker's Field 
and Parkershouse would be the official holding 
of the parker or park-keeper. The point is 
one upon which the late Prof. Copinger 
might have thrown the light of historical 
facts. Camping fields were what might 
now be termed "sport-grounds" or "re- 
creation fields," not, as might be supposed, 
places where warriors pitched their tents. 
It should also be borne in mind that many 
of the place-names now beginning with 
Kemp, Kem, or Ken were certainly not 
named from association with a Kempe, the 
earlier spellings being such as Kemys or 

In the absence of evidence of a manorial 
warrior holding his field, like a knight, by 
virtue of his fighting services, I would note 
that in 1205 Kempe the " Bowmaker " 
had a grant of a small holding until the King 
could provide for him by marriage. In this 
case the lands were to be worth 50 shillings 
annually, and were worth 51. 10s. 6d. in 
1277, by which time they belonged to the 
burgesses of Newcastle, Northumberland. 
This Kempe seems to have been so named 
from actually being a warrior, acquiring his 
lands by both using his bow and making 
bows for other royal archers. 


1, Vancouver Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 

Some years ago I remember writing to a 
friend whose singular address was Camps - 
bourne, Hornsey the place being numbered, 
but without the addition of "Street" or 
!< Terrace." N. W. HILL. 

i. 485). It may not be amiss to add the 
Scottish "ingan" to the forms already 
given. Two literary examples of standard 
value illustrate the usage in the Lowlands of 
Scotland. The earlier occurs in Allan 
Ramsay's satire 'The Last Speech of a 
Wretched Miser,' in which the victim is 
made to utter this confession : 

Altho' my annual rents would feed 
Thrice forty fouk that stood in need, 
1 grudg d myself my daily bread ; 

And if frae haine, 
My pouch produc'd an ingan head, 
To please my wame. 

The other notable example of the form is 
in the second chapter of ' A Legend of 
Montrose,' where Dugald Dalgetty, discussing 
the religious difficulties he encountered on 
the Continent, states his dissatisfaction 
with the Dutch pastor who reminded him 
that Naaman, an honourable cavalier of 
Syria, had followed his master into the 
house of Rimmon. The redoubtable captain 
proceeds with his sturdy apologia as follows : 

" But neither was this answer satisfactory to 
me, both because there was an unco difference 
between an anointed King of Syria and our 
Spanish colonel, whom I could have blown away 
like the peeling of an ingan, and chiefly because 
I could not find the thing was required of me by 
any of the articles of war ; neither was I proffered 
any consideration, either in perquisite or pay, for 
the wrong I might thereby do to my conscience.'' 

In the ' Scottish Dictionary * Jamieson 
gives the variant " ingowne " from the 
MS. ' Registers of the Council of Aberdeen,' 
v. 16, his entry standing thus : " ' Requirit 
to tak out the ingownis quhilk ves in the 
schip in poynt of tynasle,' i.e., on the very 
point of being lost." THOMAS BAYNE. 

Another pronunciation of "onion" used 
to be " inguns." I recollect it as a child ; 
1 am now close on sixty years. 

In ' Gaieties and Gravities,' by James and 
Horace Smith, 1826, there is an amusing 
tale about the steamboat from London to 
Calais, and there you read these words of the 
young Cockney : "I ? ve got a cold beefsteak 
and inguns in this here ? ankerchief." 


GREY FAMILY (11 S. i. 469). Under 
Kent in G. E. C.'s 'Complete Peerage' 
it is stated that Richard Grey, Earl of Kent, 
died 3 May, 1524, " at his house in Lumberd 
Street, London, at the sign of the George." 
The next successor to the title, Sir Henry 
Grey, de jure Earl of Kent, died 24 Septem- 
ber, 1562, "at his house called Graye 
Hassetts in the Barbican. " 

Would not the Inquisitions post mortem 
help MB. McMtiRRAY ? 

The Greys of Werke held property in 
Aldersgate Street in the seventeenth century. 

E. A. FRY. 

255, 312, 356, 409, 454). This correspond- 
ence has diverged somewhat from the subject 
of my original inquiry, which thus far has 
not been answered. An earthenware head- 
stone, of something like orthodox dimensions, 
exists in St. Mary's Churchyard, Nottingham, 
bearing inscriptions dated in 1707 and 1714, 

n s. ii. JULY 2, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


.and I still anxiously await information as 
to whether earlier, or even as early, examples 
exist elsewhere. The first correspondent 
to reply claimed familiarity with all the 
churchyards in the Potteries, yet had never 
seen any earthenware memorial sufficiently 
large to be described as a tombstone or 
headstone. Moreover, no correspondent 
definitely cites early examples of any type. 

On the other hand, Church, in his work 
on ' English Earthenware,'- states that 
earthenware headstones exist in several 
churchyards in the Potteries (Burslem and 
Wolstanton being mentioned) bearing in- 
scriptions dated from 1718 to 1767 an odd 
one being as late as 1828. As Church's 
' Handbook * was published but a quarter 
of a century ago (in 1884, to be exact), it is 
.inconceivable that none of them survives 
,to-day. A. STAPLETON. 

39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

A monument to Edward Wortley Montagu, 
made of Coade's Lithodipyra, is in the west 
walk of the Cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

A. H. S. 

" LITERARY GOSSIP " (11 S. i. 208, 333). 
MR. WALTER SCOTT'S contention that this 
description of newspaper article existed in 
substance, if not in name, ' ' well back into 
the eighteenth century n might, I think 
easily be made to read "to the beginning 
of the eighteenth century.' 1 Speaking of 
Cave's founding of The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine in 1730-1, the ' D.N.B.' says : 

" The periodical was to comprise varieties of all 

kinds Some of the early numbers were said to 

be printed by 'Edward Cave, jun.,' an imaginary 
nephew, others ' printed for R. Newton,' and, 
sometimes, he falsely described himself as ' Sylva- 
nus Urban, of Aldermanbury, Gent.' His maga- 
zine was a vast improvement upon the gossiping and 
abusive papers of the time." 

N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

The term " Literary Gossip " is surely 
sufficiently elastic to include 'The State of 
Learning,' a page of announcements and 
personal paragraphs contained in 'The 
History of the Works of the Learned or an 
Impartial Account of Books Lately Printed 
in all Parts of Europe. With a particular 
relation of the State of Learning in each 
country.' The volume before me contains 
the twelve monthly parts of 1700, but it 
was first published January, 1699. Are not 
the following extracts "literary gossip " ? 

"The Abbot Fontanini, Library keeper to the 
Imperial Cardinal, is upon finishing his * History 
pf Aquileia,' which will contain a collection of 

the inscriptions of that city and of the adjacent 
parts, most of which were never before printed ; 
together with the Profane and Ecclesiastical 
History of Aquileia and all Friuli, in folio." 

"All Mr. Dryden's Plays much corected, are in 
the Press, and will be published within two 
months in two volumes in folio." r 

If it is not already familiar to them, 
"Claudius Clear,'* or the contributors who 
have discussed this matter, are welcome to the 
sight of this volume. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

There is abundant evidence to support 
Mr. W. SCOTT'S contention that 

"Although as a heading 'Literary Gossip' may 
not have been in use until the second half of the 
nineteenth century, it is clear that the information 
denoted by that title was common long before the 
century began." 

A very striking example can be afforded 
from a single issue of Mist's Weekly Journal, 
or Saturday's Post, which, at the time, was 
under the editorial control of Defoe. On 
18 November, 1721, after opening its budget 
of London news and gossip with the lament, 

" The Town was never known to be so thin 
within the Memory of Man; not half of the 
Members are come up, and we see a Bill upon 
almost every Door," 

it gave inter alia the following items of 
literary intelligence : 

"Ambrose Philips, Esq., a Westminster Justice, 
has a new Tragedy upon the Stocks, to be launched 
this Winter. 'Twas this Gentleman who obliged 
the Town with the beautiful Translation of the 
Andromache, by Laurie, and we are in hopes he 
has chosen another piece by the same author. 

"Sir Richard Steele proposes to represent a 
Character upon the Stage this season, that was 
never seen there yet : This Gentleman has been two 
Years a dressing, and we wish he may make a good 
Appearance at last. 

" The celebrated Mr. Pope is preparing a correct 
Edition of Shakespear's Works ; that of the late 
Mr. Rowe being very faulty. 

"Our Muscovite Merchants have Advice that 
M. Servani, who some years ago had his Education 
in this City, and made very great Improvement in 
all polite Literature, is coming over hither with 
a Commission from his Czarish Majesty." 

There was also a literary flavour about 
these accompanying pieces of theatrical 
gossip : 

" We hear that the Theatre in the Hay-Market 
where lately the French Strolers us'd to perform, 
will be opened in a little time, for the Diversion 
of the City and Liberty of Westminster. The 
Actors, as well as the Plays, they say, will be 
entirely new, and the whole to be under the 
Management and Direction of that noted Pro- 
prietor, Aaron Hill, Esq. 

"The Company at Drury-Larie have reviv'd 
four plays this Season, and design to raise up the 
incomparable Tragedy of Phiedra and Hippolytus." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 2, 1910. 

STBETTELL-UTTEBSON (11 S. i. 448, 477). 
From a list of auction-sale catalogues 
ranging from 1637 to 1841 it appears that 
three important book-sales took place in 
London in 1832. Two of these were con- 
ducted by Sotheby & Son, and the third 
by Evans. The library disposed of by 
Evans was that of the Rev. Dr. Valpy, a 
distinguished educationist, and head master 
for many years of Reading Grammar School. 
The sale continued, or was advertised to 
continue, for ten days. Dr. Valpy' s library 
was sold in his lifetime. Having retired 
from the mastership of Reading School 
owing to age and infirmity, he went to reside 
with a son in London, and in consequence of 
this change got rid of his library. Does 
this catalogue render any assistance to MB. 
CLEMENTS ? It does not quite tally with 
the one he mentions, but comes pretty near 
it. Dr. Valpy, it should be stated, was a 
great admirer of Shakespeare. On the other 
hand, it must be remembered that E. V. 
Utterson possessed a First Folio Shake- 
speare. W. SCOTT. 

ABEBDEEN, 1782 (11 S. i. 467). In vol. ii. 
of ' Public Characters,' published in 1801, 
27 pages are devoted to the early life and 
writings of George Colman the younger, who 
was then living. No reference is made to 
the poem on Fox mentioned in ' Random 
Records,' quoted by MB. P. J. ANDEBSON ; 
but ^ mention is made of young Colman' s 
writing some doggerel verses in an album, 
in a post-house at Lawrencekirk. The lines, 
20 in number, are given, but some of them 
would now be hardly considered fit for 
publication. They commence : 
I once was a student at Old Aberdeen ; 
Little knowledge I got, but a great deal of spleen. 

These album lines are said to have been 
Colman's first attempt ; and as in ' Random 
Records l he says he wrote the poem on 
Fox immediately after returning from 
Lawrencekirk, that must have been his 
second attempt. 


(11 S. i. 346, 493). It may not be entirely 
uninteresting to add to MB. A. RHODES' s 
reply that in the churchwardens' accounts 
of Stratton, Cornwall, there is mention made 
of persons who went by the name of " Robyn 
hode and his men. " In 1536 the church 
received of " John Marys and his company 
that playd Robin Hoode U. 18s. 4d.,' ? and 

in 1538 the still larger sum of 3/. Os. Wd. 
These were munificent gifts for ecclesiastical 
purposes in those days. They probably 
indicate that the players and those who 
hearkened to them were adherents of th& 
ancient faith with no ideas of change, but 
they could not be in any sense a guild at- 
tached to the church. Robin Hood, though 
a highly popular character, not only in 
England, but, as we have been informed, 
in the Lowlands of Scotland also, was by 
no means a saintly person, and neither he 
nor his followers were calculated to make a 
religious impression on their neighbours. 

The body of young men referred to were 
probably light-hearted fellows who devoted 
themselves, when time was not pressing, 
to the amusement of their fellow-townspeople.. 
Times were, however, rapidly approaching 
when the entertainment of others became 
regarded as something in itself unholy, for 
we find that so early as 1543 Martha Rose 
and Margaret Martin paid three shillings 
for the " wode of Robyn Hode is howse.' 1 
It is impossible to say whether it had been 
pulled down by some local authority, or 
whether the owner had demolished it 
because the sports he had organized in 
former years had ceased to give pleasure. 

N. M. & A. 

"BBOCHE" (11 S. i. 389, 475). From a 
case reported in a Year-Book of 6 Edward II.,. 
upon which I am at present working, one 
gathers that a broche was a sword of some 
kind, and not a lance. It is said of a man 
accused of murder that he struck his victim 
on the head " dune espeie qest appelle 
Broch et lui fist une playe del longur de 
iiij pouz. n Objection is taken that the in- 
dictment does not specifically state whether 
" le laminal [v.L, in another report, le 
aumail] feust ou de feer ou dasser," &c. 


Lincoln's Inn. 

492). Concerning the actual amount of the 
ship money attempted to be levied upon 
Hampden, " Junius " had a pregnant word 
to say in his Letter to the Printer of The 
Public Advertiser of 28 May, 1770 : 

" There is a set of men in this country, whose 
understandings measure the violation of law by the 
magnitude of the instance, not by the important 
consequences which flow directly from the principle 
.... Had Mr. Hampden reasoned and acted like 
the moderate men of these days, instead of hazard- 
ing his whole future in a law-suit with the crown, 
he would have quietly paid the twenty shillings 
demanded of him, the Stuart family would 
probably have continued upon the throne, and, 

ii s. ii. JULY 2, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


:at this moment, the imposition of ship-money 
would have been an acknowledged prerogative 
of the crown." 


(11 S. i. 349, 415). The passage in 'Frost 
at Midnight ' can be illustrated from Cowper 
(' The Task,' iv. 291-5) : 
Nor less amused, have I quiescent watched 
The sooty films that play upon the bars, 
Pendulous, and foreboding, in the view 
Of superstition, prophesying still, 
Though still deceived, some stranger's near 


[MRS. B. SMITH also thanked for reply.] 

THE RAVENSBOUBNE (11 S. i. 468). The 
earliest reference I have to this river, 
although not by name, is 146. Philipott, 
In his ' Villare Cantianum,' 1659, says of 
Deptford that it was " so called from the 
deep Channel of Ravens -purg'd, the River 
that here slydeth into the Thames.'* He 
further says that the bridge over this river 
was repaired in the twentieth year of Ed- 
ward III., as appears by a record in the 
Tower : 

" Quod reparatio Pontis de Depeford, pertiuet ad 
homines Hundredi de Blackheath, and non ad 
homines Villarum de Eltham, Moding-ham, and 

Kilburne in his 'Survey,* 1659, p. 73, 
describes Deptford as lying " at the north- 
west side of the County by the River Ravens - 
borne and Thames.'* 

In December, 1700, there was granted a 
patent by King William III. 
" to supply the Inhabitants of the Royal Manors oi 
East Greenwich and Sayes Court with good and 
wholesome Fresh Water from the River Ravens 
bourne, which runs between the said Manors 
during the term of 500 years." 

Hasted says that the Romans were wel 
supplied with water from the Ravensbourn< 
at their camp on Keston Common, where 
the river takes its rise. 

It was in the mouth of this river that the 
Golden Hind (in which Drake circumnavigatec 
the earth) was laid up by command of Queer 
Elizabeth, and on board of this ship her 
Majesty visited Drake and knighted him. 



The earliest references to the Ravens 
bourne I have noted are as under : 

" A.D. 1208. Through an inundation of th 
Thames, the whole of the lands on the banks of th 
Ravensbourne were flooded." Dunkin's ' History 
of Deptford,' p. 207. 

1373. " Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Here- 
ord, Essex, and Northampton, dying 16 Jan., 
373, an inquisition taken at his death [Inq. p. m. 

6 Edw. III., No. 10, taken at Depford, 6 Feb., 

7 Edw. III., 1373] showed that he owned ' also a 
)lot of ground near the water called Rendes- 
lourne.' " Streatfeild and Larking's ' Hundred 

f Blackheath,' p. 6. 

1570. " There was lately re-edefied a fayre 
Bridge also, over the Brooke called Ravensbourne, 
whiche ryseth not farre of in the Heath above 
Bromley." Lambarde's' Perambulation,' 1st Ed., 
1576, p. 335. 

In the 1826 edition of Lambarde the same 
reference is slightly varied : 

' . . . . Over the Brooke called Ravensbourne, 
which riseth not farre off at Hollowoods hill, in the 
sarish of Kestane, and setting on worke some 
corne milles, and one for the glasing of armour, 
slippeth by this towne into the Thamyse, carying 
continuall matter of a great shelf e with it." 

CHAS. WM. F. Goss. 
Bishopsgate Institute. 

In vol. i. of ' Court Minutes of the Surrey 
and Kent Sewer Commission,' recently 
printed by the London County Council, in 
whose custody are the official documents 
of the Commission, the first entry, dated 
3 January, 1569, begins : " Sessio Sewero 
pro conservacione murorum mariscorum a 
Ravensborne in Comitatu Kanciaad eccle- 
siam de Putney in Comitatu Surreia . . . . " 
There are other mentions of the stream 
through the volume, for the publication of 
which gratitude is due to the County Council. 

My grandfather Thomas Fox bought 
property at Lewisham about 1790 which was 
partly bounded by the Ravensbourne stream. 
Probably this is not a sufficiently early 
reference for MB. PHILIP NOBMAN ; but I 
expect the title-deeds, which perhaps are 
accessible, would give references of an earlier 
date. W. H. Fox. 

City of London Club, B.C. 

[MR. J. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also thanked for 

The summary of the etiquette of door- 
knocking in the Spanish periodical of 1836 
does not seem very wide of the mark, accord- 
ing to my recollections of thirty years later 
than that date. Everybody (in London) 
had a door-knocker, and there was certainly 
a more or less generally understood code 
of knocks. I remember that an old lady, 
who was born at the very beginning of the 
last century, always said, on engaging a new 
footman : " Let me hear how you knock n ; 
and according to his proficiency in the art 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. J C LY 2, 1910. 

of rat -tat -tatting, so was he appraised. A 
sonorous and insistent reverberation on the 
front door was in those days considered a 
sign of social importance. 

In ' The Footman's Directory and Butler's 
Remembrancer ; or, The Advice of One- 
simus to his Young Friends,' London, 
printed for the Author, and sold by J. 
Hatchard & Son, 1823, the following in- 
structions are set forth : 

" In knocking at a gentleman's door, you 
should not ring the bell, unless you see it written 
on a brass plate to do so, except it should be 
at a relation's of the family which you live with, 
then you always should ring, as well as knock ; 
and also at your own door, as this is a mark 
of respect, and a hint to the family and servants 
that some of the family are come home. Knock 
loud enough to be heard, as some of the halls 
and kitchens are a great way from the front door." 

Kew Green. 

MR. RHODES'S concluding query recalls 
to my mind some lines of Colman's in his 
* Newcastle Apothecary.' They may be 
found in ' The Literary Class-Book,' a 
volume I used at school in 1853 : 

" Bolus arrived, and gave a doubtful tap, 
Between a single and a double rap. 
Knocks of this kind 

Are given by gentlemen who teach to dance : 
By fiddlers, and by opera singers : 
One loud, and then a little one behind, 
As if the knocker fell by chance 
Out of their fingers." 


(11 S. i. 448). The comet which appeared 
at the time of Caesar's death has been 
identified. It is believed to have been the 
same as that seen in the time of Justinian 
in 531 A.D., again in the reign of Henry II. 
in 1106, and again in 1680. Its periodic 
time is supposed to be about 5745 years. 
It is not expected to return again till the year 
2255. See Milner's ' Gallery of Nature,' 

1848, pp. 112-13. 

w. s, s. 

(11 S. i. 486). This was undoubtedly the 
author of ' The Empire of the Nairs ' and 
other works. See ' D.N.B.,' s.v. James 
Henry Lawrence. C. D. 

James Henry Lawrence, Knight of Malta, 
known as the Chevalier de Laurence, was 
the eldest son of Richard James Lawrence, 
of Fairneld, Jamaica. He studied at Eton, 
but completed his education in Germany. 
On his way home to England, in 1803, he 
was detained in France, \*ith many other 

British travellers, by order of Bonaparte 
on the outbreak of hostilities. He wrote 
several works, and contributed to The 
Pamphleteer, xxiii. 159, an article entitled 
' On the Nobility of the British Gentry ;: 
or, The Political Ranks and Dignities of the 
British Empire, compared with those of 
the Continent ; for the Use of Foreigners in 
Great Britain, and of Britons abroad.' 
This was published separately, London, 
Nickisson, 1840, 12mo, 5s., and is evidently 
the "work on heraldry" mentioned by 

Some references to the Chevalier de 
Laurence will be found in The Gentleman's 
Magazine, February, 1841, p. 206. 


"PULL" (11 S. i. 407, 457). From my 
earliest days I have been accustomed to' 
hear that a person who had been ill was 
"Much pulled down" or, more shortly, 
"pulled." G. W. E. R. 

"THE FORTUNE or WAR" (11 S. i. 223, 
274). In what is now named York Road, 
opposite the Maiden Lane Railway Station, 
is a small inn or public-house called " Th3 
Fortune of War." I remember when this 
portion of York Road used to be called 
Maiden Lane. Beginning at King's Cross, 
it crossed Battle Bridge, and passed Maiden 
Lane Station and " The Fortune of War," 
Barnsbury Square being more north on the 
right, and the Roman Road crossing Maiden 
Lane diagonally. 

. The name of this little inn, whatever its- 
origin, seems peculiarly appropriate to its 
situation ; for, as Thornbury says, London 
tradition considers that Boadicea"'s great 
battle with Suetonius occurred here ( ' Old 
and New London,' ii. 276). Battle Bridge 
would commemorate the British queen's 
last- battle, in which she lost her life ; Maiden 
Lane recording that her two maiden daughters 
(the immediate cause of the war) were with 
her in her chariot (as in the new sculpture 
on Westminster Bridge), and there' also 
perished ; while the Roman Road, running 
west, would be the route by which Suetonius 
hurried up from Wales to save London. 

Pinks mentions that an elephant's skeleton, 
Roman coins, and a Latin inscription men- 
tioning one of the legions in this battle, have 
been dug up in Maiden Lane ; and Suetonius 
used elephants against the queen of the 
Iceni ('History of Clerkenwell,' 1880, 17, 
358, 500, 502, 571). 

As Boadicea's object was to attack Roman 
London, and she needed water, for her troops. 

ii s. ii. JULY 2, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the situation near the stream at King's 
Cross was exactly suitable for her purpose ; 
and in George III.'s reign, when this cross- 
way was laid out, it was proposed to call 
it Boadicea. 

A writer in ' N. & Q.' has pointed out that 
Suetonius encamped on the high ground 
overlooking London, now called Barnsbury 
Square, and that the ditch of his square 
camp may still be seen at the back of at 
least one side of the square a fact which 
I have verified by personal observation. 

Wheatley says that old records refer to 
this road as Maiden Lane ( ' London Past and 
Present,' 1891, ii. 455) ; and Smyth says 
that the Maiden Way began on the Roman 
Road (Archceologia, 1846, xxxi. 280). 

This cluster of place-names and corre- 
sponding topographical features, all agreeing 
with the idea that this district was the scene 
of the last great attempt of Britain to throw 
off the yoke of Rome, makes the local inn 
name of " The Fortune of War '' a very 
appropriate one. 

Out of what was formerly Maiden Lane 
proceeds a smaller turning called Forum 
Street. L. M. R. 


The Cornish Coast (South) and the Isles of Stilly. 

By Charles G. Harper. (Chapman & Hall.) 
MB. HARPER has a long row of books about 
England to his credit, largely illustrated by him- 
self ; he is an indefatigable searcher after legend 
and architecture, and his latest travels have pro- 
duced a book which will be of real use to the visitor 
and tourist. 

We cannot say that we can always endorse his 
ideas of taste and humour, and he indulges in 
some sweeping condemnations, e.g., of golfers 
which we do not regard as justified. However, 
these are matters on which individual opinion 
doubtless differs, and most people can profit 
by the author's keenness to see and hear notable 
things. The book is excellently printed in 
good type, and the illustrations, though somewhat 
sketchy, are generally effective. 

Mr. Harper's equipment as a traveller is pretty 
good, but he makes a gross mistake in. Latin on 
p. 86. " Malo quam " does not mean " rather 
than," and a schoolboy would not need to reach 
Macaulay' s standard to correct the two later 
lines. They should be concerned with "a 
wicked man " in the ablative case, and also " in 

Jane Austen : Pride and Prejudice. Abridged 
arid edited by Mrs. Frederick Boas. (Cambridge 
University Press.) 

The Cambridge Review has given utterance to a 
protest by one of our younger literary hands 
against this book. He represents a feeling which 
we certainly share. The young schoolboy or 
schoolgirl has .an ample selection of books already 

from which he can learn reading and composition. 
Good story-books which he will enjoy later and 
this applies to the vigorous adventure of Scott as 
well as the delicate art of Jane Austen should 
surely not be spoilt by their employment as the 
lesson-books of an earlier age. 

Mrs. Boas has reduced the book to "about half 
its original size," and added a few notes. The 
present reviewer, a great lover of Jane Austen, 
cannot view the result with equanimity, and hopes 
that the Cambridge Press will cease truncating 
classics. He very much doubts if Jane Austen's 
works are suitable for the young at all ; in fact, 
many grown-up persons find them unutterably 
dull. If this is so, they might be left as they are- 
If it is not so, the negative needs proof in order to 
excuse a volume like this. 

A Collection of Eastern Stories and Legends for 
Narration or Later Reading in Schools. Selected 
and adapted by Marie L. Shedlock, with a 
Foreword by Prof.-T. W. Rhys Davids, and a 
Frontispiece by Wolfram Onslow Ford. (Rout- 
ledge & Sons.) 

THIS lengthy title is rather a mouthful, and we 
should have been just as well pleased if the 
'Foreword' had been omitted, and the frontis- 
piece which figures opposite the title-page also left 
to speak for itself. The chief point about the 
stories is not whether they are veracious, but 
whether they are suitable for telling to children. 
As Miss Shedlock has already tried them in that 
way with success, their publication is clearly 
justified. We have read them with pleasure,, 
and are glad to think that, just as Western art is 
being revivified by Oriental influences if all that 
we read is true so the tales of the East are 
being added to our store of legend. Mr. Marina- 
duke Pickthall and other close students of the 
East have pointed out the delightful humour of 
Oriental tale-telling, which wins some of the 
applause here devoted to the novel. Miss Shed- 
lock's selections, which represent the essence of 
Buddhism and the earnestness of that creed, have 
also the charm of humour, and of that power of 
make-believe which modern children know, 
perhaps, best through Mr. Kipling's ' Jungle- 

Miss Shedlock's ' Notes on the Stories ' at 
the end show their value, and are much to the 
point. All the stories except the last are told of 
the Buddha (To Be), or the Bodhisatta, and the 
first, we learn, has often been told in connexion 
with a story of Hans Andersen's. Thus East and 
West meet in a realm in which they have, after all,, 
much in common. The achievement of the 
simplicity which is needed for effective telling is 
not easy, as we are often reminded by the Christ- 
mas flood of new fairy-tales, and we congratulate 
Miss Shedlock on her success in an art which has 
become more difficult since it took on itself the 
dignity of a science. 

WE confess that we are somewhat tired of 
anthologies which are produced by competing 
publishers in reckless profusion. We make an 
exception, however, of The Time of the Singing of 
Birds, which Mr. Frowde publishes, and which is 
the result of the joint labours of M. A. P., M. S.,. 
and G. M. F. Without any knowledge of the 
persons these initials represent, we may con- 
gratulate the selectors both on excellent taste 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t u s. 11. JULY 2, 1910. 

and on securing some poems guarded by copy- 
right which add considerably to the charm of the 

The frontispiece is derived from Giotto s picture 
of St. Francis and the birds at Assisi, and opposite 
the first little poem we find three familiar lines 
on birds from a master of ancient Greece. Two 
chief contributors are Mr. Robert Bridges with 
six pieces, and Father Tabb (whose death is a 
distinct loss to the world of poetry) with seven. 
Of Shakespeare and Tennyson we get four pieces, 
of Wordsworth seven, of Swinburne three. The 
single poems by Francis Thompson and Prof. 
Santayana are notable, though not entirely 
successful in technique ; while Mr. Hardy's 
* Darkling Thrush ' shows his wonderful power of 
gloomy vision. 

There are two Indexes, one of first lines, and 
.another of authors. Such aids ought to appear in 
every book of this sort, but, as they do not, we 
mention their appearance here. 

WE receive four of the earliest copies of the 
Oxford issue of The Prince of Wales Prayer- 
Books, embodying the alterations necessitated 
lay the recent accession to that title of Prince 
Edward. We hope that this form will last for 
many years. The books are, as usual, admirably 
produced in every respect, and once more show 
that careful regard both for taste and detail which 
we have learnt to expect from the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 

THE attractive medley of historical, scientific, 
and literary information supplied by the Inter- 
mizdiaire is as discursive as usual. Ancient and 
modern life are dealt with impartially. Feigned 
marriage by capture, which has barely disappeared 
in Corsica, and up-to-date aviation are con- 
sidered equally worthy of a place in its hospit- 
able pages. Several contributors supply notes on 
mills worked by the tide, others describe the 
signiorial chapels attached to churches, or the 
" trees of liberty " which survive from the days 
of the great revolution. In an answer to a question 
relating to the origin of Norman apple-trees 
reference is also made to the bibliography of 
apple-culture. Nanot's * La Culture du Pom- 
mi er & Cidre ' and Truelle's ' Les Fruits de 
Pressoir ' are both commended, the second 
specially so. Genealogists will find the notes 
on French families of Scotch or xrish origin of 
interest. Remarks on the belief that lepers 
poisoned wells and springs touch on a distressing 
and humiliating subject. The inveterate heartless- 
ness of man to man is also shown when the depor- 
tation of French ecclesiastics during the revolution 
is in question. " In 1793 it was decided that the 
deportes should be conducted to Senegal on the 
coast of Africa ; it was thought that they would 
return less easily from there than from Switzer- 
land or Spain. Under the Terror those suspected 
were menaced with being sent to Madagascar, and 
there was also question of some part of the 
Barbary coast." The prisoners were, however, 
brought together at Rochefort and embarked 
on two worthless vessels, the Washington and the 
Deux Associes, which could not put to sea on 
account of the presence of the English fleet. 
"' Herded together between-decks, receiving in- 
sufficient and unhealthy food, and treated with 
unheard-of barbarism, the prisoners died by 
hundreds. After Thermidor the survivors were 

landed, and, in the end, set at liberty." In 
1797, when the Directory was preparing the 
political stroke of Fructidor, " a corvette was 
secretly armed at Rochelle to transport con- 
demned people to Senegal : it was the Vaillante, 
commanded by Lieutenant Jurien de Graviere. 
The day that the pretended conspiracy was dis- 
covered the vessel had been ready for a month, 
but at the last moment the destination was 
changed, and according to the counsels of Les- 
callier, Cayenne was chosen. The first convoy 
only included politicians, but the Decade and the 
Bayonnaise took to Guiana two hundred and sixty- 
three priests ; another vessel was seized by the 
English, and as leaving the ports became danger- 
ous, on account of English cruisers, the other 
deportes, to the number of one thousand one 
hundred and seventy-two, were relegated to the 
islands of R6 and Ole>on." The phrase " un- 
heard-of barbarism " can scarcely be exact. It 
was impossible for the men of the eighteenth 
century to outdo some of their predecessors in 
ferocity. But that callousness, combined with 
lack of organization in providing for the needs 
of the unfortunates in their grip, destroyed many 
of their victims slowly and miserably is not to be 

man of the Council of the Sussex Archaeological 
Society, has in the press ' Sussex hi the Great 
Civil War and the Interregnum, 1642-1660.' The 
book will be published about August by the 
Chiswick Press, and will be fully illustrated. Any 

g'ofits from its issue will be given to the Barbican 
ouse Fund of the Society above mentioned. 
Subscriptions may be sent to Mr. W. T. Cripps, 
Stanford Estate Office, Brighton. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

WE beg leave to state that we decline to return 
ommunications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
bo "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
.ishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
3ut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
leading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head, the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

F. SCHLOESSER ("Habacuc est capable de tout"). 
See MR. CURRY'S reply, 10 S. x. 314. 

n s. ii. JULY 9, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 28. 

NOTES: The Princes of Wales, 21-Swedenborg MS. 
Missing, 22 Bristol Booksellers and Printers, 28 Mar- 
lowe's ' Epitaph on Sir Roger Manwood 'Sir Matthew 
Philip The Diphthong "ou," 24 'Alumni Canta- 
brigienses 'Designs for Somerset House Hatless Craze, 
25 'Canterbury Tales ': Early Reference Apprenticeship 
in 1723 Smollett's " Hugh Strap" Shropshire Newspaper 
printed in London, 26. 

QUERIES: Lieut.-Col. Cockburn: R. Wright Gilder- 
sleeve Family ' Shaving Them 'Aldermen of London: 
Dates of Death John Wilkes T. L. Peacock's Plays- 
Virgil : "Narcissi lacrymam," 27 'Merry Wives of 
Windsor' New Bunhill Fields, Borough Dame Eliza- 
beth Irwin: Genealogical Puzzle Authors Wanted 
Money and Matrimony Christmas Family of Bideford, 
03 City Poll-Books-Genealogical Tables Barabbas a 
Publisher " Abraham's Beard," a Game Duchess of 
Palata St Agatha at Wimborne Botany : Flowers 
Blooming Melmont Berries = Juniper Berries Shen- 
stone and the Rev. R. Graves Thames Water Company 
Folly: Place-Name " The British Glory Revived," 29. 

REPLIES : -Turkey Captives, 30 The Edwards, Kings of 
England, 31 Bath King of Arms Tbasts and Sentiments 
Samuel Mearnes Paul Kester Initials on Russian 
Ikon, 32 " Canabull blue silke " Court Leet Sir 
Anthony Standen Galfrid Author Wanted, 33 Edward 
=Iorwerth, 34' Jonathan Sharp 'George Knapp, 35 
Woe Waters of Langton Nelson's Birthplace Seven- 
teenth-Century Biography Elephant and Castle in 
Heraldry, 36 Abraham Farley " Make " or "Mar" in 
Goldsmith General Wolfe's Death B. Rotch, 37 "God 
save the People ! " Greir Family St. Austin's Gate 
" Googlie " Rumbelow, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Political Satire in English Poetry ' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE fact of the heir apparent to the throne, 
who was born on the 23rd of June, 1894, 
being created Prince of Wales, should have 
a record in ' N. & Q.* The announcement 
was made in, an extraordinary edition of 
The London Gazette of Thursday, the 23rd 
of June, as follows : 

" The King has been pleased to order Letters 
Patent to be passed under the Great Seal for 
creating His Royal Highness Prince Edward 
Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David, 
Duke of Cornwall and Bothesay, Earl of Carrick, 
Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Great 
Steward of Scotland, Duke of Saxony and Prince 
of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, Prince of Wales and 
Earl of Chester." 

The Daily Telegraph on the same day 
gave such a concise list of all who have 
borne the title that it should find a place 
in ' N. & Q.* for permanent reference : 
Edward (1284-1327). 

Born at Carnarvon. Created Prince of Wales in 

February, 1301. Became Edward II. in 1327. 

Murdered at Berkeley Castle. 

Edward of Windsor (1312-1377). 

There is no documentary evidence of his 
investiture as Prince of Wales, but it is believed 
to have taken place during the Parliament of 
York in 1322. Became Edward III. in 1327. 

Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince (1330- 


Created Prince of Wales 1343, " par assant de 
touz les grauntz d'Engleterre," during the 
Parliament of Westminster. The flower of 
English chivalry. He predeceased his father. 

Richard of Bordeaux (1367-1399). 

Created Prince of Wales in 1376, on the death 
of the Black Prince. Became Richard II. in 

Henry of Monmouth (1387-1422). 

Son of Henry IV. Created Prince of Wales on 
Oct. 15, 1399, at the age of 12, and became 
Henry V. 

Edward of Westminster (1453-1471). 

Son of Henry VI. Created Prince of Wales in 
his first year. Killed on the field at Tewkes- 

Edward of the Sanctuary (1470-1483). 

Son of Edward V. Created Prince of Wales 
1477. Murdered in the Tower. 

Edward of Middleham (1474-1484). 

Son of Richard III. Created Prince of 
Wales July, 1483. Died in Wensleydale Castle, 
where he was born. 

Arthur of Winchester (1486-1502). 

Son of Henry VII. An infant prodigy of 
scholarship and learning. 

Henry of Greenwich (1491-1549). 

Son of Henry VII. Created Prince of Wales 
June 22, 1502. Betrothed to Prince Arthur's 
widow on June 25, 1504. When he came to the 
throne in 1509, as Henry VIII., Lord Mountjoy 
wrote : " Heaven smiles, the earth leaps with 
gladness, everything seems redolent with milk, 
honey, and nectar." 

Henry VIII. 's only son (afterwards Edward 
VI.) was never created Prince of Wales, though 
his father made him Duke of Cornwall. 

Henry of Stirling (1594-1612).' 

Son of James I. Created Prince of Wales in 
1608. A prince, like Prince Arthur, of very 
great popularity and learning, and his death 
was greatly deplored. 

Charles (1600-1649). 

Son of James I. Created Prince of Wales in 
1616. Came to the throne hi 1625. Beheaded 

Charles of St. James's (1630-1685). 

Afterwards Charles II. It is apparently doubt- 
ful whether he was ever created Prince of 

George Augustus (1683-1760). 

Son of George I. Created Prince of Wales by 
his father ten days after his landing in England, 
Sept., 1714. The first Prince of Wales, since 
Edward the Black Prince, who had children in 
the lifetime of his father. Became George II. 
in 1727. 

Frederick Louis (1707-1751). 

Son of George II. Born at Hanover. Created 
Prince of Wales in 1729. Throughout his life 
always at enmity with George II. and every 
member of his family. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. n. JULY 9, 1910. 

George (1738-1820). 

Son of Frederick Louis. Created Pruice of 
Wales 1751. Became George 111. in 1700. 

George Augustus Frederick (1762-1830). 

Son of George III. Created Prince of Wales 
when a few days old. Became George IV. 1820. 

Albert Edward (1841-1910). 

Son of Queen Victoria. Created Prince of Wales 
on Dec. 4, 1841. Became King Edward VII. 

George Frederick (born 1865). 

Son of Edward VII. Created Pruice of Wales, 
Nov. 9, 1901. Became George V. May, 1910. 

A. N. Q. 



ONE hundred and thirty-eight years ago, 
viz., on Sunday, 29 March, 1772, Emanuel 
Swedenborg died in his London lodging 
at 26, Great Bath Street, Coldbath Fields, 
s house which, judged by its present appear- 
ance, must have been a very modest habita- 
tion for a man of his social standing. His 
"whole library" there, we are told, had 
consisted of a Hebrew Bible, and it was 
given, as his burial fee, to his countryman 
Dean Ferelius. Some of Swedenborg's MSS. 
(probably memorandum books and indexes 
to his writings) had accompanied his final 
journey to London, and these, with his 
other personal effects, were immediately 
after his death dispatched to Stockholm 
by his friend and man-of-business Mr. 
Charles Lindegren. Swedenborg having left 
no will, all his property passed into the 
hands of his heirs-at-law. His library, 
which had remained in Sweden, was sold 
at the " Bok- Auctions -Kammaren i Stock- 
holm d. 28 Nov., 1772,'* and the printed 
catalogue of the sale, reproduced in fac- 
simile by Mr. Alfred H. Stroh at Stockholm 
in 1907, forms an interesting conspectus of 
the great Swede's multifarious studies. 

A month before this sale, viz., on 27 
October, 1772, the whole of Swedenborg's 
extant MSS., and the "author's copies'* of 
many of his printed works, were, on behalf 
of his heirs, formally presented to the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, in the 
library of which institution they have been 
preserved ever since, though not wholly 
exempt from vicissitudes. The gift was 
accompanied by a list of the MSS., which 
was printed at Stockholm in 1801, and again 
in 1820, and is reproduced, with similar 
lists, upon pp. 729 to 800 of Dr. R. L. 
Tafel's collection of ' Documents concern- 
ing Swedenborg,' vol. ii. part ii., London, 

Several of these MSS. which had not been 
published in their author's lifetime some- 
of which, indeed, he seems to have intended 
only for his own reference have been 
since printed by permission of the autho- 
rities of the Royal Academy of Sciences, and 
with their co-operation. Among these is an 
MS. which bears no title, but which was 
named by Benedict Chastanier (who in 1791 
issued abortive proposals for printing the 
work) ' Diarium Spirituale,* by which title 
it has been subsequently known. The 
* Diarium Spirituale s was printed by Dr. 
J. F. I. Tafel, Librarian in the University 
of Tubingen, at that town in 1844-50. An 
English translation, as "Ihe Spiritual Diary/ 
extending as far as paragraph 1538, was 
published in London in 1846 ; and another, 
continued to paragraph 3427, at New York 
and Boston, U.S.A., in 1850-72. A com- 
plete English translation appeared in London 
in 1883-1902, and a phototyped facsimile 
of the original MS. at Stockholm in 19015. 
In each of these five editions paragraphs 
1 to 148 are " conspicuous by their absence"; 
but in the latest English version their 
place is occupied by a translation of the 
brief analyses of the contents of these para- 
graphs as noted by their author in his MS, 
index to the work. 

The existence of this defect has been 
known from 1772 onwards. It is noted,, 
at No. 7, vols. iv. and v., in the above- 
mentioned Heirs* List compiled in that 
year, but is there exaggerated so as to 
include paragraphs 1 to 205, an error due 
obviously to a too hasty glance at the MS. 
which upon its surface seems to justify the 
statement. Special search has been made 
for the missing section (e.g., by Dr. J. F. I. 
lafel at Stockholm in 1859, and by his 
nephew, Dr. R. L. Tafel, at the same city 
in 1868), but without success ; and its- 
disappearance has come to be considered- 
absolute and complete. 

As long ago as 1842 inquiries made on 
behalf of the Swedenborg Society elicited 
the information that in the library of a 
certain congregation of " New-Church " 
people was a volume of Swedenborg's 
writings to which was affixed a fragment of 
his MS. " evidently cut from some book.'* 
The volume in question formed one of the 
" objects of interest ? * exhibited to the- 
visitors at the International Swedenborg 
Congress held in London throughout the- 
week ending to-day. 

In his copious ' Bibliography of Sweden- 
borg's Works,* issued in 1906, the editor, 
the Rev. James Hyde, minutely describes. 

ii s. ii. JULY 9, MO.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


this fragment, at No. 498 in his numerical 
system, dates it 1747, and proceeds to draw 
attention to the connexion of its subject- 
matter with paragraphs 28 and 29 in the 
missing section of the ' Diarium Spirituale.' 
Renewing and extending his researches into 
this suggested parallelism, Mr. Hyde pub- 
lished their result in The New Church 
Review (Philadelphia, U.S.A.) for July, 
1 907. Briefly stated, Mr. Hyde's conclusions 
are that paragraphs 1 to 148 of these 
" memorabilia " were written by Sweden- 
borg at Stockholm within the months 
January to July, 1747, in a book entirely 
distinct from that, or those, in which he 
subsequently penned paragraphs 149 to 
6096 ; and that the fragment described at 
No. 498 in the ' Swedenborg Bibliography ' 
is a part of that first used volume which is 
now, apparently, lost. 

The whole subject is discussed at length 
in an article, divided into three sections, 
which appears in The New Church Magazine 
for February, March, and April of the 
present year, to the last-named of which is 
prefixed a facsimile of the resuscitated frag- 
ment. The Magazine is procurable at the 
Swedenborg Society's house, 1, Bloomsbury 
Street, W.C., or it can be consulted in many 
Free Libraries throughout the country. 

Meanwhile, may I appeal to all my readers 
who possess, or know of* any anonymous 
Latin MSS. of the eighteenth century, 
to examine them with a view to ascertain 
if they include " a volume [bound or un- 
bound] measuring 12 J by 8 inches, probably 
without title-page or page -headings, and 
containing paragraphs numbered 1 to 148, 
whereof No. 29 lacks the concluding por- 
tion *' ? A copy of the facsimile of the newly 
identified fragment already mentioned will 
be forwarded to all applicants by Mr. James 
Speirs, 1, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. It will 
serve as a clue to facilitate the search for 
which I plead, and he or I will gladly receive 
particulars of any successful results. 


169, Grove Lane, Camberwell, S.E. 



W. C. B.'s list at 10 S. v. 141 I did not see, 
but I venture to submit some names in 
addition to those Bristol booksellers and 
printers appearing in his second list, US. 
i. 304. The dates I give are the earliest 
hitherto noted, but the address is not, in 
quite every case, that of the year given : 

Eliazer Edgar, admitted to the freedom in June, 
1620, " for the using of the trade of binding and 
selling books." 

J. B. Beckett, Corn Street, 1774 

William Browne, 1792 

Ann Bryan, 51, Corn Street, 1794 

Thomas Cocking, Small Street, 1767 

B. Edwards, Broad Street, 1796 

S. Farley & Son, Small Street, 1758 

Felix Farley, Castle Green, 1734 

Hester Farley, Castle Green, 1774 

Grabham & Pine, 1760 

Henry Greep, Bridewell Lane, 1715 

Benjamin Hickey, Nicholas Street, 1742 

Andrew Hooke, Shannon Court, 1745 

Mrs. Hooke, Maiden Tavern, Baldwin Street, 1753: 

William Huston, 4, Castle Green, 1791 

Lancaster & Edwards, Redcliff Street, 1792 

W. Pine & Son, Wine Street, 1753 

James Sketchley, 27, Small Street, 1775 

T. Smart, St. John Street, 1792 

Edward Ward, Castle Street, 1749 

Mary Ward, 1774 

Mary Ward & Son, Corn Street, 1781 

J. Watts, Shannon Court, 1742 

Thomas Whitehead, Broadmead, 1709 

William Bonny, mentioned by W. C. B. r 
was the first man to set up an independent 
permanent press in Bristol. He was origin- 
ally in business in London, where he had 
met with little success. When, in 1695,. 
Parliament omitted to continue the law sub- 
jecting all printed books and pamphlets to 
official censorship, and virtually confining 
the provincial press of England to Oxford,. 
Cambridge, and York, Bonny obtained 
leave from the Corporation of Bristol to 
start in business as a printer, in the city,, 
but, out of consideration for the local book- 
sellers, it was stipulated that he should 
carry on no other business than that of a 

Bonny printed John Gary's * An Essay on 
the State of England, in relation to its 
Trade, its Poor, and its Taxes. For carrying 
on the Present War against France, 1 which 
was published in November, 1695, and was 
the first book printed at Bristol by a per- 
manently established local press. John 
Locke said it was the best book on the 
subject of trade that he had ever read. 
Gary was a freeman and merchant of Bristol,, 
and his subsequent essay on pauperism 
led to the establishment, in May, 1696, of 
the Bristol Incorporation of the Poor the 
first body of the kind in this country 
created by Act of Parliament. The name 
continued in use until 1898, when it wa& 
changed to Bristol Board of Guardians. 

We owe to Bonny the earliest newspaper 
published in Bristol. This was The Bristol 
Post-Boy. The first numbers are lost, but 
if No. 91, issued on 12 Aug., 1704, represents 
a correct numbering, then the first copy 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. IL JULY 9, 1910. 

appeared in November, 1702. That must no 
be accepted as proved, for those earlj 
printers were a little careless in the matte 
of numbering. Still, there is very good 
reason for believing that 1702 was the year o 
the start of the enterprise at offices in Corn 
Street, where, apparently freed from the re 
strictions imposed when he came to Bristol 
the printer dealt in charcoal, old rope, Bibles 
Welsh prayer-books, music, maps, paper 
hangings, and forms for the use of ale-house 
keepers and officers on privateers. 

In 1713 Samuel Farley published the 
first number of his Postman, the ancestor o 
the present Times and Mirror, and the 
Postman soon sent the Post-Boy to oblivion 
If, indeed, the latter had not gone there 
before the stronger paper's advent. 



MANWOOD.* (See 11 S. i. 459.) The copy 
of Marlowe and Chapman's ' Hero anc 
Leander,* 1629, in which this Latin epitaph 
is written on the back of the title-page, is stil" 
in my possession. It was lot 1415 in Heber's 
sale of Old Poetry, held at Sotheby's 
8 December, 1834, and fourteen following 
days. The note uj)on the lot shows that 
the book was then in its present condition, 
except that the late Mr. Ouvry, after it had 
passed into his hands, had it bound in 
morocco by Riviere. At Heber's sale it 
was bought by John Payne Collier, who 
parted with it to Mr. Ouvry, at whose sale 
it came into my possession. Owing to the 
volume having been Collier's property, some 
doubt has been thrown upon the authenticity 
of the manuscript notes in the book, and some 
correspondence took place in ' N. & Q. 1 on 
the subject (6 S. xi. 305, 352 ; xii. 15). Mr. 
Arthur Bullen, who printed the epitaph in 
his edition of Marlowe (Introduction, pp. 
xii, xiii), said that it had " every appearance 
of being genuine " ; and a few years ago, 
when he contemplated bringing out a new 
edition of the dramatist, he borrowed the 
book from me, and had the page bearing 
the inscription photographed. The result 
of his examination was, I believe, to confirm 
him in his previous view, though it cannot, 
of course, be stated with absolute certainty 
that the epitaph was written by Marlowe. 

In Metcalfe's ' Book of Knights l Sir M. 
Philip is said (on the authority of Sir N. H. 
Nicolas's ' Orders of Knighthood *) to have 

been made a Knight of the Bath in 1464 
(sic) at the coronation of Elizabeth, queen of 
Edward IV., 20 May (sic). 

My friend Dr. W. A. Shaw in his * Knights 
of England,* i. 134-5, gives the same list as 
that which Metcalfe copies from Nicolas, but 
with the correct date of the coronation, viz., 
26 May, 1465, and describing Philip as 
a " citizen of London." 

Unless there were two contemporary 
London civic knights of this name, of which 
there is absolutely no evidence, I am confi- 
dent that the list of Knights of the Bath 
from which Nicolas and Dr. Shaw copied is 
wrong in including Philip amongst them. 

Philip, the alderman who was Mayor 
1463-4, was not knighted till May, 1471, 
when he was one of twelve aldermen who 
received ordinary knighthood, not that 
of the Bath. This list, with Philip's name 
included, is given by Dr. Shaw in his second 
volume (p. 16). 

There is both positive and negative 
evidence that Philip was not knighted 
before 1471, and that he was not one of the 
batch of Knights of the Bath made in 1465. 

1. His name, with that of the other eleven 
aldermen included with him in the knighting 
of 1471, receives the prefix " Sir " in the 
City records after that date, and never 
before it. 

2. Gregory's * Chronicle ' the work of 
one who had himself been Mayor and 
alderman records the coronation of Eliza- 
beth, and says : " These v aldyrmen were 
made knyghtys of the Bathe " ; and after 
recording their names which, divested of 
orthographic variants, are those generally 
known as Wyche, Cooke, Josselyn, Plomer, 
and Waver he adds : " And no moo of the 

ytte but thes v, and hyt ys a grete 
worschyppe unto alle the cytte " (p. 228). 

It is clear from this that Philip, who was 
then alderman and ex -May or, was not in- 

luded in the list of the Knights of the Bath 
made at Elizabeth's coronation, nor is it 
Drobable that any other " citizen of London " 
>f the same name was then a recipient of the 
lonour. ALFBED B. BEAVEN. 


THE DIPHTHONG " ou." I have nowhere 
een it definitely stated that the diphthong 
>u, as employed in modern English, almost 
nvariably indicates a French spelling. 
This is a very useful fact. 

Of course, it constantly occurs in native 
English words, such as out. But this is only 
>ecause the Normans, who obligingly re- 
pelt our language for us, used the symbol 

ii s. ii. JULY 9, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

ou to represent the A.-S. u, especially 
when long. That is how the A.-S. ut came 
to be respelt as out. I need not take into 
consideration the hundreds of other cases. 

But it is even more interesting to notice 
how the rule applies to words of wholly 
foreign origin. Thus knout is a French 
spelling of a Russian word, though the 
Russian word was itself of Scandinavian 

Caoutchouc is a French spelling of a 
Caribbean word ; tourmaline is a French 
spelling of a Cingalese word ; patchouli 
is a French spelling of a word of Indian 
origin. Even in such a word as ghoul, 
which might have been taken immediately 
from Arabic, it is a fact that it first appears 
in Beckford's * Vathek * as goule, which is 
simply the French form. I doubt if there 
are numerous exceptions. Many languages 
avoid ou altogether. WALTE^B W. SKEAT. 

OXONIENSES.' May one suggest that the 
editors of the Cambridge work would do well 
to avoid such conjectural amendments as 
mar the like work dealing with Oxford men ? 
Let mo illustrate the matter from my own 

I was born at Irthlingborough in North- 
amptonshire. It is not to my present 
purpose that the birthplace was accidental. 
My grandfather was rector of a neighbouring 
parish, and my father, a barrister living in 
London, rented for the summer a house in 
Irthlingborough. The clerk who entered 
my name in the Oxford Register, mistaking 
the registrar's nourished I for an O, wrote the 
village name as Orthlingborough. The 
editor of ' Alumni Oxonienses, 1 finding no 
village of that name, printed the village 
name as Orlingbury, the name of a parish 
in the same county. 

I could show that this form of error is 
common in the work, and I should like to 
suggest that such conjectural amendments, 
almost sure to be wrong, should find no 
place in the forthcoming Cambridge list. 

J. S. 

CHAMBEBS'S DESIGNS. Josephi Baretti's 
' Guide through the Royal Academy,* pub- 
lished in 1780, is, I believe, the first work or 
pamphlet describing Somerset House, or 
what was completed of it at that date. 
It contains a great deal of detail to which 
neither Mr. F. A. Eaton in * The Royal 
Academy and its Members * nor Messrs. 
Needham and Webster in ' Somerset House 

Past and Present ' have given sufficient 
attention. In dealing with the first plan 
for the building the latter work says that 
" a Mr. Robinson," Secretary to the Board 
of Works, had prepared designs for a new 
building : 

" These designs, as might be expected, were 
little better than builders' drawings for a plain 
substantial structure .... without pretension to- 
the first proportion and disposition of parts which 
distinguish true architecture." 

Did the writers of that remark see these 
plans, or is their opinion based upon the fact 
that they were only designed by a Secretary 
to the Board of Works ? They add, " Mr. 
Robinson's designs were laid aside," but 
qualify this by a foot-note : 

" Actually they were handed to Sir William 
Chambers, but were" found to be of no service, 
and were not in any way embodied in the new 

Baretti's rendering of this incident gives a 
different succession of events : 

" The late Mr. Robinson was the person first 

appointed to conduct this great edifice ; and the 
buildings were to be erected in a plain manner, 
rather with a view to convenience than ornament." 

Then it was decided to make it 
" a monument of the taste and elegance of his 
Majesty's Reign. Mr. Robinson made some 
attempts upon this double idea ; but he dying 
before anything was begun, or any of the Designs 
compleated, Sir William Chambers was, at the 
King's request, appointed to succeed him in 
October, 1775, and all Mr. Robinson's Designs 
were delivered to him ; of which, however, he 
made no use, as he thought of a quite different 
disposition ; nor is there the least resemblance 
between his Designs and those of Mr. Robinson, 
all of which I have more than once seen and con- 
sidered with sufficient leisure and attention." 

Clearly this indicates that the simplicity of 
the first plans was not a matter of choice, 
and the more decorative, but unfinished 
designs prepared by Robinson were dis- 
regarded, not because " they were found to 
be of no service,** but for the better reason 
that Chambers planned a different disposi- 
tion of the buildings. 


THE HATLESS CBAZE. When did English 
people begin to find out that all civilized 
nations until the last few years had been 
entirely wrong in wearing caps or hats out of 
doors ? These useful articles now appear 
likely soon to become obsolete, ana it may 
be well to put on record some dates connected 
with their disuse. 

Here in Durham it began with a few of the 
undergraduates I cannot say exactly when, 
but I have notes that it was prevailing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. ir. JULY 9, 1910. 

greatly in November, 1906 ; in June, 1908, it 
was on the increase ; and now, in June, 
1910, caps are becoming quite exceptional 
among undergraduate men, and seem likely 
soon to be confined to Dons and women 
students. The cap no less than the gown is a 
part of the proper academical costume, and a 
shilling fine at the first would have stopped 
the irregularity in a week. One result is that 
the old interchange of courtesy between 
undergraduates and Dons by mutual " cap- 
ping " is becoming impossible. The disuse 
of the cap is just a fashion of the day, based 
partly on convenience, and partly on that 
dislike to uniform which we now see in the 
Army and Navy, and among servants. We 
have a Territorial corps here, but none of 
its members would ever think of going about 
without their caps when on duty, because 
discipline is better maintained by their 
officers than by those of the University, 
and the men themselves seem to think more 
of their corps than of their Alma Mater. 
But it is not only while on duty that caps 
are dispensed with. One day I met a young 
friend returning from an afternoon walk 
gracefully handling a walking cane, but 
with nothing on his head except that 
covering which nature had. so bountifully 

The craze is extending into clerical life. 
I have just heard of a curate who goes about 
in greatcoat and gloves, but without a hat. 
It has also invaded the nursery. I now see 
dear little boys, breeched for the first time, 
and the pride of their parents, going out 
Hatless with their nursemaids, and thus 
doubly asserting their early manhood. 

J. T. F. 


REFERENCE. The will of Richard Sothe- 
worth, clerk (P.C.C. 44, Marche), dated the eve 
of St. Andrew the Apostle, 1417, and proved 
20 May, 1419, makes mention, among other 
books, of his copy of the ' Canterbury 
Tales * (" quendam libru' meu* de Cant r bury 
Tales "). This is surely a very early note 
of the work. The will was sealed at South- 
morton, but the testator speaks of his church 
of Esthenreth (East Hendred, Berks). 


APPRENTICESHIP IN 1723. -The subjoined 
letter is contained among the papers pre- 
served at SS. Anne and Agnes Church. Con- 
taining as it does no apparent local reference, 
I have thought it more suited to the columns 
Of *N. & Q.' than to the pages of my 

Records.* Notwithstanding its ex parte 
character, the letter may doubtless be held 
of value for its light upon what was, in all 
probability, the too common experience of 
the poor apprentice in the " good old 
days n : 

Sunderland, May y e 10 : 1723. 

Dear Sister, I am very sory to hear that you have 
Not heard from me this four months, makes me 
doubt you have not Received my last Letter which 
Menshon'd something of my hard Usage which 
was known to be very hard at that Time which 
all my neigbours can very well tell, for my master 
threaten'd to send me aboard of a Ship, and Like- 
wise Hee'd make me an intire Slave dureing my 
prentisship in spite of my Bondesmen or any friend 
I could procure to Looke after me, which god knows 
I have none but what pleases my Bondsmen to do 
for me, so I leave it to their discression. But I 
crave y" Favour they will Be so kind as eighther to 
take me away or otherwise Let me have the coorse 
of my Indentures. So no more at present, But I 
remain your ever Loving Brother Matthias Stand- 
fast: Pray present my Humble Servise to all my 
Scoolfellows and all y* Ask after me. 

Mrs. Catherine Standfast, at Mr. Bay's in Fell 
Court in Fell Street near Criplegate, London. 

The letter is written in a clear hand on 
paper of folio size, folded and postmarked. 

Monthly Magazine of May, 1809, records the 
death at the Lodge, Villier's Walk, Adelphi, of 
Mr. Hugh Hewson, at the age of eighty -five, 
and states that he was " the identical Hugh 
Strap whom Dr. Smollett has rendered so 
conspicuously interesting,"' &c. Hewson for 
over forty years had kept a hairdresser's 
shop in the parish of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. The writer of the notice says "we 
understand the deceased left behind him an 
interlined copy of * Roderick Random,' 
with comments on some of the passages.' 1 
According to Nichols, ' Lit. Anec.,* iii. 465, 
the original of this character was supposed 
to be Lewis, a bookbinder of Chelsea. 


LONDON. From a fragment of The Shrop- 
shire Journal, with the History of the Holy 
Bible, for Monday, 12 Feb., 1738/9, it 
appears that so far from being a real local 
periodical it came from a metropolitan press 
" London : Printed by R. Walker in Fleet 
Lane. Of whom, and of the Person who 
serves this paper may be had the former 
numbers to compleat Sets.' 1 The paper 
then claimed to have reached its seven ty- 
third number. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 


n s. ii. JULY 9, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to.them direct. 

BRIGHT. I desire for historical purposes 
to hear of the representatives of Col. Cock- 
burn, R.A., who was a most accomplished 
officer in Canada in the thirties of last 
-century, and whose grandson Major-General 
C. F. Cockburn, R.A., died a few months 
since in the South of England. 

I also desire similar information about 
Robert Wright, who published in 1864 
& Life of General Wolfe. 

DAVID Ross McCoRD, K.C. 

Temple Grove, Montreal. 

lowed the name of our family back to 1273 
in the county of Norfolk, England. This 
person was Roger Gyldersleve, as stated by 
the Hundred Rolls. Some people, however, 
think that the family came from Holland. 
We should be very grateful for any informa- 
tion on the subject. Please reply direct. 
Gildersleeve, Connecticut. 

1 wish to learn who was the author of 
". Shaving Them ; or, The Adventures of 
Three Yankees on the Continent of Europe. 
Edited by Titus A. Brick, Esq. London, 
John Camden Hotten, 74 and 75, Picca- 
dilly," pp. 230. 

'.The title-page has no year of issue, but 
the publisher's advertisements at the end are 
dated 1872. The British Museum Cata- 
logue treats the book as anonymous, entering 
it under ' Yankees. 1 It does not appear in 
Halkett and Laing. Has the work been 
reprinted ? P. J. ANDERSON. 

Aberdeen University Library. 

WANTED. Can any reader of ' N. & Q. 1 
supply me with dates, actual or approximate, 
of death of any of the following, all of 
whom were at various periods aldermen of 
London ? 

Alexander Bence (M.P. Suffolk 1654, Master Trinity 

rlouse iDOtJ-oO). 
Tempest Milner (Sheriff London 1656-7). 

R ?^i a v nd Winn or W y nn (Committee E.I.C. 1670- 

Sir William Bateman (knighted May, 1660). 
Nicholas Delves (tM,P. Hastings 1660)! 

Sir William Warren (frequently mentioned by 

Pepys ; knighted April, 1661). 

Sir Charles Doe (knighted while Sheriff, June, 1665). 
John Owen, stationer (Colonel of the Yellow Regi- 


Sir Ralph Ratcliff of Hitchin (knighted Feb., 1668). 
Dannet Forth (Alderman of Cheap 1669-76, Sheriff 


Sir Edward Waldoe (knighted Oct., 1677). 
Sir Thomas Griffiths (knighted Jan., 1682). 
Alexander Master (Sheriff London 1758-9). 
Thomas Wooldridge (Alderman Bridge Ward 1776- 


JOHN WILKES. Being engaged in collect- 
ing materials for a Life of Wilkes, I shall be 
greatly obliged if some of my fellow-contribu- 
tors to * N. & Q.' can give me information 
about any unpublished manuscripts con- 
cerning the famous politician. 

Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 

T. L. PEACOCK'S PLAYS. I am editing 
for publication in the autumn the plays of 
T. L. Peacock, of which mention has 
already been made in ' N. & Q.,* and should 
be grateful to any reader who could supply 
me with references to their existence made 
before 1904. I am acquainted with Sir 
Henry Cole's brief allusion to them. 

A. B. YOUNG, M.A., Ph.D. 
4, Cardigan Terrace, Northgate, Wakefield. 

LACRYMAM." What did Virgil mean by 
this " tear of Narcissus,"- employed by his 
bees in building up their combs ? Was he 
thinking of their nectaries, or of their pollen, 
or of dew and rain clinging to the petals ? 
Milton annexes the phrase, bidding daffa- 
dillies fill their cups with tears to bedew the 
hearse of Lycidas ; but Milton who saw 
plants not in nature, but in books, and never 
worried himself about floral consistency, was 
merely imitating Virgil. 

Wliat, again, was Virgil's narcissus ? The 
commentators make it a daffodil, Narcissus 
poeticus, or N. serotinus of our flora. Linnaeus 
too assumed it to be a daffodil, having in 
mind the legend of the lovesick youth 
concerning whom Ovid sang and Bacon 
moralized. But Proserpine was gathering 
narcissi in Sicilian fields centuries before 
Narcissus was born, and she wore them as an 
appropriate crown in hell. In the Athens 
chorus the flower is called by Sophocles 

AAt'/itoTpog, an epithet which fails to 
suit the . daffodil ; and its derivation, the 
Sanskrit nark hell, points to a narcotic 
effect of the scent which the daffodil does' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 9, mo. 

not possess. If, as some think, Sophocles 
meant the hyacinth, which is at once fair- 
clustering and narcotic, when did the flower 
change its name ? and, once more, what was 
its tear ? W. T. 

In his answer to the question of Sir Hugh 
Evans, Simple says: "Marry, sir, the pittie- 
ward, the park-ward, every way," &c. 
Here I would read " the spittle-w&Td.*' For 
in what direction would one be more likely to 
look for " Master Caius, that calls himself 
doctor of physic " ? 

In * Every Man in his Humour, 1 I. i., 
Jonson writes : 

From the Bordello it might come as well, 

The Spittle or Pict-hatch ; 

where Gifford notes : 

"Here the allusion is local, and without doubt 
applies to the Loke or Lock, a spittle for venereal 
patients, situated, as Whalley ooserves, at Rings- 
land in the neighbourhood of Hogsden." 

Was there one at Frogmore or at Windsor ? 
Perhaps some local archaeologist will help 
me. K. D. 

BOBOUGH. Where am I likely to find the 
records of burials in this place ? An 
ancestor of mine was buried there in 1832. 
Basil Holmes in 'The London Burial- 
Grounds,' p. 308, states that it was closed in 
1853. E. A. FBY. 

227, Strand. 

beth Bunbury, formerly Dame Elizabeth 
Irwin of the city of Dublin, made her will 
with a codicil 20 February, 1720 (1720/21). 
She signs them Eliz. Irwin. She mentions 
her husband Walter Bunbury, her brother 
Sir John Murray, her sister Lillias Byrne, her 
niece Hellen Fox, her daughter-in-law 
Lettice Bladin (sic) alias Loftus, her late 
husband Mr. Broughton. She desires to be 
buried in the parish church of Lambeth. 

Elizabeth Broughton, widow, and Walter 
Bunbury were married in Dublin in 1720. 
The will was proved in the Prerogative 
Court, Ireland, 24 February, 1735/6. Mus- 
grave's * Obituary '- (Harleian Soc.) has the 
death, 7 February, 1736, of the Lady of Sir 
John Irwin, Bt. (? relict of Sir Gerard). Is 
this the same lady ? Who was she ? And 
who was " Sir " John Murray living in 
1720 ? He is not to be found in G. E. C.'s 
' Complete Baronetage * nor in Shaw's 
' Knights of England.* 

Lillias Byrne was widow of William 
Byrne of Dublin, surgeon, whose will, dated 
19 September, 1699, was proved 12 October 
following. William Byrne and Lillius (sic) 
Murray alias Reade were married at St. 
John's Church, Dublin, 16 July, 1695. 
Lettice, only surviving child of Dudley 
Loftus, LL.D., and Frances, daughter of 
Patrick Nangle, married Charles Bladen. 
How was she *' daughter-in-law " to Dame 
Elizabeth Irwin ? G. D. B. 

Can you tell me the authors of the following ? 

1. He sailed into the setting sun, and left sweet 
music in Cathay. 

2. May the sun of thy life, like that of the morn, be 
an ascending one ! Whether its rays rise in mist 
or pure air, it is all one if only the light increase, if 
only the day brighten. 

MABY A. FELL, Librarian. 
Philadelphia City Institute Free Library. 

What Hell may be I know not. This I know : 

I cannot lose the presence of the Lord. 

One arm, humility, takes hold upon 

His dear humanity : the other, love, 

Clasps His divinity, so where I go 

He goes ; and better fire-walled Hell with Him 

Than golden-gated Paradise without. 


Launched point-blank his dart 

At the head of a lie, taught original sin 

The corruption of man's heart. 


quotation is prefixed to the English transla- 
tion of Zola's ' Money * : 

" God has set the world on two pillars, Money 
and Matrimony ; and on the right use of money, 
and on the right relations of the two sexes, every- 
thing depends." C. MERIVALE, Dean of Ely. 
Could any one oblige me with a reference- 
to the exact part of Merivale's writings 
from which this is taken ? 



any of that family, hailing from Waterford, 
own land or live near Bideford in Devon 
in the eighteenth century ? A certain John 
Christmas Smith is stated to have been 
born there in 1757 or 1759, and when 
settling in Denmark in 1790 he obtained 
royal licence from the Heralds' College to 
use the name and arms of Christmas as 
his surname, instead of Smith, Christmas 
being presumably the name of his mother. 
His descendants are still settled in Denmark. 


n s. ii. JULY 9. i9io.} NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Can any of your readers inform me wher< 
I can see the Poll-Books of the City o 
London for the following years ? 1702, 1705 
1707, 1708, 1715, 1741, 1742, 1747, 1754 
1758, 1761, 1770, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1790 
1795, 1806, 1807, 1812, 1817, 1818, 1820 
1826, 1830. ABTHTJB W. GOULD. 

Constitutional Club, W.C. 

GENEALOGICAL TABLES. Is it correct in 
making a genealogical table to mentioi 
children not specified by name as " et ceteri, 1 
or is there any recognized abbreviation in 
such cases ? C. J* 

[The symbol xf* is used to indicate issue not named. 

his poems does Byron compare publishers 
in general (or Murray in particular ?] 
to Barabbas ? ** And Barabbas was a 
robber,'* 1 think it runs. J. D 

was this game, of which one reads in 
' Reginald Bosworth Smith : a Memoir * 
(p. 15) ? On Sundays, writes Bosworth 
Smith's sister Mrs. Caledon Egerton of their 
childhood days, 

"after supper, we would adjourn to the study, 
where our father would read aloud to us some 
ponderous memoir, the dulness of which we would 
while away by looking at pictures in old missionary 
records. We sometimes indulged in the game of 
* Abraham's Beard ' until our father directed us to 
change the name of the father of the faithful to 
'Caesar,' when the frankly secular nature of the 
amusement stood revealed." 


DUCHESS or PALATA. Can any one in- 
form me whether a family bearing this 
name or title exists or existed in Italy ? 

S. A. D'ARCY. 

Clones, Ireland. 

article on Tetta by the Rev. Charles Hole 
in Smith's * Dictionary of Christian Bio- 
graphy (vol. iv. p. 875), mention is made of 
St. Agatha, who with St. Lioba was educated 
at Wimburn (Mabillon, * Acta SS. O. S. B., 
Saec. III. pt. ii. p. 223). I should be glad of 
any information about the St. Agatha 
alluded to here. JAS. M. J. FLETCHER. 

The Vicarage, Wimborne Minster. 

Can any one recommend a simple manual 
of botany which contains a classification of 
flowers according to the months in which 
they are in bloom ? LAWRENCE PHILLIPS. 

Theological College, Lichfield. 

In Jamieson's * Dictionary of Scottish 
Words * occurs the following : " Melmont 
berries, juniper berries, Moray." Can any 
reader say if this name is so applied any- 
where else, and suggest an origin for the 
word ? F. R. C. 

Shenstone the poet, in a letter to the Rev. 
Richard Graves of Claverton, dated 26 
October, 1759, says : "I have three or four 
more of these superb visits to make.... 
then to Lord Lyttelton, at our Admiral's." 
He does not give the Admiral's name. Can 
any one tell me whether any of the Admirals 
Graves were related to the Rev. Richard 
Graves of Claverton ? E. 

HOUSE. Among some old deeds, I have 
lately found a lease, dated 25 December, 
1679, from five persons described as " Under- 
takers for the raising Thames water in York- 
House Garden in the County of Middlesex," 

one Water-course conveniently furnished with 
Thames water, arising and running from certain 
waterworks belonging to the said undertakers in 
York-House Garden aforesaid, running in and 
through one Branch or Pipe of Lead," 

: or the use of two houses in Oxenden Street 
n the parish of St .Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
The rent (thirty shillings) is made payable 
' at the House commonly known by the name of 
ohe Water-house, seituate in York Garden in the 
Parish aforesaid, belonging to them the said 

The lease is in a printed form. 

Is anything known of this forerunner 
of the modern water companies, or of where 
;he " Water-house " stood ? I presume that 
t was in some part of the grounds of the 
Duke of Buckingham's mansion York House. 

C. L. S. 

FOLLY : PLACE-NAME. In this village 
here are two by-roads called "The Folly" 
and "The Little Folly." The general idea 
among the old inhabitants seems to be that 
"folly" is a lane. I cannot find that 
neaning of the word in the * Dialect Dic- 
ionary ' nor in the ' N.E.D.* Is it general 
a Hertfordshire ? JOHN CHARRINGTON. 
The Grange, Shenley, Herts. 


ne of the medals struck to commemorate 

he taking of Porto -Bello by Admiral Vernon, 

nd others, the obverse has " The British 

Grlory Revived by Admiral Vernon " ; on 


NOTES AND QUEKIES. [11 s. n. JULY 9, 1910. 

the reverse " Who took Porto-Bello with six 
ships only, November 22nd, 1739.* 8 What 
may be the meaning of the word * ' revived " 
in connexion with Britain's naval prestige ? 
Of three medals I have struck in commemora- 
tion of this event only one has " The British 
Glory Revived." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 



(11 S, i. 488.) 

THE story of this unusual circumstance is 
given fully in a rare single sheet dated 
10 August, 1670, and issued in the form of 
letters patent by Charles II. The sheet 
13 entitled " Letters patent for collections 
towards the redemption of English captives 
taken by the Turks-. London [Thomas 
Milbourn dwelling in Jewen Street] 1670." 
This open letter was addressed by Charles II. 
to the clergy of all degrees and denomina- 
tions, as well as to all Justices, Mayors, 
Bailiffs, Constables, Churchwardens, Chapel- 
wardens, Headboroughs, Collectors for the 
Poor, &c. It proceeds : 

" Whereas a great number of our good subjects, 
peaceably following their employments at Sea, have 
been lately taken by the Turkish Pyrates, under 
whom they now remain in most cruel and inhumane 
bondage, who by their friends and relations have 
humbly besought us to take their miserable and 
deplorable estates into our princely considera- 
tion, &c. 

. On 27 July, 1670, a Committee of the 
Privy Council was held, Charles himself being 
present, when it was reported that 
" b 7 certificates of several ships taken, as by several 
letters from the respective masters, officers and 
seamen now in slavery; to their friends and rela- 
tions here m England, it doth evidently appear that 
the said poor slaves, assaulted by these ^humane 
Sieves and , Pyrates, did in their several fights 
behave themselves with remarkable valour and 
courage, not yielding to the enemy till they had 

dok ! b( ?li ^ a - U(? the en , emiea 8 * ain ^on the* r 
decks, and till their own ships were fired about 

thf^TJ ?v^ f T 6d *? ca l fc themselves into 
the sea to avoid the devouring flames were seized 
on bv these barbarous enemies, with whom they 

n^ M l*ir llf K m ? Ch W - rse than death >' boS 
and sold like beasts in the market, held to most 
insupportable service, and fed only with a slender 
allowance of bread and water ; many of them 
chained to their work, and beaten daily with a Tee 

tain number of stripes That the number of these 

poor slaves is. so great, and the demands of thei? 
Taskmasters is so high that the money needful for 
the accomphshing.their redemption is represented 

by the Committee to amount to the sum of Thirty 
Thousand pounds ; which sum our said distressed 
subjects are utterly unable to procure of them- 
selves," &c. 

Charles therefore says he appoints " Extra- 
ordinary Wayes and rules for Collection of 
the same [sum] upon such an extraordinary 
occasion " : 

"We do give and grant unto the said poor 

distressed subjects, the captives aforesaid, or to 
their agents, or other persons, who shall be lawfully 

authorized full power to take the almes and 

charitable benevolence of all our loving subjects 
(not only householders, but also servants, strangers, 
and others inhabiting within all and every the 
Counties, Cities, Boroughs, Towns corporate, Cinque 

ports, Priviledged places and all other places 

whatsoever in England for and towards the 

redemption and relief of the said poor captives." 

The King desires 

"especially to stir up the inferiour clergy to give 
effectual arguments to their flocks, both by exhorta- 
tion and example, for a Liberal contribution 
towards the redemption of these miserable wretches, 
whose cases are much more deplorable than theirs 
who ordinarily seek for relief by collections of this 

nature Witness Our Self at Westminster, the 

tenth day of August in the two and twentieth year 
of our Reign." 

The evidence for the sad state of affairs 
in the Mediterranean in the seventeenth 
century is scattered but ample. There is a 
letter dated 1617 in the Buccleuch MS. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm., vol. i. p. 197) in which 
reference is made to the pirates then inter- 
fering with the Levant trade. These Bar- 
bary Turks and the condition of Tangier at 
the end of the seventeenth century are also 
dealt with in the Dartmouth MSS. (Hist. 
MSS. Comm., Eleventh Report, App. V. 
p, 18). The first Lord Dartmouth was sent 
to effect the destruction of Tangier. 

The actual circumstances which brought 
matters to a crisis and forced Charles II. to 
take the steps he did to relieve these sufferers 
are found (printed) in Domestic State Papers, 
24 June, 1670 S. P. Dom. Car. II. 276 
(186). Here are given letters addressed to 
Williamson (secretary to Lord Arlington), 
in one of which, dated 14 April, 1670, 
Samuel Daukes, aged 20, a captive at 
Algiers, says that he and his fellows were 
taken near Sardinia, 

" sold like horses, and made to lie down on our 
backs, and two men with ropes beat us until the 
blood ran down our heels. For three months my 
diet was bread and vinegar, and that only once a 
day. Had I been seen writing this letter, I should 
have received at least 200 blows for it." 

Then follows a series of petitions upon the 
same subject, including one from the rela- 
tives of " 140 men of Stepney " in the hands 
of the Turks. 

ii B. ii. JULY 9, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sir Thomas Allin (his name is often in- 
correctly given as Allen), who was com- 
mander -in-chief of the English fleet in 1670, 
and whose principal duty at that time was to 
overawe the piratical Barbary cruisers, 
writes to Williamson on 26 August, 1670, and 
gives a most spirited relation of an encounter 
with Turks with the object of freeing these 
prisoners, and he supplies a list of 62 for 
whom he had just secured freedom S. P. 
Dom. Car. II. 278 (50). See also in this 
connexion "A True Relation of the Victory 
of His Majesties Fleet... ...against the 

Pyrates of Algiers taken out of the 

Letters of Sir Thomas Allin. T. Newcomb 
in the Savoy. 1670 " ; and a less painful 
story which is given in " The Adven- 
tures of Mr. T. S., an English Merchant 
taken prisoner by the Turks of Argiers 
[sic] and carried into the In land countries 
of Africa. Moses Pitt in* Little Britain. 

That munificent lady of the seventeenth 
century known as Alice, Duchess Dudley 
(wife of Sir Robert Dudley, and created 
Duchess Dudley in her own right 23 May, 
L645), left money for the relief of captives 
in the hands of the Turks : 

"Alice, Dutchess Dudley, who died at her house 
near St. Giles Church, itolborn, 22 Jan., 1668/9, 
bequeathed 100 a year for ever for the redemption 
of Christian captives out of the hands of the Turks. 
She also bequeathed 6d. apiece to every indigent 
person meeting her corpse on the road from London 
to Stoneley (Stoneleigh, Warwickshire), where she 
was buried." S. P. Dom. Car. II. 

Some people made capital out of Charles 
II.'s letter, for in December, 1670, there 
appeared an announcement that as the letters 
patent granted 

"to make collections to redeem Turkish captives 
are no.w expired, the persons still collecting 
money thereon are to be apprehended, ana 
punished according to law." S. P. Dom. Car. II. 
U81 (118). 

The best general history of England's 
relations with Tangier in 1670 is found in 
' Tangier as a Naval Station, 1 viz., the 
twenty-second chapter of ' England in the 
Mediterranean, 1 603-1 71 3, * by Julian Cor- 
bett, 1904. A. L. HUMPHBEYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

MB. SWEETMAN will find much to interest 
him in two papers on ' Devonshire Briefs 
written by Dr. T. N. Brushfield, F.S.A., 
and published in the Transactions of the 
Devonshire Association for 1895 and 1896. 

Teign mouth. 

[ W. S. S. also thanked for reply.] 

i. 501). In his interesting notes at the above 
reference MR. A. S. ELLIS employs a term 
which, as a Scot, I cannot allow to pass un- 
challenged. "Edward the Elder,'* says 
MR. ELUS, "was himself the first who 
extended his authority over the whole of 
Great Britain." 

Non inidtus premor ! Here we have 
reasserted the claim in successfully resisting 
which my countrymen waged almost inces- 
sant war for three hundred years. The sole 
basis for that claim is the well-known passage 
in the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle* ad ann. 
924. Be it far from me to join issue in a 
matter whereon so much blood and ink has 
been shed in the past ; but I venture 
respectfully to ask how MR. ELLIS can 
justify the use of the term " Great Britain " 
as applied to any dominion in the 1 tenth 
century. ,. : 

If he means to imply the territory -now 
known by that name, I would remind him 
that the designation was used for the first 
time officially by James VI. and I., who, 
greatly to the displeasure of his English 
subjects and in the very teeth of the highest 
legal opinion, instituted the new title by 
royal warrant in 1604, although the judges 
declared that all legal processes would 
thereby be invalidated. 

That, however, cannot be MB. ELLIS'S 
meaning in the phrase " the whole of Great 
Britain," for the Western Isles were not 
ceded by the King of Norway till 1266, and 
Orkney and Shetland were not incorporated 
in the Scottish realm till 1471. If we assume 
(for argument's sake, but without prejudice) 
that the statement in the * Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle ' is correct in the main (though it 
varies in detail in the seven extant copies), 
and that Edward the Elder did acquire the 
suzerainty of the Kingdom of Alba (the title 
Scotia or Scotland was not in .use until the 
following century), the utmost that can ,be 
claimed is that his authority was contermin- 
ous with the realm of Constantin II., which 
only comprised the district between Forth 
and Clyde on the south and the Helmsdale 
and Inver rivers on the north, from sea to 
sea, but without the adjacent islands. And 
although the ' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle * (the 
sole authority) asserts that Regnwald of 
Northumbria and the King of the Strathclyde 
Welsh also submitted, it is certain that King 
Edward's writs would not have run in 
Caithness, Moray, Ross, and Galloway. 

What we reckon to be the true nativity 
of the Kingdom of Scotland is 15 August, 
1057* one hundred and thirty -two years 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY 9, 1910. 

after Edward the Elder's death, on which 
day King Malcolm Ceann-mor defeated and 
slew the usurper Macbeth at Lumphannan. 
Founding upon Edward the Elder's alleged 
suzerainty over part of North Britain in the 
tenth century, the Norman and Plantagenet 
kings claimed supremacy over the entire 
realm of Scotland in the twelfth, thirteenth, 
and fourteenth centuries, but failed to 
establish it. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

BATH KING OF ARMS (11 S. i. 510). This 
is perfectly correct. When the Order of the 
Bath was reconstituted by writ of Privy 
Seal, 18 May, 11. Gep. I., i.e., 1725, one of 
the officers then specifically appropriated to 
the Order was the King of Arms. 

Grey Longueville, F.S.A., was the first 
Bath King of Arms, and was appointed 
1 June, 1725. In the January following the 
King by his sign' manual created Longue- 
ville ** Gloucester King of Arms, and 
Principal Herald of the parts of Wales," 
this appointment being then vacant, and 
ordained that " this office of Gloucester 
shall be inseparably annexed, united, and 
perpetually consolidated with the office of 
Bath King of Arms n ; and in the same 
letters patent (14 January, 1725/6) Longue- 
ville was also created Hanover Herald. 

See Hugh Clark's 'History of Knight- 
hood,' 1784, vol. i. pp. 77-91, and Mark 
Noble's * History of the College of Arms,* 
1805, pp. 366-7. 


Bath King of Arms, though not a member 
of the College, takes precedence next after 
Garter. The office was created in 1725 
for the service of the Order of the Bath. 
He has a crown like the other Kings of 
Arms, and a peculiar costume directed by 
the Statutes of the Order. See Parker's 
' Glossary of Heraldry.* J. BAGNALL. 

[LEO. C. also thanked for reply. ] 

Collections of toasts and sentiments, even in 
English, are not very common. I have 
noted only one such collection in 1789, 
' The Toast-Master : being a Genteel Col- 
lection of Sentiments ana Toasts,' a sixpenny 
pamphlet, published in London, which 
subsequently did duty, under a slightly 
altered title, as a Scottish chapbook. 

My imperfect acquaintance with foreign 
publications prevents me from saying defi- 
nitely whether or not there are collections in 
French, German, Italian, Spanish, or Scandi- 
navian. But would not a good dictionary 
of quotations and foreign phrases, published 

for the use of English-speaking people, 
enable the querist to find what he wants ? 
Such a work is the " New Dictionary of 
Foreign Phrases, comprising extracts from 
great writers, idioms, proverbs, maxims, 
mottoes, technical words and terms, press 
allusions, &c. &c. Edited by H. P. Jones,'* 
new edition, London, Deacon & Co., 1902. 
'CasselPs Book of Quotations,* edited by 
Benham, and Hoyt and Ward's ' Cyclopaedia 
of Practical Quotations ' also contain long 
lists of phrases, proverbs, maxims, and 
reflections from French, German, Italian, 
and Spanish sources. A considerable number 
of humorous and patriotic sentiments might 
be gleaned from works like these. But 
perhaps still more suitable for the purpose 
required would be " The Library of Humour,' 
emanating from the Walter Scott Publishing 
Company, and including ' The Humour of 
France,* of i Germany, Italy, and Spain, in 
separate volumes. W. SCOTT. 

SAMUEL MEARNES (11 S. i. 481). When I 
transcribed the purchases made for the 
library of Charles II. by Samuel Mearnes, 
I was not aware of the work done by Mr. 
Cyril Davenport of the British Museum, nor 
of his beautifully produced life of Samuel 
Mearnes, the royal bookbinder. Therein 
he gives full details of his remarkable career, 
and states that some of his book-lists had 
been discovered. Fortunately, however, 
those printed in ' N. & Q. 1 are new to him. 


PAUL KESTER (11 S. i. 448) is a resident of 
Gunston, Virginia, U.S.A., and can be 
reached by letter addressed to him there. 

1726, Corcoran Street, Washington, B.C. 

I suggest that L. L. K. is right in reading 
a tee, but that this is followed by an Old 
Slavonic letter derived from the Greek 
iwra, and consisting of a single perpendicular 
stroke. This combination with a mark 
of contraction (like a Z lying on its side) 
stands for Tsar Judeiski, '* King of the 
Jews." If this is not right, I can perhaps 
help L. L. K., if he will send me a copy of the 
letters on a post-card. 


Grindleton Vicarage, Clitheroe. 

I would suggest to L. L. K. that the 
Russian initials TsC (the Ts forming one 
letter in the Russian) and HC, that is TsS 
and NS, may stand for Tsarstvo Nebesnoe, 
the heavenly kingdom, or the kingdom of 

n s. ii. JULY 9, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

heaven, tsarstvo signifying kingdom. There 
is little or no difference between the Russian 
and the Church Slavonic form of the letter 
tsB. There is no letter s in either language 
in the equivalents to our Nazarene and 
Nazareth. H. RAYMENT. 

Sidcup, Kent. 

" CANABULL BLUE SILKE " (11 S. i. 488). 
Might I suggest that the first word may be 
a misreading or mis transcript of " Changa- 
bull "= changeable ? That which is now 
called " shot silk " was in olden time known 
as " changeable silk," and is not infrequently 

George Merit on in his ' Nomenclator 
Clericalis,* 1685, 8vo, gives a fairly long 
list of fabrics, and for the silks mentions 
" Silk, Sleave Silk, Changeable Silk, Flowred 
Silk, Strip'd Silk, Silk Crape, Say, or thin Silk, 
Damask Silk." 

The 'Law-Latin Dictionary, 1 1718, 8vo, 
also mentions " A Garment of Changeable 

By this phrase would not canopy-blue 
silk be intended, that is, canopy-of-heaven 
blue ! " Canopy " occurs amongst old 
writers as a synonym for the overhanging 
firmament, as appears from several passages 
in the * N.E.D., 1 s.v. The word is also met 
with in the forms " canape, >s "canaby," 
"cannabie,' 1 &c. 


327, 377; viii. 16, 93, 334, 413). Under 
this head it may be worthy of record that 
The Hampstead and Highgate Express of 
11 June contains an interesting account of 
the proceedings in connexion with the 
" Summer General Court Baron and Court 
Leet " of the manor of Hampstead. After 
the usual quaint ceremonies had been 
enacted, the company adjourned to famous 
" Jack Straw's Castle " for luncheon. Toasts, 
with speeches, followed, the chairman tracing 
the history of the ancient manor from the 
days of its charter a very instructive survey 
of a notable suburb. CECIL CLARKE. ' 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

(11 S. i. 388, 469). An Anthony Standen 
who had been in the service of Philip II 
is mentioned at p. 146 of the " Historia del 
Saqueo de Cadiz por los Ingleses en 1596, 
escrita por Fr. Pedro de Abreu, religiose 
del Orden de S. Francisco," a contemporary 
account, but not published until 1866 at 
Cadiz (Taylorian Library, Oxford). 

Before the negotiations with the English 
commanders began, 

" Mas antes que estas cosas se tratasen ni 
concluyesen con el General, siendo convidado 
Mateo Marquez Gaitan del coronel padrastro del 
Conde [i.e., Sir Christopher Blount, stepfather to 
the Earl of Essex] y con ellos Antonio Estandec 
[Standen], el cual habia servido a S.M. en estos 
reinos, y el Conde de Sigues [Essex] y otros do 
coroneles. ..." 

In ' Acts of the Privy Council of England, 
1596-7, 1 p. 368, is a letter to Richards 
Hickman (for payment of a private debt) : 

" Whereas you were to paie a certaine somme of 
money to Sir Anthony Standen, knight, and 
should have given him assuraunce for the same, 
which you have not performed by reason of his- 
goinge hi the voyage of Gales [Cadiz] . . . ." 

These two references probably relate to. 
the same person. A. D. JONES. 


FORMS: GALFRID (11 S. i. 186, 338, 436, 
494). The Kentish Gazette, 4 September, 
1804, announced the death, "at her house 
on Richmond-green, Surry, in the 88th 
year of her age, [of] Mrs. Mann, widow of 
late Galfridus Mann, Esq." 


Yet another Galfrid, and a very early one, 
emerges from the dim past. Blomefield, 
the historian of Norfolk, records the fact 
that one Galfrid Kemp was living at Norwich 
in 1272 ; but though he elaborately explains 
the surname, he is silent as to the Christian 

The querist probably remembers Horace 
Walpole's friends Galfridus Mann and his 
son Galfrid. Y. T, 

i. 608). The lines which GAMMA asks about 
are from the exquisite poem ' At Last,' 
by that poet of the American people John 
Greenleaf Whittier. They were written 
in anticipation of the time when his feet 
should pass " to paths unknown." All 
he seeks for is for his good and ill to be 
unreckoned, and that there may be found 
for him 

Some humble door among Thy many mansions, 
so that he may "find at last " 

The life for which I long. 

Pickard in his life of Whittier (vol. ii 
p. 690) states that 

" in sending to T. B. Aldrich the copy of the poem 
'At Last' for The Atlantic, Whittier writes: "As 
the expression of my deepest religious feeling it may 
not be without interest, and it may help some 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. n. JOH 9, mo. 

inquiring spirit. Apart from this, I think I have 
succeeded in giving it a form not unworthy of the 

Whittier died on the 7th of September, 
1892, at the early dawn of a lovely day. 
Pickard says : 

" Under the overshadowing of Infinite Peace, 
which was sweetly felt by all present, his pure 
spirit passed upward to the never-ending day. His 
poem ' At Last ' was recited in tearful Voice by one 
of the little group of relatives at his bedside as the 
last moment of his life approached." 

It is curious that W. J. Linton in his life 
of the poet should record his death as 
taking place on the 7th of December, and 
the public funeral on the 10th of the same 

aud the REV. J. WILLCOCK also thanked for replies.] 

(11 S. i. 387, 490). MR. MAYHEW'S partial 
solution of the lorwerth -Ed ward problem 
is very welcome. There is no phonetic 
reason why mediaeval Welshmen should not 
have said Edward. Edwart would perhaps 
have been slightly easier for them, and that 
form does appear in 1565, in the dedication of 
a Radnorshire parish church, " yn Ref y 
Clawdd," to St. Edward the King. The 
form lorwert adduced by MR. KREBS from 
Aneurin Owen's ' Ancient Laws * was doubt- 
less intended for lorwerth. The oldest MS. 
of the laws of Hywel Dda, namely, ' The 
Black Book of Chirk, 1 was written c. A.D. 
1200. At that time Welsh orthography 
was undergoing great alteration, and the 
scribe of * The Black Book * had particular 
difficulty with the dental aspirates. For 
instance, he wrote pet, pedh, and peht, 
as well as the true form peth : cf. Dr. 
J. G. Evans's ' Report on MSS. in the Welsh 
Language, V i. 359. 

With regard to MR. MAYHEW'S solution, 
it is noteworthy that we are not instructed 
why Welshmen commence the name for 
Edward with the palatal spirant y. MR. 
MAYHEW has only accounted' for the dis- 
placement of d by r. Now 
"/ before a vowel at the beginning of words, as 
&adiveard,Eoforwic, was clearly sounded like y, or 
the High-Dutch.?. Thus we still say York: and 
Yedward is found in Shakespeare, and Earl is in 
Scotland sounded Yerl, like the Danish Jarl" 
?oV A< Freeraan 'Old English History for Children, 
1869, p. xvi. 

If MR. MAYHEW could show that the theme 
ead- was sounded anywhere in the Welsh 
Marches as a rising diphthong (edd) like 
yer- or yar- t Welshmen would be acquitted 
thereby of the charge of haphazard substitu- 

ion. Since reading MR. MAYHEW'S reply 
[ have not the least doubt that Welshmen 
irst heard Yaro-werd, or something very 
iike that, and that they naturally equated 
that word with the nearest name to it in 
sound that they knew. That name hap- 
pened to be Gere-werth, *Ier-werth, lor- 
werth, lor-woerth, and lor-werth again, in 
different periods of Welsh literature since 
the fourth century. The first audition by 
the Welsh of *Yaro~werd must have taken 
place a very long time ago, and I hope that 
MR. MAYHEW will examine the chronology 
of the phonetic changes involved, and that 
he will give us the benefit of his erudition. 

He is, however, mistaken in supposing 
that lorwerth could be a Welsh mode of 
representing a dialect form of the O.E. 
royal name Eadweard. As M. GAIDOZ 
said in his query, this Welsh name is a very 
old one. It appears in Welsh history as 
early as the second quarter of the fifth 
century ; whereas no early instance of 
Eadweard has come to light. 

The earliest appearance of any form of 
lorwerth occurs in a thirteenth-century tract 
of three pages in the Cotton codex Vespasian 
A. XIV. (3), which is entitled * De Situ 

"The Welsh forms and glosses in it show it to 
have been copied by some one who did not under- 
stand Welsh from an earlier MS. at least as old as 
the eleventh century." See Mr. Egerton Philli- 
more's article in the Cymmrodor, 1886, vii. 105-6. 

The tract contains the oldest account 
we have of the Welsh prince Braehan of 
Brecheiniauc (c. 390-450), and it gives the 
names of Brachan' s sons, daughters, sons-in- 
law, and, in several cases, grandchildren. 
The tenth daughter is thus described : 
" Aranwen uxor Gereuerth regis de Powis " ; 
and these words are glossed " inde dicitur 
loruerthiaun." In the * Cognacio BrychahV 
a seventeenth -century copy in the Cotton 
MS. Domitian I. (13) of a thirteenth-century 
MS. (cf. Pmllimore, u.s.> p. 106), we get 
" (10) Arganwen apud Powys." The ' Cog- 
nacio Brychani l agrees in many things with 
the ' De Situ Brecheniauc,* but unfortunately 
it does not yield the name of Arganwen's 
husband. The form " Gergwerth " may be 
relied on, however. I read the manuscript 
when preparing an analysis of the Brychan 
documents for my * Indexes to Old-Welsh 
Genealogies,' published in Stokes and 
Meyer's Archiv fur celtische Lexicographic, 
i. 522-33, and the documents have since 
been edited and annotated by the Rev. A. W. 
Wade-Evans ; see the Cymmrodor, ,, 1906, 
pp. 18-50. The letter g in Gereuerth and 

ii s. ii. JULY 9, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Arganwen is the forerunner of the palatal 
spirant which disappeared eventually from 
between vowels, and became J initially. 
Compare the words argant, among the 
eighth -century glosses in the Codex Oxonien- 
sis Prior ; scamnhegint, in the eighth- or 
ninth -century Juvencus codex ; and the 
alternative spellings Conhage, Corihae, in two 
eighth -century charters in the * Liber 
Landavensis.* Ar-gant=ar-yant, now ariant; 

Gereuerth was son of Tegonwy map 
Leon (M.S. teon) map Gwineu, and as he 
married a daughter of Brachan, his floruit 
may be dated provisionally 445-80. Other 
and later instances of this name may be found 
in my Indexes, u.s., vols. i., ii., iii., Nos. 502, 
503, 1082, 1083, 1084. The prototheme of 
Gereuerth is clearly dissyllabic. Consequently, 
on the one hand it cannot equate /or, as 
M. GAIDOZ suggests ; on he other, some 
examination of the prototheme of Edward is 
called for. It is not easy to account for 
the change from d to r in Earwaker if the 
first element was a monosyllable. Now 
Edbald of Kent, who is called JZodbald by 
Bede (' H. E., 1 II. ix.), is referred to as 
Audu-baldus in Pope Boniface's letter to 
Edwin of Northumbria. This recalls the 
forms Audo-vacrius and Odo-acer, the second 
of which was adduced so aptly by MB. 
MAYHEW in order to explain the English 
Earwaker : Eadwacer appears twice in 
.Searle's ' Onomasticon Anglo -Saxonicum,* 
p. 189, and both instances are assigned to the 
eleventh century. Mr. Searle also gives 
Eadu, uncompounded, from the Durham 
* Liber Vitae, 1 as the name of a queen and 
abbess. The prototheme of Edward has 
been monosyllabic, in composition, for 
1,300 years ; but the forms Eadu and Audu- 
warrant the assumption that it was origin- 
ally a dissyllable in composition in O.E. To 
this may be added the fact that the root 
occurs twice in the ninth-century ' Win- 
chester Chronicle l as ea]>-, eaft- ; s 
annals 827, 828. Now a form ed]>u-weard 
(with the rising diphthong) might become 
yaru-werd. But that is not Gereuerth. 

Gere- in Gere-uerth receives no elucida- 
tion from Brythonic sources. Among Welsh 
names it is unique. For illustration of both 
themes we must turn to Old English, and 
particularly to Mercian. The elements occur 
as follows : 1, Gearu-red ; 2, Jam-man 
3, Gearo-man ; 4, Geara-god ; 5, Jem- 
man ; 6, Ciol-ueTth. Of these, 1 is from the 
Durham ' Liber Vitae * ; 2 and 5 are Latin 
forms of the name of 3, Gearoman, Bishop 
of the Mercians in 662 ; 4 is the name ol 

a tenant in 1055 ; and 6 is the name of a 
Vtereian dux in 811 ; vide Searle's ' Onomas- 
icon * for more exact references. In face 
of these illustrations I judge that Gereuerth 
or lorwerth, King of Powys lorwerthiaun 
n the middle of the fifth century, was of 
Grermanic descent. 

It is a curious coincidence that the name 
Earwaker should come to us from Cheshire, 
which was once a part of Powysland, and 
may even have comprised the kingdom of 
[orwerthiaun. ALFRED ANSCOMBE. 

Owing to the miscarriage of a proof, there 
are two or three corrections needed in Welsh 
words in my reply at the second reference. 
L. 10, for "Ienan n read leuan ; 1. 14, for 
' amner " read - amser ; and in 1. 18 
* cywyeld " should be cywydd. H. I. B. 

* JONATHAN SHABP* (11 S. i. 466). As 
far as I am aware, the identity of the author 
has never been disclosed. The title-page 
reads " Jonathan Sharp ; or, The Adventures 
of a Kentuckian. Written by himself.' 1 
Allibone accepts this indication of author- 
ship, and enters the book as the production 
of " Sharp, Jonathan." The evidence in 
favour of Sharp being the author is ex- 
tremely slight. The book is classed among 
novels in the ' Index to the London Cata- 
logue of Books . * The New Monthly Magazine, 
quoted by Allibone, says of it : " His 
[Sharp's] narrative is worthy of Defoe.' 1 
It is not mentioned in Halkett and Laing's 
' Dictionary.* As a copy of the work is 
contained in the Edinburgh Advocates* 
Library, and must have been known to 
the compilers of the ' Dictionary,' their 
omission to enter it as anonymous or 
pseudonymous may perhaps be understood 
as acquiescence in Allibone's view of its 
authorship. W. SCOTT. 

(11 S. i. 389). I have been forwarded 
the following reply by a correspondent : 

" George Knapp was the eldest son of George 
Knapp of Abingdon, gent., by Katharine, 
daughter of Joseph Tyrrell of "Kidlington, Oxon. 
He was born 29 January, and baptized 21 Febru- 
ary, 1753/4, at St. Helen's, Abingdon. He was 
Governor of Christ's Hospital, Abingdon, 1776- 
1784 ; Chamberlain 1790 ; Principal Burgess 1791; 
Mayor 1792, 1797, 1799, and 1807. His monu- 
ment in St. Helen's says that his ' liberality of 
mind and benevolence of heart endeared him to 
all who knew him. He was elected by his fellow- 
townsmen to represent them in Parliament May 4, 
1807. This important and honourable trust, 
during the short time he was permitted by 
Providence to devote his services to them, he 
executed with the strictest integrity. He d. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY 9, 1910. 

Nov. 12, 1809, aged 56, and his remains were 
deposited in the family vault at Chilton.' The 
slab has the arms and crest as borne by this 
family, viz. (Or,) 3 helmets in chief, and a lion 
passant hi base (sa.). Crest, an arm embowed 
in armour (ppr., garnished or), the hand grasping 
by the blade a broken sword (ar., hilt and pommel 
or) with a branch of laurel (vert). He is buried at 
Chilton, Berks, under an altar-tomb to the south 
of the chancel, and there is also an inscription 
on a mural slab inside. 

" Perhaps I may be permitted to add that, 
being engaged on a Knapp family history, I shall 
be glad to hear from any one interested in the 
family or any individual of the name. O. G. 
Knapp, Hillside, Maidenhead." 


There is little to be said about this gentle- 
man. He was a banker in Abingdon. In 
1807 he ousted Sir Theophilus Metcalfe 
from the Parliamentary representation of 
the burgh, thus breaking a tie which had 
lasted from 1790. He did not long enjoy 
his success. In 1809 he died, and was 
succeeded by Sir George Bowyer. 

W. S. S. 

Another George Knapp was born Feb- 
ruary, 1772, at Haberdashers* Hall, London, 
and baptized the next day at St. Michael's, 
Wood Street. He died at Warlingham, 
Surrey, 28 February, 1809, and was buried 
in that churchyard. This George Knapp 
was seventh child and fourth son of Jerome 
Knapp, citizen and Haberdasher of London, 
and of Chilton, Berkshire (Gentleman's 
Magazine, May, 1754, and June, 1792). 

Several other members of the Knapp 
family are mentioned in the 'Miscellaneous 
Writings 1 of S. Grimaldi, F.S.A., 1881, 
Part III. p. 319. D. J. 

468). Possibly that part of the Swale 
river which flowed (in 1822) past the few 
houses constituting the parish of Langton- 
upon-Swale was so called because they were 
situated so near the brink of the river that 
they were frequently in danger of being 
swept away (see Langdale's 'lopog. Diet, 

NELSON'S BIRTHPLACE (11 S. i. 483). 
Some years since I was told, on what seemed 
respectable authority, but which I have 
no permission to name, that the traditional 
story in the parish of Burnham Thorpe was 
that on Michaelmas Day, 1758, the rector's 
wife was visiting her poor, when she was un- 
expectedly taken with the labour pains, and 
that the child was actually born in a very 
humble cottage at some distance from the 

Rectory. There is nothing impossible or 
improbable in the story, which may be 
true ; but, on the other hand, there is no 
evidence that it is true, and I, for one, should 
be very sorry, on the strength of it, to contra- 
dict the received story that Horatio Nelson 
was, in regular course, born in his mother's 

Y. T.'s story seems very much of the same 
kind, except that it professes to be drawn, 
in a succession of hearsays after long inter- 
vals, from people who could not possibly 
know anything about it. The story may be 
true ; I do not say it is not ; but I do 
refuse to receive it without satisfactory 
evidence. This, at present, stands thus : 
Y. T. heard it from Mrs. Girdlestone, who 
heard it from her sister, who heard it from 
Aunt Susie, who seems, as far as Y. T.'s 
story allows of identification, to have been 
either Aunt Ann (Bolton), born in 1781, or 
and perhaps more probably Grandmamma 
(Susannah) Bolton, born in 1755, and there- 
fore three years old at the time. The story 
is interesting, but it rests on no satisfactory 
evidence. J. K. LAUGHTON. 

i. 349). There is reason to fear that no 
small history of English literature, dealing 
with such minor writers as those named in 
the query, can now be procured. The best 
means of obtaining information about them 
will probably be to consult some old bio- 
graphical dictionary of convenient size. 
Such a work is Dr. John Watkins's ' Uni- 
versal Biographical Dictionary, 5 published in 
1800. In the third edition of 1807 sketches 
of all the persons named in the query 
are given. The dictionary has the further 
advantage of referring its readers to the 
sources whence its information was derived. 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes * in 9 vols., 
and ' Illustrations of Literary History * in 
8 vols., provide a mine of information, 
and supply (in the words of Lord John 
Russell) " the best-furnished warehouse for 
all that relates to the literary history of 
the period.' 1 W. SCOTT. 

(11 S. i. 508). Few early examples of the 
elephant omit the castle. The elephant and 
castle are seen in the arms of Dumbarton 
and the crest of Corbet, and form the sign of 
a well-known tavern in South London. The 
elephant, a symbol of priestly chastity, is 
noticed in the ' Physiologus ' and the 
ancient Bestiaries. The elephant and how- 
dah figure in the first book of Maccabees, 

ii s. n. JHLY 9, i9io.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


chap. vi. ; and howdahs occur on misericords 
in Beverley Minster (also on a stall), Beverley 
St. Mary's, Gloucester Cathedral, on a 
misericord formerly in St. Katherine's by the 
Tower, St. George's Chapel, Windsor and 
Manchester Cathedral. A. R. BAYLEY. 

The elephant and castle occur in the carv- 
ing of the ancient stalls of the chapel of the 
Royal Hospital of St. Katherine, removed 
from St. Katherine by the Tower to Regent's 
Park in 1825. St. Katherine's by the Tower 
was founded in 1148 by Matilda, wife of 
King Stephen ; augmented in 1273 by 
Eleanor, widow of Henry III. ; and re- 
founded by Edward III. Whether or not 
any date be assignable to the stalls and 
their carving I cannot say ; but if a date 
can be assigned, the elephant and castle 
charge could no doubt be identified with 
one of the above queens, or* with one of the 
distinguished persons buried in the chapel. 
I think there are drawings of the carving in 
the Archer Collection (Print Dept. B. Mus.). 


ABRAHAM FARLEY (11 S. i. 468). May not 
the Abraham Farley admitted to West- 
minster School in 1720 have been the Abra- 
ham Farley, F.R.S., to whom was entrusted 
the publication of the ' Domesday Book J 
about 1773 ? He is described by Timperley 
as " a gentleman of great record learning. . . . 
who had access to the ancient manuscripts 
for upwards of forty years.'* His transcrip- 
tion of the ' Domesday Book * was com- 
pleted in 1783, in 2 vols. folio, with types 
prepared from designs by Farley and cut 
by Jackson. W. S. S. 

(11 S. i. 467). If the context of Goldsmith's 
couplet is examined, it will, I think, be seen 
that the substitution of " mar " for " make " 
would spoil the author's meaning : 
[11 fares the land, to hast'ning ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay ; 
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade ; 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made : 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
When once destroy'd, can never be supply'd. 

' The Deserted Village,' 11. 51-6. 
Surely the sense of the last four lines is that 
it is of no importance whether princely 
and noble houses flourish or die out, because 
nobility can be created in the future as it has 
been created in the past, but when a 
peasantry has become extinct its place can 
never be supplied. 

DR. KRUEGER quotes lines (e.g., " A 
breath revives him, or a breath o'erthrows ") 

where the predicates are contrasted, but the 
contrast between present and future (for 
" can make them" is equivalent to a 
future) of the same verb is no mere colourless 
repetition, and can be plentifully illustrated. 
To take one poet only : 
Haec seges ingratos tulit et feret omnibus annis. 
Hor. 'Epist.' I. vii. 21. 
Sed improvisa leti 
Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 

*Odes,'II.xiii. 19-20. 

GENERAL WOLFE'S DEATH (10 S. xii. 308, 
357). At the latter reference is a statement 
that " a private soldier n caught Wolfe as 
he fell. Does any one know the name of 
this " private soldier " ? I find, in a Life of 
Thomas Campbell by his son, Alexander 
Campbell, both of them ministers of the 
Gospel, a statement that Archibald Campbell 
(1719-1807), father of Thomas aforesaid, 
was the man ("private soldier") who 
caught Wolfe as he fell. The Rev. T. 
Campbell was born in county Down, Ireland, 
1 February, 1763, and died in Bethany, 
West Virginia, 4 January, 1854. The Rev. 
Alexander Campbell was born in Ballymena, 
county Antrim, 12 September, 1788, and died 
at Bethany aforesaid 4 March, 1866, being 
founder of the college there. The Camp- 
bells, father and son, were men of the 
highest standing in America in their day, 
the son in particular being a great leader in 
the religious movement known as Disciples 
of Christ, beginning in 1809, and now 
numbering far more than one million com- 
municants. Alexander Campbell was on 
one occasion asked to address the U.S. 
House of Representatives, and did so in 
the old House. 

New York City. 

B. ROTCH (11 S. i. 468). Benjamin Rotch, 
the alleged author of * Manners and Customs 
of the French,* was a barrister -at -law. He 
married in 1828 Isabella Anne, eldest 
daughter of William Archer Judd, Esq., 
of Stamford, Lincolnshire. In 1832 he 
was chosen M.P. for Knaresborough. His 
election was petitioned against on the 
ground of his being an alien, but the petition 
does not appear to have been proceeded 
with. The following year he was made 
chairman of the bench of Middlesex magis- 
trates. He did not contest Knaresborough 
in 1835. A magistrate and deputy-lieu- 
tenant for Middlesex, he was for several 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. pi s. n. JULY 9, 1910. 

years chairman of the Quarter Sessions. 
His residence was at Lowlands, Harrow. 
He died in 1854. 

I have no note of Rotch being the author 
of * Manners and Customs of the French, 2 
but his career and evident ability together 
with Mr. Sotheran's statement as to author- 
ship, seem on the whole to justify the 
attribution of the book to him. 


"GOD SAVE THE PEOPLE ! " (11 S. i. 

328, 392.) In his letter of 2 January, 1776, 
quoted by MB. BOBBINS, Sir Grey Cooper 
was mistaken in saying that the above 
words ended a Massachusetts "proclama- 
tion for a fast," as the proclamation in 
question was not for a fast, but for a thanks- 
giving. It was issued 4 November, 1775, 
and ' A Proclamation for a Public Thanks- 
giving * was printed in The Boston Gazette 
of 13 November. On 12 June, 1775, the 
Continental Congress issued a proclamation 
for a fast day on 20 July. This was signed 
"By order of Congress, John Hancock, 
President.'* In his 'Fast and Thanks- 
giving Days of New England,* 1895, Dr. 
W. De L. Love says : 

"The thanksgivings in the autumn [of 1775] 
were not omitted even in this dark and distressing 
time, but the Continental Congress left the 
appointments to the several colonies. That of 
Massachusetts was signed by the members of the 
council, as were several thereafter, and ended with 

the words, 'God save the People.' There came a 

time, however, when Thomas Hutchison [Governor 
of Massachusetts], got through making proclama- 
tions in Boston, and then the broadside was 
suddenly put into very democratic homespun. 
The earliest of this group was issued by the Pro- 
vincial Congress [of Massachusetts] for the thanks- 
S'ving, December 15, 1774. and was signed by 'John 
ancock, President.' What seemed to exercise 

the authors most was the proper substitute for the 
legend ' God save the King.' Before independence 
was declared, they wrote 'God save the People.' 
The proclamation which was issued upon that 
memorable day, July 4, 1776, had 'God save 
America.' The next had 'God save the United 
States of America,' which was usual thereafter, 
though we note also * God save the people,' ' God 
save the People of the United States,' and ' God 
save the American States.' "Pp. 340, 439-40. 


Boston, U.S. 


II S. i. 428, 496). W. S. S. is wrong in his 
inference at the latter reference that Thomas 
Greer died about 1885. He died at the age 
of 68 on 20 September, 1905. 


ST. AUSTIN'S GATE (11 S. i. 408, 451). 
Sufficient data are provided in MB. HAB- 
BEN'S reply to prove the identity of this 
place-name. John Bartlett's other imprints 
still further assist. Even if the following 
do not refer to a single site, they are useful 
For our purpose : 

" Gilt Cup, near St. Austine's Gate." 1641 

" In St. Faith's Parish." 1643-4. 

" In the new buildings on the south side of Paul's, 
neer St. Austine's Gate, at the sign of the Gilt 
^p." 1655. 

Vide H. R. Plomer's ' Dictionary of Book- 
sellers and Printers, 1 &c., p. 15. 


xii. 110, 194, 274). This word exactly ex- 
presses the nature of the bowling if, as seems 
most probable, it is the Scandinavian gogle 
(pronounced almost like "googly"), which 
means to trick or humbug. Possibly this 
word was introduced into cricket by some 
one of the many Englishmen who go to 
Norway to fish. It would be interesting to 
know if this is the case. 


Park Town Oxford. 

RUMBELOW (11 S. i. 224, 276, 475). I. 
came across two men bearing this surname 
in the Army, belonging to different corps, and 
in widely separated places. At the present 
time the composing-room of a London paper 
has a deputy-foreman of this name. 



Political Satire in English Poetry. By C. W* 
Previt6-Orton. (Cambridge University Press.) 

THIS book of 240 pages represents the essay which 
won the Members' Prize at Cambridge in 1908. 
As is the way of prize essays, it is not distinguished 
either for originality or brilliance, but it is a 
sound and careful summary of the subject, which 
should be of use to students. 

Beginning with the Middle Ages, the author 
comes down to Swinburne, Mr. Kipling, Mr. 
Blunt, Mr. Watson, and Mr. Owen Seaman, whose 
characteristics are fairly hit off in brief summaries. 
Some of the works mentioned, however, can 
hardly be regarded as political at all. That the 
survey is not perfect appears from the neglect of 
Bulwer Lytton's ' St. Stephen's,' an effective 
piece of 1860 which has left some famous phrases 
with us, and was a continuation of that ' New 
Timon ' which raised Tennyson's ire. Lytton 
wielded Pope's metre with considerable force, 
and an older generation than that to which Mr. 
Previte-Orton belongs did not disdain to recall his 
descriptions of famous men from John Hampden 
to O'Connell. In later days we have had no- 
sustained or considerable effort in the heroic 

ii s. ii, JULY 9, 1910,] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


couplet, though there is plenty of material for 
satire. The superabundance of jeremiads in 
prose, or worse than prose, on politics would 
certainly be relieved by an occasional comment 
in verse. In earlier days Mr. Kipling's onslaught 
on Irish moonlighters was fierce enough, but at 
present he seems to prefer to support the Empire 
by rather obscure parables. 

To The Cornhill for July Mrs. Margaret L. 
Woods contributes the third of her * Pastels 
under the Southern Cross,' which is a vivid view 
of South Africa and the half -seen impressions left 
by a railway journey. Incidentally she calls 
a Bhodesian express the " most comfortable 
express in the world." Mr. W. H. Hudson tells in 
Cardinal ' the story of the first and last caged bird 
he possessed. It is a poignant little sketch done 
in his usual excellent style. Dr. W. H. D. 
Rouse in ' Humanistic Education not without 
Latin ' replies to a paper by Mr. A. C. Benson, 
and refers to the success which has attended his 
methods of teaching at the Perse School. Dr. 
Rouse's results are, we believe, remarkable, and 
deserve to be widely known. In ' 'Neath Bluer 
Skies ' the Dean of Perth, Western Australia, 
writes of the past and present of the colony in 
homely and effective style. Mr. C. Holmes 
Cautley's collections gathered from ' Old Polk 
who knew the Brontes ' do not amount to much, 
but give us a suggestive glimpse here and there. 
The short stories in The Cornhill are generally 
good reading, and ' At Wessel's Farm,' by Mrs. All- 
husen, is a striking little picture of the Boer War. 
Mr. John Barnett in ' Benbow and his Last Fight ' 
shows up well the vigour of an old sea-dog. A 
well-varied number is completed by the beginning 
of a story by Mr. Eden Phillpotts, 'The Flint 
Heart.' Mr. Phillpotts has the courage to begin on 
Dartmoor hi the New Stone Age. 

AMONG several political articles in The Fort- 
nightly we content ourselves with mentioning Mr. 
Garvin's ' Imperial and Foreign Affairs : a Re- 
view of Events * for this writer has a force which is 
uncommon to-day, and, whatever may be thought 
of his opinions, always puts his case well. We 
learn that Mr. Roosevelt has taken up his journal- 
istic work on the American Outlook, and will not 
open his mouth on politics for two months. This 
is a relief for which some people will be glad. A 
valuable and singularly outspoken article is that 
on ' The Reading Public ' by " An Ex-Librarian." 
It expresses the thoughts of a good many people, 
we feel sure, who merely grumble at a state of 
affairs they feel powerless to alter. Publishers, 
booksellers, and libraries alike are accused of 
commercialism and ignorance. The various 
sections which make up the " reading public " 
are analyzed, and the sort of books they want. 
Librarians, timorous and distrustful of critical 
views, are said to have made an egregious mis- 
take over Mr. Galsworthy's book, ' A Man of 
Property.' Though the writer's views and state- 
ments seem to us somewhat exaggerated, there is 
everything to be said for the general truth and 
soundness of his conclusions, and we thank him 
heartily for speaking out. Experts are wanted 
in this, as in other lines, to give their views : 
people with taste and knowledge behind them, 
not the soi-disant critics for whom the call of 
commerce is the chief standard, and who pose as 
authorities. Mr. Yoshio Markino contributes 

in charmingly imperfect English, ' Some Thoughts 
on Old Japanese Art,' and we hope he will give us 
some day the book he meditates on the subject. 
Meanwhile his stories of Oriental artists of old days 
are fascinating. In ' The Wits * Mr. Norman 
Pearson has a good subject. Dealing with the 
4 illuminati," at once fashionable and literary, of 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, he takes 
some celebrated examples, such as Selwyn, 
Dodington, and Horace Walpole. We do not 
think Selwyn is so poor a jester as he makes out, 
and remark that a student of the period will find 
many of the jests quoted stale. The Latin quip by 
Burke has been familiar for many years in Bos- 
well's ' Johnson.' Mr. Pearson's dicta do not 
exactly impress us as those of a real master of the 
period. Mrs. Shorter has an agreeable little poem 
4 In the Carlyle House, Chelsea.' Of the other 
articles the pleasantest is entitled ' Paris : King 
Edward VII. and Henri Quatre,' by Mr. John F. 
Macdonald, who shows clearly the affectionate way 
in which the late King was regarded in that city. 
To the people of Paris he was worthy to be com- 
pared with that great figure of tradition who 
was Queen Elizabeth's contemporary on the 
French throne. 

IN The Nineteenth Century the editor's name 
now appears as W. Wray Skilbeck. Monsignor 
Moyes opens with an article on ' The Royal 
Declaration ' in which he explains the position of 
the Roman Catholics. There are two or three 
political articles, but the number, as a whole, 
takes a wider range of subject than some of its 
predecessors, which we regard as an improvement. 
Prince Kropotkin has an important article on 
' The Direct Action of Environment on Plants,' in 
which, fortified by the recent experiments of 
botanists, he is inclined to believe. Some of these 
experiments are very striking in their results, and 
should go some way to establish a tendency which 
has been largely denied on the ground of precon- 
ceived theory. Such, at least, is the present writer's 
view. Mr. R. B. Townshend deals hi an interest- 
ing way with ' Shooting from the Saddle,' in the 
Boer war especially, and gives some reminiscences 
of things he saw done in his earlier days of 
ranching. ' Towards Educational Peace, by 
Mr. D. C. Lathbury, exhibits the well-known pre- 
possessions of the writer. Mr. Edward McCurdy 
hi ' Leonardo da Vinci and the Science of Flight * 
shows once again his knowledge of all that con- 
cerns the great artist. Two articles on the 
registration of nurses and the Colonial supply of 
them follow. Mr. E. D. Rendall has a well- 
written ' Plea for the Introduction of Music 
among the Upper Classes.' The democracy are 
better served in this way, he points out, than 
schools of a more expensive kind, where music is 
an off -subject, apt to give way to other studies or 
games. In ' Quare Things ' Maude Godley supplies 
a glimpse of Irish Banshees and the like. The 
article pleases us, but is too short to be satis- 
factory. Sir W. F. Mteville has gathered much of 
interest in his ' Side-lights on the Story of the 
Suez Canal,' the success of which was, it appears, 
promoted by two or three odd causes one, the 
ability of Lesseps as a horseman ; another, the 
early help he gave to a distant cousin who rose 
to be the Empress Eugenie. The circumstances 
of the sale of the Khedive's shares to this country 
are pretty well known, but the story ia dramatic, 
and distinctly well told here. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tu s. n. JULY 9( mo. 


MESSRS. S. DRAYTON & SONS' Exeter Catalogue 
215 contains the new volumes of ' The Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica ' issued by The Times, 11 vols., 
4to, original green cloth, 51. 5s. The Naval 
Chronicle, 40 vols., half-leather, with 617 plates 
tshould be 524), wanting 7 engraved title-pages, 
edges entirely uncut, 1799-1818, is 10Z. 10s. Under 
Dickens is the first edition of ' Hard Times,' 
1854, 12s. Qd. Strickland's ' Lives of the Queens 
of England,' 8 vols., cloth, 1851, is priced at 
4Z. 4s. There is an excellent copy of the rare 
first edition of Matthew Arnold's ' The Strayed 
Reveller,' original cloth, B. Fellowes, 1849, 4Z. 4s. ; 
And a set of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural 
-Society, 11 vols., 4to, parts as published, 1843-92, 
31. 10s. (cost a subscriber about SOL). There are 
*ome old children's books, and works under Oxford, 
Scotland, &c. 

Mr. Francis Edwards reminds us by the date 
on his Catalogue 304, as we read it by our fireside, 
that it is Midsummer. It contains books in all 
classes of literature Biblical archaeology, biblio- 
graphy, books about books, Court memoirs, and 
folk-lore. Trials include those of Thistlewood, 
Eugene Aram, Sacheverell, Sir Francis Burdett, 
Hone, and Palmer. There is a set of Hansard 
to 1905, 609 vols., binding almost new, 220Z. ; 
-and a complete set of the Oxford Historical 
Society, 48 vols., HZ. The general portion con- 
tains the first edition of Jerrold's ' Men of Charac- 
ter,' 3 vols., full calf by Bedford, 31. 15s. ; Jesse's 
Historical Works, 30 vols., cloth, 1901, 81. 10s. ; 
Lingard's ' England,' 10 vols., half-calf, 4Z. 4s. ; 
first edition of Lytton's ' Eugene Aram,' 21. ; 
a set of Whyte-Melville, 24 vols., 61. 6s. ; Nash's 
'* Mansions,' 5 vols., imperial 4to, text in folio, half- 
morocco, 181. 18s. ; " Sacred Books of the East," 
49 vols., 20*. ; Caldicott's * Silver Plate,' II. 10s. ; 
the Library Edition of Thackeray, 26 vols., 
. 1883, 9Z., or in half-morocco, 151. ; and a set of 
Valpy's Classics, 160 vols., full russia, 40Z. 

Mr. Edwards is indefatigable in his issue of 
Catalogues, for hardly had we written the above 
before another reached us from him. This is 
devoted to Naval and Military Literature, and 
ahould be possessed by all interested in those 
subjects. We find old Army Lists ; works 
relating to Napoleon, Marlborough, Wellington, 
and the Crimean War, and costumes of the 
Indian Army, the Home forces, and the French 
army. There are pamphlets on military organiza- 
tion and many coloured plates. The extremely 
rare work of Marcuard, 1825, is 251. The Naval 
portion contains among coloured plates the 
action between the Endymion and the President 
on the 15th of January, 1815, 14Z. There are 
four lithographs from paintings by Schetky of the 
action between the Shannon and the Chesapeake 
on the 1st of June, 1813, 121. 

There is one work of more general interest. 
Under Versailles is a magnificent copy of the 
Edition de Luxe of Gavard's ' Galeries historiques 
de Versailles,' specially printed on large paper, 
with the series of 1,422 steel engravings on 
China paper, and the Arms of the Crusaders 
illuminated in gold, silver, and colours, 18 vols., 
red morocco extra, with the initials of Louis 
Philippe, 120Z. 

Messrs. Maggs Brothers' Catalogue 257, Part I., 
is devoted to works in English before 1800. The 
first edition of Abbot's ' Devout Rhapsodies,' 
1647, is 4Z. 4s. ; and that of Addison's ' Cam- 
paign,' Tonson, 1705, 6Z. 18s. Under Bacon is 
the sixth edition of the * Essays,' 12mo, full 
levant extra, 1613, a fine copy,26L A memoran- 
dum by the Duchess of Marlborough in Vol. I. of 
her copy of Beaumont and Fletcher states that the 
set was given to her by Mr. Tonson the publisher, 
7 vols., full calf by Riviere, 111. 11s. There 
are many Bibles and Prayer Books and a unique 
copy (privately printed, entirely on vellum, at 
Milan by Pogliani in 1873) of the canonical 
histories and apocryphal legends relating to the 
New Testament, represented in drawings with a 
Latin text, small folio, original half -morocco, 30Z. 
Fry's facsimile of Tyndale's New Testament, full 
morocco by Riviere, 1862, is 11. 7s. There are 
some magnificent bindings, including a very early 
specimen of Henry VIII. binding, Erasmus's 
' Enchiridion,' 1524, 34Z. There is much of 
interest under Charles I., Cromwell, and the 
Civil War, including many valuable collections of 
pamphlets. Under Cowley is the first collected 
edition, folio, fine copy in the original calf, 1656, 
Wl. 10s. Under Cowper are an uncut copy of 
Homer, 2 vols., 4to, original boards, 1791, Ql. 6s. ; 
and the first edition of the ' Olney Hymns.' There 
is a magnificent copy of the first issue of ' Robin- 
son Crusoe,' with ' The Farther Adventures,' 
2 vols., original calf bindings, 1719, 2501. Among 
early dictionaries is Cotgrave. Items under Gay 
include the first edition of the ' Fables,' 2 vole, 
bound in 1, 4to, full levant by Riviere, 1727-38, 
22Z. lls. Under Goldsmith is 'The Vicar of 
Wakefield,' a fine tall copy of the first edition, 
2 vols., 12mo, levant by Riviere, 1766, 110L Under 
Milton is the rare first collected edition of his 
poems, 1645, 12mo, levant by Riviere, 185Z. ; and 
under Sir Thomas More is the first edition of his 
Works including the ' Youthful Poems,' 1557, 
281. 10s. Among works on the Quakers is * A 
Battle Door for Teachers,' folio, original calf, 
1660, 18Z. 18s. A tall copy in fine condition of the 
First Folio Shakespeare (genuine throughout 
except that the title with verses opposite, two 
preliminary leaves, and the final leaf are in 
facsimile, and the blank margins of one or two 
others have been repaired), full levant, is priced 
900L There is also one of the tallest copies 
of the Second Folio, 210L, and Halliwell's edition 
of Shakespeare's Works (No. 83, of 150 copies), 
16 vols., large folio, 1853-65, 801. 

s in 0msp0tttonts. 

We must call special attention to the following 

WE beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we dp not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

A. BIRD. We do not answer questions as to the 
value of old books or engravings. 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 29. 

NOTES :-Goldsmith's 'Deserted Village,' 41 Statues and 
Memorials in the British Isles, 42 Halley and Pyke 
Families, 44 " Latifundia perdidere Italiam," 45 John 
Rylands Library : Dante Codex -Proverb quoted by Bp. 
Fisher Witchcraft in the Twentieth Century Hanover 
Chapel, Peckham, 46 "Budget" as a Verb, 47. 

QUERIES : -" Tenth " or " Tent " " Tilleul " English 
Sepulchral Monuments Garrick's Version of 'Romeo 
and Juliet' Swift Family AbbtS Se , 47 Col. Skelton 
of St. Helena ' Drawing-Room Ditties' in 'Punch' 
Snuff-box Inscription Upper Cheyne Row Bishop 
Hough Market Day Ozias Humphry's Papers, 48 
Wimborne a Double Monastery Liardet G. Man G. 
Thacker Sir W. B. Rush Wolney Hall Westminster 
Cathedral Chideock Pigeon-houses in the Middle 
Ages, 49. 

REPLIES : George I. Statues, 50" Senpere "Public 
School Registers Provincial Booksellers, 52 "Barn" in 
Place-Names Haydon and Shelley Paris Family 
'Waterloo Banquet' Bibliography of London, 53 
Venice and its Patron Saint Books and Engravings E. 
Hatton Index to the Fathers Pedlar's Acre, _ 54 
4 'Dicky Birds" Horace, 'Carmina' Latin Quotation 
Author Wanted ' Duenna and Little Isaac,' 55 
D'Orsay's Journal St. Pancras Church Prince Rupert 
Feoffment Doge's Hat, 56 Comets Hampshire Hog, 
57 Hocktide Cowes Family Dr. W. Saunders, 53 
Arms of Stoneley Priory "Teart" Mock Coats of Arms, 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-' Grammar of the Gothic Language ' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

OBITUARY :-Dr. Furnivall ; D. W. Ferguson. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IN The Athenaeum for 20 June, 1896, the 
late Col. Francis Grant described a small 
octavo edition of Goldsmith's ' Deserted 
Village,' W. Griffin, 1770, which had recently 
been sold by auction in London, and which 
had hitherto escaped the notice of biblio- 
graphers. On the 8th of August following 
The Athenaeum published another letter 
which drew attention to a copy of ' The 
Deserted Village,' 8vo, with Griffin's im- 
print, which differed materially from that 
described by Col. Grant. A third variation 
was not long afterwards discovered, and a 
most exhaustive comparison of the three 
octavos and the six quartos of 1770 was 
subsequently made by Mr. Luther S. Living- 
ston, who, after causing a transcript to be 
made of the supposed first octavo, had 
each of the four hundred and thirty-two 
lines copied on separate sheets, and had 
written in below every variation in text, spel- 
ling, and punctuation which occurred in the 
nine editions. Such a conscientious and 

painstaking piece of work is probably un- 
paralleled in the annals of bibliography ; 
and although an infinite number of varia- 
tions in spelling, abbreviation, and punctua- 
tion were discovered in the different editions, 
it nevertheless proved to be impossible to 
reach a satisfactory conclusion with regard 
to the actual priority of the octavos relatively 
to the first quarto. 

The only real textual variation occurred in 
1. 37, which in the supposed first octavo reads 

Amidst thy bowers the tyrant's head is seen. 
In the first quarto and in the other two 
octavos, as well as in every later edition, 
the line reads 

Amidst thy bowers the tyrant's hand is seen. 
Mr. Livingston's results, which were pub- 
lished in the New York Bookman for Feb- 
ruary, 1901, under the title of ' A Biblio- 
graphical Puzzle,' have generally been con- 
sidered the last word upon the subject, and 
Mr. Austin Dobson, in referring to them in 
his most recent edition of Goldsmith's 
' Poems ' (" World's Classics "), 1907, p. 172, 
note, merely mentions the existence of the 
octavos with the remark that they " are 
certainly not in the form in which the poem 
was first advertised and received, as this was 
a quarto." Another small octavo edition, 
has, however, recently come into my posses- 
sion, which may possibly throw some light 
on the relative positions of the supposed 
first octavo and the first quarto. 

This is a small octavo pamphlet, measur- 
ing 6 in. by 4J in., and is in its original con- 
dition, the pages being still untouched by 
the paper knife. It is sewn in grey-green 
wrappers, and the title-page is engraved, 
with the following inscription : " The | 
Deserted Village, | A | Poem | By D r . Gold- 
smith. | [Oval vignette.] London : | Printed 
for J. Barker, Russell Court, | Drury Lane." 
There is no date. It is printed on one large 
folio sheet, folded into quarter sheets, and 
each signature ([A], B, c, and D) consists 
therefore of four leaves. The collation is : 
Half-title, p. [i], verso blank ; title, p. [iii] 
verso blank ; Dedication, p. [v]-vii ; adver- 
tisement, p. [viii] ; text, pp. [9-32]. The 
title is not separately inserted, but, though 
engraved, forms part of quarter-sheet A. 

The peculiarity of this edition is that it 
contains the errors of the supposed first 
octavo, including the " tyrant's head n in 
1. 37, with two exceptions. In the supposed 
first octavo the word " each n in 1. 8 is mis- 
printed " earch," and in 1. 302 " peasant " 
is misprinted " peasants.' 1 In the Grant 
copy the only one of the supposed first 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. JULY ie, 1910. 

edition examined by Mr. Livingston a line 
in old ink had been drawn through the 
" r " in " earch n in 1. 8, and through the 
" s " in " peasants n in 1. 302. It is curious 
that in the Barker copy in my possession 
both these words are printed correctly. 

Every one knows the oval engraving on the 
title-page of the first quarto of ' The Deserted 
Village,' " Isaac Taylor del. & sculp.," which 
represents the old watercress woman, " the 
sad historian of the pensive plain,' 1 telling 
her sorrowful story to the pilgrim leaning on 
his staff. In the little Barker edition a copy 
of this engraving appears on the title-page, 
" Mutlow & Woodman, sculpt . ft j s by no 
means badly engraved, but the fact of it 
being reversed shows that it is a copy. 

Mr. Livingston observes that " it 
generally considered, in comparing similar 
editions of any book, that the edition with 
the errors antedates the corrected edition.'* 
Barker's edition contains the errors of the 
supposed first octavo, but the presence of the 
copied engraving on the title-page shows 
that it must have been issued later than the 
first quarto. It seems clear, therefore, that 
the fact of the supposed first octavo 
containing these errors does not conclusively 
establish its priority over the first quarto. 

All these octavos may have been pirated 
though as Griffin's name appears on three o 
them it must have called for some audacity 
to forge the imprint of the genuine publisher 
upon their title-pages. It would seem more 
likely that cheap reprints of popular poem 
were circulated as chapbooks in country 
towns and villages. This would accoun 
for the extreme rarity of these littl 
pamphlets, and perhaps for the careles 
manner in which they were printed. Th 
reading of these poems to his rustic audienc 
was perhaps one of the most grateful duties o 
the village schoolmaster in the long evening 
that brought the peasant " sweet oblivion o 
his daily care."' W. F. PRIDEAUX. 



{See 10 S. xi. 441 ; xii. 51, 114, 181, 401 
11 S. i. 282.) 

ROYAL PERSONAGES (continued). 
Belfast. A colossal equestrian statu 
of William III. surmounts the Orang 
Hall, Clifton Street. It was erected at th 
cost of the Orangemen of Ulster in 188 
It is the work of Mr. Harry Hems of Exete 
and represents William mounted on his eel 
brated white charger, waving his swore 

loft, and cheering his followers to the- 
tiarge as at the battle of the Boyne. Mr. 
!ems kindly informs me : 
" Great pains were taken to have the apparel 
worn by the rider historically correct. To 
:tain this end the more successfully, the actual 
quipment in which William was dressed (now 
n the possession of the Baroness von Staiglitz> 
vas loaned to me for that purpose." 

t was unveiled by Col. Sanderson, M.P., on 
8 November, 1889, in the presence of a con- 
ourse of more than 20,000 people. 

Bristol. In the centre of Queen Square 
s an equestrian statue of William III. It 
s generally stated to be constructed of 
opper, but I am informed that it is more 
probably composed of lead. The sculptor 
was Rysbrack, who received 1,800Z. for the 
work. In 1833 a writer stated that " per- 
laps as a work of art [it] is not surpassed by 
anything of a similar nature.' 8 

Petersfield, Hants. Here is a lead eques- 
trian statue of William III. It was the gift 
of William Jolliffe, Esq., and stands on a 
ofty pedestal near the church. I am in- 
brmed by a correspondent that it is much 
warped by the sun. 

Paignton, Devon. About three miles from 
Paignton, on the road to Totnes, stands an 
old house known as the Parliament House. 
Here William III. held his first Parliament 
after landing at Brixham, 5 November, 1688. 
The incident is commemorated on a stone- 
erected in the garden. 

Minehead, Somerset. A white marble 
statue of Queen Anne was presented to the 
town in 1719 by Sir Jacob Bankes, or Bancks, 
who represented Minehead in Parliament 
for sixteen years. Its first site was on or 
near the pier, but to save it from the action 
of the weather it was eventually removed to 
the church. It was re-erected in Wellington 
Square by public subscription in 1893, being 
placed within a domed structure upon a 
pedestal of red granite. 

Barnstaple, Devon. In the Strand, oppo- 
site the bottom of Cross Street, is the 
Exchange, built in the reign of Queen Anne. 
Her Majesty's full-length statue graces the 
centre of the parapet. The piazza is known 
as Queen Anne's walk. 

Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey. Over the 
main entrance to the Town Hall, built in 
1840, is placed a leaden statue of Queen 
Anne, which occupied a niche in the previous 

Basingstoke, Hants. Near this town is 
Hackwood, the seat of the Duke of Bolton. 
The house was built by Inigo Jones in 1688. 
In front of it stands an equestrian statue of 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

George I. presented by that monarch to the 
then Duke of Bolton. See LOUD QUEZON'S 
query, ante, p. 7, and also post, p. 51. 

St. Helier, Jersey. Royal Square was 
originally named the Market Place, and here 
formerly stood the old market cross. The 
same site now contains a gilded statue of 
George II. erected by public subscription. It 
was unveiled 9 July, 1751, and represents the 
King in Roman costume. 

Bath. When William, Prince of Orange, 
came to England in 1734 to espouse the 
Princess Royal (Anne), daughter of George 
II., he visited Bath, and experienced great 
benefit from drinking the waters. In 
memory of this visit Beau Nash caused a 
pillar to be erected in the Orange Grove. On 
it was placed the following inscription, 
composed by Nash : 

In Memoriam* 


Principi Auriaco 

Aquarum Thermalium potu, 

Favente Deo, 

Ovante Britannia, 

Feliciter Restitute, 


The 'Guide to all the Watering and Sea- 
Bathing Places' (1806) describes it as "a 
small obelisk, which a Bath waggon might 
carry to London at once, without being over- 

Bath. In the centre of Queen's Square 
stands a tall obelisk 70 feet high, "shaped 
and pointed like a bookbinder's needle." 
'> was erected by Nash in memory of 
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, son of 
George II., and his consort Augusta, 
youngest daughter of Frederick II., Duke 
of Saxe-Coburg. It contains the following 
inscription, written by Pope : 

In memory 
of honours conferred, 

and in gratitude 
for benefits bestowed 

on this city 

by his Royal Hignness 

Frederick, Prince of Wales, 

and his 

Royal Consort, 

in the year MDCCXXXVII, 

This Obelisk is erected 

by Richard Nash, Esq. 

Hagley, Worcestershire. In Hagley Park 
is a tall column surmounted by a statue of 
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales. It was 
erected in 1737 by George, Lord Lyttelton, 
who was at that time the Prince's secretary. 
Windsor. On the summit of Snow Hill, 
at the end of the Long Walk in the Great 
Park, is a colossal bronze equestrian statue 
of George III. it was erected by command 

of George IV. from a design by Sir Richard 
Westmacott, being completed and placed 
in position in 1832. The statue is raised 
upon a pedestal consisting of a mass of 
rough stones intended to represent a rock. 
The total elevation is over 50 feet, the statue 
itself being 26 feet in height. At the time 
of its erection a writer said : 

" The likeness to the face of George III. is. 
very admirable ; but those who recollect that 
monarch in his plain blue coat or his military 
jack-boots will have difficulty to recognize him 
in his Roman costume." 

Weymouth, Dorset. It was right and 
fitting that the people of Weymouth should 
erect a statue to their tutelary monarch 
George III., whose frequent visits added so 
much to their prosperity. This " imposing," 
though " somewhat unsightly " work of 
art stands on the Esplanade at the junction 
of St. Mary and St. Thomas Streets. It was 
erected in 1809 by 

The Grateful Inhabitants 

to George the Third 

on his entering the 50th year 

of his reign. 

Liverpool. An equestrian statue of George 
III. is erected on the London Road. It was 
designed by Westmacott in imitation of that 
of Marcus Aurelius at Rome. It was placed 
in position in 1809, being originally intended 
for a site in Great George Square. Its total 
height is 30 feet. 

Liverpool. On the west wall of the south 
shed, No. 1 Branch of the Alexandra Dock, 
is a granite tablet containing a representa- 
tion of the Arms of Great Britain and the 
Crest of the Prince of Wales. It is thus 
inscribed : 

" These arms of Great Britain in the reign of 
George III. were removed from an old building- 
on the Dock Estate, and re-erected here, as a 
memorial of the auspicious visit of their Royal 
Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales,, 
on the occasion of the opening of these Docks, 
September 8, 1881." 

Bristol. There was apparently at one 
time a statue of George III. here. A writer 
circa 1833 states : 

" A stone statue of George III. was erected 
in Portland Square ; but during the French war- 
party feeling ran so high that the head of the 
statue was knocked off one night, and the 
pedestal now alone remains." 


In The Lady's Magazine, 1901, there is an 
article by Milton Brooke on ' Statues to 

A memorial to Sir John Moore, killed 
at Corunna, was unveiled on 19 November 
last at Sandgate. R. J. FYNMOBE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. JULY is, 1910. 


(See 10 S. ix. 166 ; xi. 407.) 

MR. R. J. BEEVOR, of Reymerston, Mano 
Road, St. Albans, has kindly suppliec 
abstracts of five Halley wills recordec 
at Lichfield. Brief extracts are giver 
below : 

Will of Henry Halle of Youlgreave, co. Derby 
dated 26 May, 1536. To be buried in the church 
yard of All Halloics, Youlgreave ; mention 
daughter Mawde and others ; executors Agne 
my wife and John my son. Proved by executor 
4 Oct., 1536. Inventory dated 29 Sept., 1536 
amount, 15Z. 14s. 4of. 

Will of Richard Halley of Ashborne, co. Derby 
(upper part of will eaten away). Bequeaths to 
cousin Ric. Halley my parte of the treyne which 
Will'm Dickonson of Uttoxeter oweth unto us 
that is to witt xxi- galons for my pte. Inventory 
dated 3 February (no year given lower pan 
missing). Proved 13 Sept., 1552. 

Will of Robert Halley of Derwent, p'ch Hather 

sage, co. Derby ; dated 1557. To be buried 

In the churchy erde of St. Peter of Hope ; mentions 
Nichs. Halley, brother ; John Halley, brother 
executor. Inventory dated 12 April, 1558 
amount, 81. 10s. Proved 20 April, 1558, by the 
sole executor. 

Will of Robert Halley of Gretton, parish of 
Youlgreave; dated 8 Feb., 1557. To be buried; 
in the parish church of All Saints in Youlgreave ; 
goods to be divided into three parts, one part to 
wife Agnes Halley, and the two other parts to 
Homfrey Halley and Wylm Halley my sons. 
Inventory dated 2 April, 1559 ; amount, 17Z. 10s. 
Proved by Homfrey and Wylm. Halley, executors, 
5 April, 1559. 

Will of John Halley of Stanton, p'ch Youl- 
greave, co. Derby ; dated 15 March, 1576. 
No place of burial named ; eldest son Henry 
Halley ; wife Elyn ; six children (no names given); 
son George Halley. Executors : wife Elyn and 
son Henry. Inventory dated 11 April .... amount 
59Z. 15s. 4d. Proved by both executors, 17 April, 

The italics are mine. There are other 
entries of Halley wills in the index of the 
Probate Registry at Lichfield, but some of 
the (perhaps most relevant) documents, in- 
cluding two William Halley wills, are non- 
extant. Among such missing documents is 
the administration of the estate of Hum- 
phrey and Margaret Halley of Cheddleton 
(Ad., 190 b, 1 July, 1597). Perhaps this 
Humphrey Halley was identical with the 
Homfrey Halley, son of Robert Halley of 
Gretton, in the parish of Youlgreave (see 
above), and also (?) with his namesake men- 
tioned in the following item, recently sup- 
plied by a record-searcher in London : 

" Duchy of Lancaster : Hawley. Pleadings in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; printed calendar, 
p. 311, has (35th year of Queen Elizabeth) 

' Humfrey Hawley & Wynifride Streethey or 
Stretye.' Both are defendants as to tenements 
and lands at Uttoxeter, Staffordshire. Occupant 
of the premises was William Walker, and the 
lessee was Robert Wells. Uttoxeter is on the 
border of Derbyshire." 

Here, no doubt, we have a clue to the 
earlier ancestry of the famous astronomer. 
The latter's paternal grandfather was 
Humphrey Halley, vintner, of London, of 
whose history some new facts have lately 
been recovered. 

Mr. Beevor, after consulting the early 
records of the Stationers' Company, printed 
by E. Arber, sends this item : 

" ' Received of Edmonde Hallye at his making 
free of this Company the 26th day Feb., 1560, 
3s. -id.' There are also entries relating to licences 
to print accorded to the same Edmonde Hallye 
1562-6. Can it be that this was an ancestor of the 
astronomer ? It seems possible." 

*N. & Q.,' at 3 S. iii. 283-4, gives some 
entries from the registers of All Hallows, 
Barking, in Essex. I repeat three below : 

" 1575. Robt. Ward, who dyed in the streat, 
bur. 28 Jan>." 

"1582. William', sonne of Will m Dethick al's 
Yorke, One of the Heraultes, bur. March 28." 

" 1684, April 22. M r Edmund Halley of London, 
Merchant, murthered, & buryed in linen, 21. 6s. p a 
to this parish for y 6 use of the poor." 

Again the italics are mine. The con- 
tributor, MB. EDWARD J. SAGE of Stoke 
Newington, mentions a "valuable paper" 
on the Barking registers by Mr. Henry W.. 
King (Transactions Essex Arch. Society, vol. ii. 
Dart iii.), but examination thereof reveals 
nothing new in our quest. 

The Rev. J. W. Eisdell, Vicar of Barking, 
Essex, obligingly supplies Mr. Beevor with 
he following interesting entries : 

"1684, April 22. Mr. Edmund Halley of 
1/ondon, Merchant, murthered and buryed in 
inen, 21. 10s. p d to this Parish for the use of the 

" 1672, Oct. 24. Ann, wife of Edmond Haw 

"... .There is a hiatus in the registers (mar- 
iage) 1645-1661. I can find no trace of the 
>aptism of Edmond Halley [1656]." 

" I think this is a correct transcription : 

" * 1617. November, Humphrey Hayly & Kathe- 
ine Newes, married ye 24th day of November ' ; 
ut the writing is difficult." 
The bride's maiden surname was, un- 

oubtedly, Mewes or Mewce. 

A search of the registers of St. Giles, 
3ripplegate (1606-1719), had already re- 
vealed this entry : 

"Ann, w. of Ed m Halley, Gent, buried 24th Oct., 
672, at Barking." 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Thus we learn the Christian name of the 
astronomer's mother. Who was she ? Among 
the baptismal entries at St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, is : 

"Katherine, daug h of Ed m Hally, salter, & of 
Ann, b. 7 th Feb., 1658, baptized 17 Feb." 
Ann was also the name of the wife of William 
Halley, brother of E. Halley, salter. 

Francis Halley, sen., son of the said 
William Halley, married, 17 Aug., 1696, 
Elliner Pyke. The printed register of St, 
Christopher le Stocks has this entry : 

"Frans Hally and Elliner Pike, Boath of 
Allholows Staeing, married Aug. 17, 1696." 
The groom was a first cousin of the astro- 
nomer Halley. There is some indication of 
an earlier relationship (as well as a later) 
between the Halley and Pyke families. Did 
Ann Pyke, daughter of Edward Pyke of 
Queenhithe Ward, London (fl. 1634), marry? 
If so, whom ? 

The * Register of St. Benet's, Paul's Wharf, 
London: Vol. I. Christenings s (Harl. Soc., 
Lond., 1909), gives on pp. 10-14 the baptism 
of six children of one Dr. Hally or Halley, 
named Henry, Elizabeth, John, Rachel, 
Dorothy, and Richard (between 1629 and 
1635). The same work (p. 48) mentions 
the baptism of Margaret (1 May, 1685), 
daughter of Edmund and Mary Hally. 
This serves to establish the astronomer's 
residence at that period. 

Will of Edward Hawley of London, Knight; 
dated 17 May, 1627. Mentions brother Gabriell 
H. ; brother Hal ton H. ; nephew Robert H., son of 
deceased brother Sir Henry H. ; children of brother 
Gabriell H. ; brother Gabriell sole ex r , but if he is 
not living, brother Robert H. ex r . Adm. 24 Oct., 
1629, to Francis Hawley, brother of Robert H. 
Edward H. nuper in partibus transmarinis def 9 . 
Gabriell died before administering. (P.C.C., Ridley 

Will of Richard Hawley of London, doctor of 
physick. Eldest son Henry H. ; loving wife 
Dorothie H. ; five children, Henry, John, Richard, 
Kachell, and Dorothie; loving friend Gilbert 
Dethick and loving brother James H. ex". Dated 
2o April, 1636 ; proved 16 May, 1636, by James H., 
power reserved to Gilbert Dethick. Signature 
copied Richard Hawly; name throughout will 
written Hawley. (P.C.C., Pile 65). 

In a list of Somerset House wills Richard 
Hawly is described as of St. Benet's, Paul's 
Wharf (presumably based on the probate act 
book), but he is not so described in his will. 

" The Dethicks were a Derbyshire family.'* 
A pedigree thereof appears in the ' Visita- 
tion of Norfolk' (Norfolk and Norwich 
Arch. Soc., vol. i., pp. 237-42). See also 
11 S. i. 308. 

Will of James Pyke of Deptford, Kent. Wife 
Catherine ; sons William, George, and James ; 

wife and eldest son W m ex 18 . Witnesses : Geo. 
Edge, Thos. Wellings, John Sendall his ser e . 
Dated 17 Feb., 1718 ; proved 11 March, 1718. 

Will of James Pike, mariner, of H.M.S. Dread- 
nought. All to wife Sarah Pike of parish of 
Aldgate, sole ex ix . Dated 13 April, 1743. Wit- 
nesses : Ed. Boscawen, Mich. Tisdell. Proved 
by executrix 29 July, 1762. (P.C.C.) 

Will of James Pyke of Upper Moorfield, in the 
psh. of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, silk dyer. 
Sister Mary Cooper, wife of William Cooper of 
Newgate Street, weaver, sole ex u and residuary 
legatee ; sister Elizabeth Norton, wife of Thomas 
Norton of Befford, Northants, husbandman ; 
nephew Thomas, one of sons of late brother 
William Pyke ; nephews and nieces James 
Pyke, John Pyke, Elizabeth P., and Mary Watson, 

wife of Watson, Baker ; other children of 

W. P. ; nephew W P. (son of brother W m ) and 
Sarah his wife. Dated 18 July, 1750. Witnesses: 
John Parry, Thos. Upton. Proved 21 June, 
1751, by executrix. (P.C.C., Busby, 186.) 

Once more the italics are mine in the wills 
of James Pyke of Deptford and of James 
Pyke of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. A 
search was made of the baptismal register 
(1702-8) of St. Nicholas, Deptford, to ascer- 
tain whether the older James (will proved 
1718) had a daughter Mary or Elizabeth, 
but in vain. This makes one doubt a little 
the identity of his son James with the James 
Pyke of St. Leonard's, Shoredith. It will be 
noted that the latter mentions a nephew 
William Pyke and Sarah his wife. What 
was the maiden surname of the wife Sarah ? 
Was she a daughter of Mrs. Sybilla Halley 
of East Greenwich (ob. 1772) by a marriage 
before that with the astronomer's only 
maturing son, Edmund Halley, jun., surgeon 
R.N. (ob. Feb., 1740/41) ? He seems to 
have died without issue (10 S. vii. 446). 
What was the surname of Mrs. Sybilla 
Halley 's (supposed) first husband ? Was 
it Stewart or Bruce ? Did they have two 
daughters, Sybilla and Sarah ? Did one 
daughter, Sybilla, marry John Parry and 
have issue (see 10 S. xii. 344 ; 11 S. i. 286) ? 
Did the other (supposed) daughter, Sarah, 
marry William Pyke and have issue one 
son James, born c. 1751 ? See 9 S. xi. 205-6 ; 
xii. 468. The answers to these queries 
may solve the entire problem. 

Nearly all the foregoing notes were 
generously supplied to the present writer by 
Mr. Beevor. EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

1, Park Row, Chicago. 

correspondent asked recently for the source 
of this quotation, which was sent direct. It 
is well known to students of Roman history, 
but as I now find that it is unrecorded alike 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY ie, mo. 

an the ' Dictionary of Quotations (Classi- 
cal),' by T. B. Harbottle, and King's ' Classi- 
cal and Foreign Quotations,' I add the text 
and reference : 

"Verumque confitentibus latifundia perdidere 
Italiam : jam vero et provincias." Pliny, * Natural 
History,' xviii. 6. 


Lest it should escape the attention of 
your readers, kindly allow me to bring to 
their notice the long article by Dr. Cossio on 
* The Landi Dante Codex at Manchester,' 
which appears in the June number of The 
Antiquary. The precious manuscript, fully 
described, is preserved in the John Rylands 
library, and Dr. Cossio, the well-known 
Dante scholar, suggests that it should be 
called " The Codex Manquniensis." 


At 10 S. vi. 486 W. C. B. quoted the following 
words from Bishop Fisher's l Assertionis 
Lutheranae Confutatio,' 1523 (p. 463), and 
asked for the origin and reference : 

"Sic enim (renitente prouerbio) Thylaco maior 
rit accessoria sarcinula." 

The source is a passage in chap. x. of Lucian's 
dialogue ' Demosthenis Encomium.' One 
of the speakers is meditating a panegyrical 
address on Demosthenes. His friend en- 
couragingly reminds him of the wealth of 
material that lies to hand, and begins by 
enumerating at length the many points that 
can be made in connexion with the 
importance and splendour of Demosthenes' 
native city Athens, but breaks off to remark 
that perhaps he may be anxious not to 
draw down on himself the gibe that want of 
proportion is apt to provoke, the proverb 
about the label being bigger than the bag : 
croc ' io-(i>? evA.a/3eia TO rfjs Trapot/u'as o-/cw//,//,a 

7TpOO-K6OlTO TOVTTiypa^tt TO) 

The explanation of the curious form in 
which the proverb is quoted by Fisher, 
where " accessoria sarcinula " has no 
correspondence to rovTrtypa/x/Aa, may be 
seen by consulting Erasmus's ' Adagia,' 
p. 24, in Grynaeus's edition of 1629, under the 
heading ' Accessio pusilla aut nimia.' Eras- 
mus, after quoting^the Greek words, with the 
substitution of Tov7ri'o~ay/xa for TOVTriypaa/xa, 
and translating them " At tu fortasse vereris, 
ne in te torqueatur illud proverbiale dic- 
terium, de male respondente proportione : 
nempe, ne tibi thylaco maior sit accessoria 
sarcinula," adds that he is aware the ordinary 




scripturam mutaris, nulla sententia potest 
elici." Erasmus meant 7rtaay//,a to mean 
an extra packet taken by a carrier besides 
his proper load. But the change is uncalled 
for. The proverb of the label being larger 
than the bag is unintentionally illustrated 
by a picture postcard that may be seen in 
Wales, on which an adhesive label of inter- 
minable length, imprinted with a notorious 
Welsh place-name, is being produced to 
decorate a very diminutive valise. 


The following advertisement appeared in 
The Worcester Daily Times of 18 June : 
To the Inhabitants of Eckington and to all whom 

it may concern. 

Whereas Mary J. Dance, wife of John Dance, of 
your Parish, has been repeatedly slandered in 
common talk and gossip as a Witch, with other 
false and injurious accusations against her person 
and character, and has thereby suffered grievously 
in mind and body, and in the esteem and fellowship 
of her neighbours, this is to give notice that upon 
any repetition of these offences legal action will at 
once be taken against the slanderer ; and, further, 
that any person giving to me, at the address below, 
such information of any such offence as will justify 
the taking of legal proceedings, will be suitably 

51, Foregate-street, Worcester. 
Solicitor ior the said Mary J. Dance. 

A. F. B. 

molition of this well-known place of worship, 
which for many years has stood at the corner 
of Rye Lane, will remove another famous 
South London landmark. The congregation 
has an unbroken history of over two cen- 
turies and a quarter, and originally wor- 
shipped in a building known as the " Meeting 
House," which stood on a site close to High 
Street, Peckham, and is still commemorated 
by the thoroughfare known as Meeting- 
House Lane. This chapel was started in 
1657 by the Kev. John Maynard, the 
ejected vicar of Camber well Parish Church. 
In 1751-4 the pastor was Dr. John Milner, 
who also kept a school near by, where Oliver 
Goldsmith was an usher. This old building, 
afterwards known as Goldsmith House, was 

?ulled down some thirty years since. From 
801 to 1854 Dr. John Collyer was the 
minister, and the fame of his preaching 
attracted crowds of fashionable people, 
including the Duke of Sussex, the uncle of 
Queen Victoria, who presented the organ 
still in use. The name of Hanover was given 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to the chapel out of compliment to the royal 
house to which the Duke belonged. 

The Collyer Memorial Schools, which were 
erected in memory of Dr. Collyer, have long 
been famous as a political centre for South 
London Liberalism. 


" BUDGET " AS A VERB. Mr. Lloyd 
George is reported (Standard, 5 July) to 
have said in Parliament the previous day : 
" I have budgetted for exactly the same 
figure this year as last." 

This free formation of verbs out of nouns 
is to be deprecated. It smacks of the 
degraded English prevalent in the average 
City prospectus. Poets, of course, have 
taken this licence, e.g., Shakespeare's wind 
that " hath ruffian'd so upon the sea " ; but 
poets have a taste and instinct for language 
which financial experts lack! 

The House of Commons has now, I am 
told, a higher standard of culture than it 
had in earlier years. While I do not doubt 
this, I see no signs of a raising of the 
standard of English which prevails among 
M.P.s. Quotations from foreign languages 
having gone out, one might hope for a more 
skilful use of the native tongue. 


WE must request corresp9ndents desiring in 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

"TENTH" OR " TENT. "In connexion 
with the various forms of this numeral, 
I want to know how far over England the 
form tent extends. Dr. Wright, in his 
'Eng. Dial. Grammar,' says, p. 269: "In 
the dialects, especially of Scotland, Ireland, 
JSorth England, Leicester, Worcester, Shrop- 
shire, the ordinals after * third * take the 
suffix -t instead of the literary Eng. -ih' 
Will readers of ' N. & Q.' elsewhere kindly 
inform me by post-card whether tent is the 
form in their locality ? We know that it is 
in Scotland, but its limits in England and 
Ireland are wanted. Dialect glossaries un- 
fortunately do not give the information. 

Oxford is sufficient address. 


" TILLEUL." This, the French name of the 
linden or lime tree, appears to be used in 
English as the name of a colour or shade. 
What colour does it mean ? Is it the pale 

green of the leaves of the linden, or the 
yellowish whity-brown of linden bast ? 
A quotation of 1884 has "a light tilleul 
ground, just the tint of lettuce/ 4 

And what is the tilleul variety of tea ? 
The Daily Chronicle of 14 November, 1908, 
lad ' ' Ordinary tea has been replaced by 
he bitter-tasted tilleul variety, which was 
first on show at an hotel in Paris.' 1 


1350. I should like to know if there is any 
modern collection of reproductions of sepul- 
chral monuments in stone or brass of the 
period 1300-1350, for use in the study of 
:,he weapons of that time. I am writing an 
essay, chiefly philological, on the subject. 
[ am already acquainted with Meyrick, 
* A Critical Inquiry into Antient Armour,' 
&c., London, 1844, and Hewitt, ' Armour and 
Weapons in Europe,' London, 1855-60 ; but 
I should be glad to have some modern com- 
plete work. Has Meyrick 's work found 
any modern continuator ? 



JULIET.' On p. 2297 of the 1890 edition of 
Lowndes's ' Bibliographer's Manual * I find 
notice of an edition of Shakespeare's ' Romeo 
and Juliet/ with alterations and an addi- 
tional scene by David Garrick, printed in 
London in 12mo in 1748. Will any of your 
readers who know of the existence of a 
copy of this edition inform me of its loca- 
tion ? W. P. CUTTER, Forbes Librarian. 

Northampton, Mass. 

1820-25 Charles W. C. Fisher, in the Irish 
Civil Service, married a Miss Pent-land, who 
had taken the name of her godfather, an 
excise officer in the same service, in place 
of her original one of Pendlebury. She is 
known to have been descended from some 
portion of the Swifts of Dublin, the Dean's 
family, but I do not know which, or what 
was the exact line, and should very much 
like to obtain the information. One of the 
issue of this marriage was the late T. P. 
Fisher of Ballymena, in the service of Lord 

Hartford, Conn. 

ABBE SE . . . A book in my possession has 
a page of MS. in French. A note subjoined 
states that the writing is that of the Abbe 
Se..., and that the book was No. 2119 in 
his sale catalogue. Unfortunately, the writ- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. JULY IG, 1910. 

ing of the name is so illegible that neither I 
nor my friends can make out more than the 
first two letters. Some of your readers may 
be able to tell of a French book-collector (of, 
I should judge, the eighteenth century, 
who was an Abbe, and whose name began 
with Se R. S. 

Napoleon went to live at Long wood during 
his exile at St. Helena it was occupied by 
the Lieutenant-Governor, Col. Skelton. Who 
was Col. Skelton, and what was his record 
before and after his St. Helena days ? 

In one of the earlier volumes of Punch there 
were some clever poems called, I think, 
' Drawing-Room Ditties. 1 They professed to 
translate popular 'Coster songs into elegant 
drawing-room language, e.g. : 

If 1 had a Neddy wot wouldn't go, 
D 'ye think I'd wallop him ? No, no, no. 
I 'd give him hay, and cry " Gee-wo, 
Gee up, Neddy." 

The same for drawing-room use : 

Had I an ass averse to speed, 
Deem'st thou I 'd strike him ! No, indeed ! 
I'd give him hay and say, " Proceed ! 
Go on, Edward ! " 

There is no general index to Punch, and I 
should be much obliged to any one who 
would give me the exact reference. 


Bitton Vicarage, Bristol. 

possession my grandfather's snuff-box, of 
horn and pewter. The following inscription 
in Roman letters surrounds a sun with eight 
rays (or an eight-pointed star) on the lid : 
WITHE TEREP. I should be much obliged if 
any one could explain these words. I 
suggest a possible Cornish signification. 

(Major) S. WILLCOCK. 
8, Alexandra Terrace, Dorchester 

barred and deserted house on the right- 
hand side of Upper Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 
going from Oakley Street, any history ? 


Thornhill, Wigan. 

[A Chelsea correspondent favours us with the 
following note : 

There are two barred and deserted houses on the 
north side of Upper Cheyne Row, one of which is 
called Cheyne House, and dates from Queen Anne. 
The other is labelled " Renaissance de Chateau de 
Savenay," and is the whim of the owner of both 
houses, Dr. Phene. The house at the corner is 
intended to represent a reconstruction of a French 

Chateau, such as belonged to Dr. Phene" ; s French 
ancestors, and has been pulled to pieces and put 
together again, with its rococo decorations, a good 
many times within the last fifteen years. The 
older house is a storeroom for some of the stones 
which Dr. Phene has collected. No history 
attaches to either house, though a good deal of 
local legend has been framed to account for Dr. 
Phone"' s refusal to open or let Cheyne House.] 

DR. JOHN HOUGH, Bishop of Worcester, 
who was born 12 April, 1651, and died 

8 May, 1743, and whose monument is in 
Worcester Cathedral, was the son of John 
Hough, citizen of London. 

I shall be glad if any of your readers can 
give me particulars of Dr. Hough's family 
history and connexions. Had he any 
children, brothers, sisters, or uncles, and if so, 
where did they reside ? 

I should also like to know the names and 
birthplace of any descendants connected 
with this family, and to have a brief summary 
of the will of Dr. John Hough. 

Please reply direct. E. MAYO. 

14, Burgess Road, Basingstoke. 

MARKET DAY. I am just now in a boat- 
train speeding towards Harwich, and am 
endeavouring to assuage a hungry mind on 
Great Eastern Railway timetables. A list 
of markets in places served by the G.E.R. 
absorbs my attention. Fifty-seven towns 
are mentioned, and of these thirteen only 
have Saturday markets, seven of them having 
likewise a market on some other day of the 
week. Cambridge has Monday and Satur- 
day ; Lynn and Saffron Walden, Tuesday 
and Saturday ; Norwich, Peterborough, and 
Yarmouth, Wednesday and Saturday ; and 
Wisbech, Thursday and Saturday. To me 
Saturday seems to be such a specially appro- 
priate time for storing manna that I am 
surprised to find the farming world is of a 
different opinion, and I am led to ask what 
originally regulated the appointment of 
market days. ST. SWITHIN. 

Department, British Museum, are a few 
notebooks, &c., formerly the property of 
this painter (Addit. MSS. 22947 to 22952), 
also a few of his letters (Addit. MS. 21113). 

From communications made by T. C. 
SMITH at 5 S. iv. 5, and by W. I. R. V. at 

9 S. iii. 401, it- is clear that other letters and 
papers of Ozias Humphry's were in existence 
not so very long ago ; indeed, T. C. SMITH 
expressly says : " Looking over the very 
interesting correspondence of the celebrated 
miniature painter Ozias Humphry," &c. 
There is also reason to think that the artist 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

had a collection of old deeds, &c., relating 
to property in Devonshire which formerly 
belonged to his family. 

Can any one tell me into whose hands 
all these documents and papers have fallen, 
or in any way assist me to trace them ? I 
am anxious to obtain access to them^for 
historical purposes. M. F. H. 

The Grove, Harapstead, N.W. 

note in Alban Butler's ' Lives of the Saints l 
(Dublin, Coyne ; London, Booker, 1833), 
vol. iv. p. 515 (St. Lioba, 28 Sept.), speaks of 
" the ancient great monastery of Winburn " 
as being " double." Is there any authority 
for this statement, beyond the impression 
that the Anglo-Saxon monasteries were as a 
rule " double ?J ones ? 

The Vicarage, Wimborne Minuter. 

LIARDET. Lionel Liardet was admitted 
to Westminster School 26 Jan., 1778, and 
John William Tell Liardet 14 Jan., 1788. I 
should be glad to obtain any information con- 
cerning them. G. F. R. B. 

GEORGE MAN was elected from West- 
minster to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1681. I should be glad of further informa- 
tion concerning him. G. F. R. B. 

GILBERT THACKER was elected from 
Westminster to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1677. Any information about him would 
be useful. G. F. R. B. 

SIR W. B. RUSH, BT. In the ' D.N.B.' 
it is stated that Dr. E. Daniel Clarke married 
Angelica, fifth daughter of Sir W. B. Rush, 
Bt. I shall be much obliged if your 
readers can tell me if this is correct, as I 
cannot find any baronet of that name among 
extinct or living baronets. M. A. 

cursions in Suffolk, 1 2 vols., published in 
1818, on p. 219, I read: 

" Mickfield. Two manors are mentioned here, 
viz. Wolney Hall and Flede Hall. The first 
belonged to the alien priory of Grestien in Nor- 
mandy, and is supposed to have been sold by 
that convent to Tydemmanus de Lymberg 
about the year 1347." 

^ I shall be glad if ' N. & Q.' readers can 
give me information confirming the above 
statement, or tell me how I can find any 
facts relating to the aforesaid Tydemmanus, 
who and what he was. 

66, Cecil Road, Upton Manor, E. 

TION CEREMONY. Can any reader give 
information as to the origin of the remark- 
able ceremony at the consecration of this 
Cathedral on Tuesday, the 28th of June ? 
I believe that its history has long been a 
puzzle to ecclesiastical archaeologists. Arch- 
bishop Bourne traced the letters of the Greek 
and Latin alphabets on forty-seven heaps 
of ashes on the floor of the Cathedral. The 
Illustrated London News of the 2nd of July, 
under an illustration of the ceremony, 
states : 

" The most popular theory is that it originated io 
the procedure of the Roman land surveyors, who 
traced two transverse lines in the first instance on 
the lands they wished to measure." 

The Rev. Herbert Thurston, writing in 
The Month, suggests that Celtic influences 
have much to do with the ceremony, and 
quotes as one of several points in favour of 
lis view, Nennius's statement concerning 
St. Patrick : 

* He wrote three hundred and sixty-five alpha- 
Dets or more, and he also founded churches in the 
same number, three hundred and sixty-five. He 
ordained three hundred and sixty-five bishops also, 
or more, in whom was the Spirit of God." 

A. N. Q. 

CHIDEOCK. What is the origin of the 
above as a Christian name ? Elizabethan 
imes supply two fairly well-known Hamp- 
shire examples in the persons of Lord 
Uhideock Paulet, and Mr. Chideock Tich- 
Dorne, the conspirator. HARMATOPEGOS. 

[s anything known as to the right to keep 
pigeons in columbaria in the Middle Ages ? 
[s it a fact that it was a privilege enjoyed 
only by lords of manors ? At Broughton 
n Hampshire is a well-preserved colum- 
Darium standing near the Rectory, and still 
nhabited by semi-wild pigeons. This 
columbarium is mentioned in 1341, when 
Broughton Church was taxed for the French 
wars of Edward III. There was at that time 
' a rectory house, with forty acres of land, 
wo acres of pasture, and a columbarium." 
The structure stands in a field (adjoining the 
churchyard) which anciently belonged to 
he glebe, but in the course of time it passed 
o the lords of the manor, and was lost to 
he church. In recent years, the church- 
/ard requiring an extension, Mr. Baring of 
Gorman Court (the then lord) made over the 
ield containing the pigeon-house to the 
church. At that time the question was 
aised of removing the building, but the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. pi s. n. JDLV ie, 1910. 

then Bishop of Winchester desired that so 
ancient and unusual a rectorial possession 
should be preserved. Is anything known 
as to grants of columbaria to country 
rectories ? F. H. S. 


(11 S. ii. 7.) 

THERE have been four statues of George I. 
in London, viz. : 

1. In Leicester Square. 

2. In the Royal Exchange, burnt in 1838. 

3. On the so-called steeple of St. George's 
Church, Hart Street, Bloomsbury. 

4. In Grosvenor Square. 

Of the four, only one, that on St. George's 
steeple, remains. 

The equestrian statue of George I. which 
stood in the centre of Leicester Square came 
from Canons, the seat of the Duke of 
Chandos. It is said to have been cast 
by Van Nost, was erected in Leicester 
Square by Frederick, Prince of Wales 
Walpole says to vex his father, George II. 
and uncovered with some ceremony 19 
November, 1748. When the building for 
"Wyld's Great Globe" was erected in 
1851, the statue was taken down and buried. 
On the removal of that structure in October, 
1862, the statue was again set up, but minus 
a leg and otherwise disfigured. It was sold 
22 May, 1872, for 161. This is part of the 
story as told by Mr. Henry B. Wheatley 
in 'London Past and Present,' 1891, s.v. 
Leicester Square. 

John Hollingshead in ' The Story of 
Leicester Square,' 1892, p. 24, says : _ 

"It could not have been erected in 1748, as 
generally stated, as a print of the Square in the 
.British Museum, dated 1751, shows a Dutch-looking 
tree in the middle. Perhaps the print is wrongly 

On this point Peter Cunningham in his 
' Handbook of London,' new edition, 1850, 
p. 285, says : 

"J h e a *? roof of the view of Leicester Square, 
m the 1754 ed. of Stow, ivithout the statue in the 
centre. The print in the book contains the statue ; 
therefore in all likelihood erected about 

As Mr. Wheatley 's book is based on Peter 
Cunningham's 'Handbook,' he possibly had 
good reason for stating 1748 as the date, not- 
withstanding what Cunningham had written. 
f It will be remembered that some practical 
jokers painted the statue, white with red 
spots (I think). This was in 1866 ; see 

Hollingshead's book, p. 73. Some time 
afterwards the statue of the king was thrown 
off the horse. I remember it lying on the 
ground, and the horse on the pedestal with 
the hollow in its back in which the statue 
had sat. 

In Hollingshead's little book are the follow- 
ing prints : 

P. 11. 'Baron Albert Grant, M.P.' A 
caricature of him sitting on the spotted 

P. 53. 'The Last of the Old Horse.'- 
" Water-Colour by Mr. John O'Connor, the 
Scenic Artist, when he had a studio in Sir 
Joshua Reynolds' house in Leicester Square." 

P. 71. ' The Statue in 1866.' This is a 
caricature of the statue after it had been 
painted (as above). Written on a scroll in 
the background is the following : 

"The Statue" 

in Leicester Square, on 

Wednesday morning 

October 17th 

A.D. 1866. 

On the pedestal are inscribed the initials 
" A.D.G." In the sinister corner of the 
print is " W. Gee RA. delt." 

P. 72. ' After the Fire at Savile House.' 
This gives a back view of the statue, with 
Stagg & Mantle's shop, &c., in the back- 

According to ' Paterson's Roads,' 18th ed., 
1826, p. 176, the Duke of Chandos's mansion, 
Canons Park, was pulled down, and the 
materials sold by auction, after his death in 
1 744. Presumably the statue was sold about 
that time. 

There were statues of the first two Georges 
by Rysbrack, as well as one by Wilton of 
George III. and one of George IV., in the 
second Royal Exchange, i.e., that built after 
the Great Fire of 1666. This building was 
also destroyed by fire 10 January, 1838. 
Apparently the only statue which escaped 
was that of Sir Thomas Gresham. It had 
also escaped in the Great Fire. ( ' London 
Past and Present,' iii. 183-4.) 

There is a statue of George I. on the top 
of the steeple of St. George's Church, Hart 
Street, Bloomsbury. It was erected by 
William Hucks, the rich brewer (d. 1740 
The steeple appears in the background of 
Hogarth's 'Gin Lane' (ibid., ii. 97). The 
figure is, I think, in Roman military 

Now as to the statue in Grosvenor Square. 

"In the centre [i.e. of Grosvenor Square], on the 
now vacant pedestal, was ' a doubly gilt ' equestrian 
statue of George I. by Van Nort [Nost], erected in 
1726 by Sir Richard Grosvenor. In March, 1727, the 

n s. ii. JULY 16, 



statue was maliciously defaced and mutilated by 
some virulent partizan of the Pretender as 
appeared from a coarse paper attached to the 
pedestal." Ibid., ii. 164. 

' London,' edited by Charles Knight, 1844, 
vi. 202, speaks of it as existing at that time 
(1844) " within the enclosure. . . .almost 
hidden in summer by the surrounding 

Mr. E. Beresford Chancellor in his ' History 
of the Squares of London,' 1907, p. 39, says 
it was long since removed, its site being 
occupied by a summer-house. He repro- 
duces, facing p. 23, a view of Grosvenor 
Square with the statue in it from Strype's 
edition of Stow, 1755, adding that it is 
practically identical with a smaller plan by 
Bocque, 1741-5 (p. 39). 

Mr. Chancellor in his book, p. 170, gives 
Van Nost as the author of the statues in 
Leicester and Grosvenor Squares, and re- 
marks that the date of the unveiling of the 
Leicester Square statue, 19 November, 1748, 
was the anniversary of the birth of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, and of Charles I. A foot- 
note says : " Curiously enough, the horse 
had been modelled from Le Sueur's beauti- 
ful statue of Charles at Charing Cross." 

It may interest LOUD CUBZON, and others, 
to know that the gilded lead equestrian statue 
of George I., which stood for some time in 
Leicester Square, is the same one by Van 
Nost that stood at the Duke of Chandos's 
place, Canons, at Edgware till it was pulled 
down. It is frequently stated in guide- 
books, notably in ' London Past and Present,* 
by Wheatley, that it was uncovered with 
some ceremony on 19 November, 1748. But 
as to this ambiguity exists, and there was 
some interesting correspondence on the 
subject in the Third Series of ' N. & Q.* in 
1862 (i. 227 and ii. 150, 170, 400, 416, 436, 
and 495). 

The statue of George I. on the top of St. 
George's Church in Hart Street, Bloomsbury, 
was characterized by Horace Walpole as a 
masterpiece of absurdity: Some wag wrote 
of it : 

When Henry VIII. left the Pope in the lurch, 
The Protestants made him the head of the Church ; 
But George's good subjects, the Bloomsbury people, 
Instead of the Church made him head of the steeple ; 
and yet another at the time of its erection : 

No longer stand staring, 

My friend at Cross Charing, 
Amidst such a number of people, 

For a man on a horse 

Is a matter of course, 
But look, here 's a king on a steeple ! 

There used to be a statue of George I. in 
Grosvenor Square, but what has become of it 

1 have failed to discover. MB. PAGE asked 
if any one knew (10 S. x. 123), but I do not 
think his inquiry elicited any response. 


[See MR. PIERPOINT'S reply on this page.] 

The equestrian statue of George I. which 
was in Leicester Square was the one formerly 
at Canons. It was the work of Buchard, 
and was executed for the Duke of Chandos. 

In 1747, when Canons was dismantled, 
the inhabitants of Leicester Square bought 
the statue and placed it in the centre of the 
Square. In 1812 it was regilt, but after a 
time it was allowed to perish, and ultimately 
was pulled to pieces by the populace. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

The statue of George I. which embellishes 
the steeple of St. George's, Bloomsbury 
is the work of Nicholas Hawksmoor. 

W. A. H. 

The statue at Hackwood is included in my 
fifth list of * Statues and Memorials in the 
British Isles z (see ante, p. 43). I am, how- 
ever, unable to furnish further information 
concerning it. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

In the issue of The Weekly Irish Times for 

2 July is a paragraph which may be of 
interest to LOBD CUBZON : 

"The equestrian statue of George I., which at 
present stands at the left hand of the Mansion 
House, Dawson Street, was originally erected in 
the year 1720, on Essex Bridge (now Grattan 
Bridge), where it continued until the rebuilding of 
that structure in 1755. It was then removed to 
Aungier Street, where it remained until 1798, when 
it was ' re-elevated ' in its present somewhat obscure 
position. It is a fine specimen of the old-fashioned 
equestrian type, but few people know whom it is 
intended to represent. The following is the in- 
scription on the pedestal : 

Be it remembered, that 

at the time when Rebellion and Disloyalty 

Were the Characteristics of the Day 

the loyal Corporation of 

the City or Dublin 
re- elevated this Statue of the 

First Monarch of the 

Illustrious House of Hanover. 

Thomas Fleming, Lord Mayor. 

Jonas Paisley and William Henry Archer, 

Anno Domini 1798." 

The above account, which occurs in a series 
called ' Dublin Monuments and Statues,' 
is illustrated with a photograph, but, owing 



to the printing, it is only a pale silhouette. 
As no mention is made of the sculptor's name, 
that is doubtless forgotten. 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 
[J. S. S. also thanked for reply.] 

i. 510). I think the sense is not exactly 
" bridgekeeper," but simply *' porter. n If 
we refer to Lumby's edition of ' Floriz and 
Blauncheflur, which gives a much older text, 
we find (1. 138) 

Whane thee comest to the yate, 
The porter thee schalt find tharate. 
As to the connexion between this and 
"senpere," see my 'Etym. Diet., 2 s.v. 
' Samphire. 1 I there quote from Cotgrave 
to show that sampire (as it was formerly 
spelt) is short for herbe de St. Pierre, or 
" herb of St. Peter " ; that is to say, the 
M.E. Senpere or Sanpere means " St. Peter." 
There is no difficulty in explaining St. Peter 
to mean "porter." See the first line of 
Byron's ' Vision of Judgment l : 
St. Peter sat by the celestial gate. 


269, 294, 431). It may be as well to record 
the fact that there are omissions from the 
excellent and valuable ' Register of Merchant 
Taylors'- School, 1 edited by the late Rev. C. J. 
Robinson ; indeed, he expressly states in 
his preface that " no accurate record was 
kept until the institution of the School's 
Probation in 1607, n and therefore he had to 
compile his list for the first forty years 
from various sources, and principally from the 
" Minute Books of the Court of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company." 

The following information, taken from the 
' List of Admissions to Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, 1 edited by Mrs. S. C. 
Venn, and printed in 1887, five years after 
the issue of the M. T. S. Register, supplies 
names which apparently do not appear in the 
records examined by Mr. Robinson : 
Estofte, John, of Eastoft, Yorks, s. of Thomas, Esq. 

Admitted (to the College) 9 Oct., 1571, set. 20 

M.T.S. 4 years, St. John ? s College 3 years. 
Muffet, Thomas, s. of Thomas, citizen of London. 

Adm. 6 Oct., 1572, set. 19. M.T.S. 5 years, Trinity 

College 4 years. 
Garwaye, William, s. of Walter, merchant. Adm. 

4 Aug., 1574, get. 20. M.T. and Tunbridge Schools 

4 years, Trinity College 2 years, i 
Tippinge, Edward, of Hoxton, Middlesex, s. of 

Kodolph, Yeomau. Adm. 2 April, 1577, set. 16. 

M. T. S. 4 years. 

A bell, Samuel, of Earith, Cambs., s. of John, 

yeoman. Adm. 27 June, 1577, set. 18. M. T. S. 
Hunnings, Roger, s. of Peter, citizen of London. 

Adm. 27 April, 1579, set. 17. M. T. S. 3 years. 
Kempe, Arthur, s. of John, citizen and merchant of 

London. Adm. 14 May, 1579, set. 19. M. T. S. 

3 years. 
Claydon, William & John, of Bures, Suffolk, sons 

of Barnabas. Adm. 8 April, 1583, set. 17 & 15. 

M. T. S. 
Hosier, Geoffrey, s. of John of London, deceased. 

Adm. 29 Sept., 1584, set. 17. M. T. S. 
Iken, James, par. St. Mildred London, s. of 

Thomas, citizen of London. Adm. 6 Aug., 1604, 

t. 16. M. T. S. 

Probably the early matriculation books 
of Pembroke College would give the names 
of other scholars from my old school un- 
recorded by Mr. Robinson. 


363). The useful lists of provincial book- 
sellers contributed to 10 S. v. and at the 
above references by W. C. B. are very incom- 
plete as regards Newcastle-upon-Tyne ana 
Gateshead. Many additional booksellers 
and printers in these towns will be found 
in Archceologia JEliana, Third Series, vol. iii. 
pp. 128, 129, 134. RICHARD WELFORD. 


Under Greenwich W. C. B. gives Thomas 
Cole, 1770. For bibliographical purpose 
I should be pleased if W. C. B. would oblige 
with a reference, as the date is earlier than 
any in my list of that place. A. RHODES. 

An ' Account of the Parish Church of 
Fairford in the County of Gloucester,' 
published 1791, was printed by John 
Nichols, London, for Richard Bigland, Esq., 
and sold in the following towns by the book- 
sellers named : 
Bath. Bull and Marshall. 
Cheltenham. S. Harward. 
Cirencester. T. Steevens. 
Bristol. J. Lloyd. 
Gloucester. J. Washbourn. 
Stroud. Jenner. 
Tewkesbury. Wilton. 

The subjoined names, I think, are addi- 
tional : 

Canterbury. J. Abree, 1740. 
Gosport. J. Legg (date ?). 
Gravesend.-R. Pocock, 1798. 
Margate. Silver and Crow, 1776. 
Sandgate and Folkestone. Thomas Purday, 1799. 
Sandwich. Mrs. Silver, 1741. 
Sevenoaks. B. Holland, 1753. 
Tunbridge Wells. Smith, J. Sprange, 1797. 


ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

" BARN " OB " BABM r IN PLACE-NAMES Street (St. Edward's parish), where he lived 

(11 S. i. 468). The places your correspon- till his death, which apparently took place 

dent mentions are almost certainly of in 1814. 

Scandinavian origin, hence I should suggest This Thomas Paris was perhaps the father 

(particularly from regard to their situation) of John Ayrton Paris, M.D. (It may be 

that they have been named from Danish noted that in Cooper's ' Annals,'- v. 242, 

6arm=bosom or hollow (Skeat's ' A.-S. the physician is said to have been the son 

Diet.'), and that barn is in the cases men- of John Paris, organist of Peterhouse.) 

tioned merely a variant of barm. In other An earlier Thomas Paris (who may have 

instances barn= storehouse (A.-S. bere, bar- been the father of the bookseller) lived at the 

ley ; _|_ ern> a house, receptacle). 

south-west end of University Street, or 

A possible, but not very probable, deriva- Regent Walk, the celebrated street which 
tion might be from a Saxon personal name ran from the west door of Great St. Mary's 
Barm ; cf. Barming, in Kent, &c. Church to the University Schools. The 

R. A. H. UNTHANK. building in which he dwelt had formerly 
been a well-known coffee-house, and has a 

I feel confident that m many instances higt as the property of Prof . Christopher 
this Barn" or 'Barm- Represents the | Green f Thig ho P ma who was church- 

. J. 

Barn " or " Barm 

s-^. --.. 1 i-% * f~" tt I VJI i C7C71.I.* -L J.J.J.0 J. J.J.V/XiACfO VV JLJ.\_f VT C*O ^/AJ. <^i.A 

Q.N. personal name B;om= bear, or the warden of Great S t. M ary > s in 1729 ( see G 
A.-S. personal name eorn= warrior, noble- Q , fl CAS / the buildings near 

man. The latter name seems to have been fchft / church)) < in 1744. His name and 
fairly common, and many instances of it are that of hig widow occur frequent i y in con- 
noted in Searle s Onomasticon Anglo- { ith t in that neighbourhood. 
Saxomcum.' We see the patronymic m the H p 6 g TOK:ES 
various Barnmghams that are found in S t. Paul's Vicarage, Cambridge. ' 
Norfolk and Yorkshire. Barnsley appears 

in Domesday Book as Berneslai, which ' WATERLOO BANQUET ? : ' THE NOBLE 
probably means " Beorn's Lea." This change ARMY OF MARTYRS ? : KEYS WANTED (11 S 
from eo to a through M.E. e is not uncom- i. 408, 515). W. S. S. in his reply says he 
mon ; cf. " farm ?l from A.-S. feorm, " barm " would be glad to know where a key to the 
from A.-S. beorma, " far " from A.-S. feor. ' Waterloo Banquet l may be got. Some 
In some cases, perhaps, "Barn" represents ten years ago I purchased one at Messrs. 
A.-S. bern, i.e., bere- ern= barley house, barn. Graves's in Pall Mall, and, so far as I know, 
Compare what Prof. Skeat says about the key may be got there now. 

EtymologicaU)ictionary. s * The Waterloo Banquet l was painted by 

Mr. Salter, and is now in the possession of 


B. R. HAYDON AND SHELLEY (11 S. *. mi _ 
461). The "Dear Mayor of Haydon's ' lnames - 
interesting letter is, I suggest, William 
Mayor, not " M. Mayor." He was a friend 

Mr. Mackenzie of Fawley Court, Henley-on- 

O. E. G. 


Be^Cand'simSr enthSslast 495).-This suggestion is not exactiy novel, 
bat not gifted artists in ~% ^^.thh- SSZMS. %Sgt, t 

K ABRAHAMS. ^ ^ Harland-Oxley and others ; and 

PARIS FAMILY (11 S. i. 508). The follow- William Upcott made large MS. collections 
ing notes on the Paris family of Cambridge towards a volume on London to supplement 
may interest E. H. his important work on the ' Bibliography of 

A Thomas Paris was in 1 781 the residuary English Topography.* 

legatee in the will of his father John Paris, I am not familiar with the bibliography 
a bookseller, in St. Benedict's Parish, Cam- which W. S. S. says is " issued by the 
bridge : 40Z. a year was left to his mother British Museum authorities " ; perhaps 
Ann, and certain property to his sister he can afford us further particulars. The 
Bridget, a minor. section ' London J in the General Catalogue 

This Thomas Paris was the owner of four cannot be meant, as he adds : "As this 
messuages in (what is now) Silver Street, work, however, does not appear to be 
on the site of the Pitt Press. These houses generally accessible, I am unable to speak 
he had inherited in 1768 from an aunt of the of its nature and contents." It is hardly 
same name as his sister, who had acquired necessary to indicate such well-known works 
them in 1757. Thomas parted with them of reference, but W. S. S. might supplement 
in 1 795, when he moved into Trumpington | his list with the Catalogue of the Guildhall 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY ie, 1910. 

Library, the Catalogue of Gough's Collec- 
tions at the Bodleian, the Catalogue of the 
Library of the London Institution, ii. 347 
et seq., and such sale catalogues as Jolley 
(1853), Tyrrell (1864), W. L. Newman (1835), 
Thomas Whitby (1838), and James Comer- 
ford (1881). Russell Smith's 'Catalogue 
of 10,000 Tracts, 1 &c., 1878, is very useful. 

468). The following five words constitute 
the motto of Venice : " Pax tibi, Marce, 
Evangelista meus ! " 


SERVATION (11 S. i. 249, 476). I have not 
seen the references mentioned by W S. S. 
in his reply but I fancy they would relate 
rather to work's bound in volume form. 
For portfolio (loose) prints, provided they 
are not too far gone, I do not think one 
could do better than copy the professional 
colourer, and size the backs with a broad 
flat brush (or, if preferred, pour on or spray 
the liquid). 
, As alternative protecting I might suggest : 

1. 5 parts of bleached shellac dissolved in 
100 parts of absolute alcohol. 

2. 7-5 parts of gum sandarac dissolved 
in 100 parts of alcohol. 

3. 40 parts of white shellac, 20 parts of 
gum sandarac, 940 parts spirits of wine. 

Any of these should be passed over the 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

EDW. HATTON (US. ii. 9). No doubt the 
person about whom XYLOGRAPHER inquires 
is the Dominican who, under the pseudonym 
of " Constantius Archseophilus,'* wrote the 
1 Memoirs of the Reformation of England.' 
He lived from 1701 to 1783 ; see ' D.N.B. 1 


248, 334, 453). In the ' Catalogue of Books 
in the Free Reference Library, Birming 
ham,' which was printed 1883-90, under 
' Patrologia Grseca * and ' Patrologia 
Latina,' pp. 920-36, will be found an index 
of the names of the Fathers. 

When is this library, one of the best in the 
provinces, going to print another edition 
of its Catalogue ? If printed in sections, 
as was the one of 1883-90, at popular prices, 
a portion, at all events, of the cost would 
be covered. E. A. FRY. 

227, Strand, W.C. 

AND HIS PACK (11 S. i. 487). In connexion 
with the stained -glass window in Lambeth 
hurch representing the pedlar and his pack, 
associated with the piece of land known as 
Pedlar's Acre, it may be noted that there 
was a sign of " The Pedlar and his Pack " 
on London Bridge in the seventeenth 
century. George Herbert, in a letter written 
on 6 October, 1619, and printed at the end 
of Isaak Walton's ' Lives l (4th ed., London, 
1675, 8vo, p. 340), says : 

"I pray, sir, therefore, cause this enclosed to be 
carried to his brother's house [Sir Francis Nether- 
sole], of his own name, as I think, at the sign of 
the Pedlar and his Pack on London Bridge, for 
there he assigns me." 'Chronicles of London 
Bridge,' 1839, p. 274. 

I have no note of where I obtained the 
following rimed description of the pedlar 
and his wares and ways, but it seems to be 
curious and accurate enough to reproduce in 
' N. & Q.* : 

Needles and pins ! Needles and pins ! 
Lads and lassies, the fair begins ! 

Ribbons and laces 

For sweet smiling faces ; 

Glasses for quizzers ; 

Bodkins and scissors ; 

Baubles, my dears, 

For your fingers and ears ; 

Sneeshin for sneezers, 

Toothpicks and tweezers ; 

Garlands so gay 

For Valentine's day ; 

Fans for the pretty ; 

Jests for the witty ; 

Songs for the many, 

Three yards a penny ! 

I 'm a jolly gay pedlar, and bear on my back, 
Like my betters, my fortune through brake and 

through briar ; 

I shuffle, I cut, I deal out my pack ; 
And when / play the knave, 'tis for you to play 
higher ! 

In default of a scrip, 
In my pocket I slip 
A good fat hen, lest it die of the pijD ! 
When my cream I 've sipp'd 
And my liquor I 've lipp d, 
I often have been, like my syllabub whipp 'd ; 
But a pedlar's back is as broad as it 's long, 
So is my conscience, and so is my song ! 

There is a very interesting account of the 

?edlar and his roguish ways and means in 
usserand's 'English Wayfaring Life, 3 1901, 
pp. 231 et seq. 

An announcement with regard to the 
issue of pedlars' licences, at the Hawkers' 
and Pedlars' Office, Holbourn Court, Gray's 
Inn, will be found in The London Evening 
Post of 26 February and 25 May, 1732. 


Wroxton Grange, Folkestone. 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


W. Bray in his ' Collections relating to 
Henry Smith,' &c., 1800, gives in a foot- 
note at p. 7 an interesting table showing the 
increase of the rent received from Pedlar's 
Acre estate between 1505 and 1705. 


The Lambeth estate was the Pedlar's Acre 
referred to in George Almar's drama of that 
name, produced at the Surrey Theatre in 
1831, and published in Cumberland's ' Minor 
Theatre.' The book of the play contains 
a note that the dress of the Pedlar was copied 
from the painted window in Lambeth Church. 


125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

(11 S. i. 510). Was it not the driver of the 
omnibus who was known as & dicky bird ? 
The driver's seat in a carriage is the "dicky," 
and the dicky of the driver of one of the old- 
fashioned omnibuses was perched so high 
that I always imagined that that fact 
appealed to the Cockney humorist of a past 
generation. It may be that the said 
humorist saw some occult resemblance be- 
tween the conductor perched upon his foot- 
board and a canary upon its perch, but I 
believe that the connexion between the 
driver and his dicky gave rise to the ex- 
pression. F. A. RUSSELL. 

4, Nelgarde Road, Catford. 

A "dicky" was not only the seat used 
by the driver of a horsed vehicle, but 
also one at the back of a carriage for ser- 
vants, &c., or of a mail-coach for the guard 
('H.E.D.'). Presumably "dicky bird," 
therefore, bore no allusion to the vocal 
powers of the conductor as he " sang out " 
the destination of the omnibus, although 
vocalists of every grade who performed 
publicly were thus known in theatrical 
language. Is this so ? 


^ In Barrere and Leland's * Dictionary ' 
4 'dicky bird n is mentioned as a theatrical 
expression meant to include "vocalists of 
every description from Madame Patti down 
to a singer in the chorus.'* Among the 
meanings assigned to "dicky " in dictionaries 
is one in which it signifies " the tail-board of 
an omnibus on which the conductor stood." 
The conductor hanging on to his perch or 
dicky, and with raucous voice bawling out the 
destination of his 'bus, no doubt suggested to 
London humorists that he was rivalling by 
his efforts the finest orchestral music. 

Hence probably the application of the phrase 
to the omnibus conductor. I do not how- 
ever recollect it in quite this sense. 

W. S. S. 

Possibly the expression is connected with 
* ' Dickey - box, the seat at the back of 
a stage-coach, outside.'* See * Slang. A 
Dictionary of the Turf, the Ring,' &c., by 
"Jon Bee, Esq." 1823. 


HORACE, ' CARMINA,' BOOK I. 5 (11 S. i. 
488). An answer to this query will be found 
in * N. & Q.' for 1880 (6 S. ii. 399) in a review 
of "Horace's Odes Englished and Imitated 
by Various Hands. Selected by C. W. F. 
Cooper." The author of the translation of 
Ode V. was Thomas Hood the younger, son 
of Thomas Hood the elder. Under the title 
' To Golden-Hair * the version appeared for 
the first time in the second number of The 
Cornhill Magazine, February, 1860. 


LATIN QUOTATION (11 S. i. 426). 
I pete coelestes, ubi nulla est cura, recessus. 

This line belongs to the epitaph of Lord 
Brougham's only daughter, who died in 
1839. The epitaph was composed by Lord 
Wellesley, then eighty years old. The 
verses will be found in Linwood's ' Antho- 
logia Oxoniensis,' p. 201 ; and NEL MEZZO 
can see the tablet itself if he will mount a 
few steps of the left-hand staircase leading 
to Lincoln's Inn Chapel. H. E. P. P. 

i. 408, 455, 514). The quotation, "An 
ounce of enterprise is worth a pound of 
privilege, 1 is taken from * The Companion- 
ship of Books/ which was published for me 
by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and 
London, 1905. The line may be found on 
p. 318. The book was reprinted in 1906. 
So far as I know, I am the author of the line. 
I knew there were sayings in other languages 
that resembled my line in form, but I am 
sure your correspondents will find no line 
elsewhere that has the same meaning. 


Troy, N.Y. 

[As MB. MARVIN is the author of the phrase we 
print his letter, although another New \ ork corre- 
spondent supplied the reference to MB. MABVIN'S 
hook at p. 514 of our last volume. MB. J. 
McDoNOUGH also supplies the reference.] 

ii. 8). The original representative of Little 
Isaac (Isaac Mendoza) was Quick. Mrs. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY ie, wio. 

Billington never played the Duenna. If she 
ever acted in the piece, it must have been in 
the part of Clara, the first singing character. 
Probably the print has some satirical allusion 
to persons not connected with the theatre. 

' The Duenna l was one of Sheridan's 
most successful pieces. WM. DOUGLAS. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

COUNT D'ORSAY'S JOURNAL (11 S. i. 447). 
In a sketch of Count D'Orsay contained 
in the ' Maclise Portrait Gallery,' edited by 
Mr. William Bates, reference is made to the 
journal which excited in Byron so great an 
admiration. The editor shrewdly discounts 
its probable literary value, and states that 
the proprietor of Fraser made overtures to the 
author to communicate the journal and its 
continuation to the pages of the magazine, 
but that he declined to accede to the request. 
In view of this fact the likelihood is that the 
manuscript of the journal was destroyed in 
Count D'Orsay's lifetime. W. S. S. 

i. 408, 517). If A. C. H. will give some 
particulars of size and style, the identifica- 
tion of his engraving will be facilitated. It 
is probably an oblong folio (8| in. by 13 in.) 
line engraving, with the old church in middle 
distance to left, tiled sheds and buildings in 
centre, and a view of London on the right. 
A driver is seated on a stone with his dog 
in foreground. Robert Wilkinson evi- 
dently got possession of the plate and had 
the clouds re-etched. It was then issued as 
"A North View of Pancrass [sic] London, 
Re-published 4th June, 1805, by Robt. 
Wilkinson, No. 53, Cornhill." It was 
possibly the original drawing which occurred 
in his sale, 22 March, 1826, as lot 508, 
" St. Pancras Church in its ancient state, 
and others " (Evans, 13s.). If so, it may be 
in the Coates-Gardner Collection. 


PBINCE RUPERT (11 S. ii. 10). In 'A 
Royal Cavalier : the Romance of Prince 
Rupert Palatine' by Mrs. Steuart Erskine, 
there is an illustration, facing p. 139, called 
' Contemporary Caricature of Prince Rupert,' 
representing him firing a pistol at the 
weathercock of a church. 


Craigston Castle, Turriff, KB. 

The legend MB. FBEEMAN seeks authority 
for is perhaps the one told in Dr. Plot's 
' History of Staffordshire.' The story is 
related there of Prince Rupert practising 

with his pistol in a garden at Stafford, and 
using the weathercock on St. Mary's tower 
as a target. R. B. 


The word which A. F. H. supposes to be 
" separitite '* is no doubt "tripartite." 

An explanation of conveyance by feoff- 
ment would take up too much space in your 
columns, and would be too technical for the 
general reader. Any good textbook on the 
law of real property would explain this old 
mode of conveyance, though possibly a 
" layman n might have difficulty in under- 
standing the description of it. 


Would not this be a conveyance by 
common law of property for the separate 
use of a married woman ? See Wharton's 
' Law Lexicon ' s.v. ' Feoff ment l and 
' Separate Estate * 


DOGE'S HAT (11 S. ii. 8). Molmenti says : 
"The cap of crimson velvet, formed like an 
ancient mitre, and generally known later on as the 
'Corno Ducale,' came to assume the shape of a 
Phrygian cap, and in the thirteenth century the 
Doge Rinieri Zeno gave it a golden circlet, while 
Lorenzo Celsi (1361-5) added a golden cross on the 
top. In 1473 Niccolo Marcello made the 'Corno' 
entirely golden." 

At the opening of the fifteenth century 
the ducal corno was studded with precious 
gems. In his private habit the Doge'& 
cap was of red. I know of no other name for 
it than " corno " or cap. C. R. DAWES. 

The following extract from p. 10 of ' The 
Dogaressas of Venice,' by Edgcumbe Staley 
(T. Werner Laurie), gives the answer 
required : 

" Paolo Lucio Anafesto of Aquileia was hailed as 

the first of Venice Doges The Patriarch of Grado- 

blessed the new Head of the State, and the twelve 
electors joined in crowning him with the ' Corno ' 
the horned Phrygian bonnet of renown and liberty." 


In Mueller and Mothes's ' Archaeolo- 
gisches Woerterbuch ' this hat is illustrated 
on p. 535 of vol. i., fig. 122. In the text the 
hat granted to the Dukes of Austria in 1156 
is described as " ducalis pileus circumdatus 
serto pinnito,' 8 which fits the Venetian 
ducal hat very well. The illustration, how- 
ever, differs slightly from the one in Bellini's 
picture. L. L. K. 

[The REV. L. PHILLIPS also thanked for reply.] 

ii s. IL JULY 16, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


<11 S. i. 448 ; ii. 18). If W. S. S. will con- 
sult some modern work on^ astronomy 
<I only name my own 'Remarkable 
Comets ? because the price is not exactly 
prohibitive, being but sixpence), he will 
find that the conjecture (it was never any- 
thing more) that the comet of A.D. 1680 was 
identical with those of B.C. 44, A.D. 530, and 
A.D. 1106 ceased to have any probability 
when it was found that the period of the 
comet of A.D. 1680 amounted to at least 
nearly a thousand years, and probably much 
more (see also my note at 6 S. viii. 5). 

There is no means of ascertaining even 
probable periods for the comets of B.C. 44 
and A.D. 1106. It is possible that the comet 
seen in A.D. 531 was a return of Halley's 
comet (of which we have heard so much 
at the return this year), with a period of 
about 76 years. 

'The Gallery of Nature 1 appeared more 
than sixty years ago. It was a useful popular 
compendium of science, but the author was 
not an authority on astronomy, and the 
information is now quite out of date. 

W. T. LYNN. 


HAMPSHIRE HOG (11 S. i. 489). To the 
circumstance of this county having been 
proverbially famous for its breed of hogs is 
owing the fact that a native bears the 
county nickname of "Hampshire Hog.' ? 
This description, however, is quite innocent of 
any uncomplimentary intention. As in 
the case of " Silly [i.e., simple] Suffolk,"- it 
is intended to convey the meaning of a 
simple, honest countryman. The Hamp- 
shire breed of hogs was formerly, and 
possibly still is, the largest of its kind, and 
consequently was encouraged by farmers 
as the most profitable. The hogs in the 
vicinity of the forests were principally fed 
on acorns and beech-mast, which gave 
them a superiority over all others in the 
kingdom, and their weight was from sixteen 
to forty score. At first the animals were 
chiefly killed for bacon ; but later great 
numbers for home consumption were pickled 
in large tubs. The bones and the lean were 
taken away, and the fat, remaining in the 
brine for nearly a year before use, became 
more firm and profitable. 

If is owing to the phrase having become 
a complimentary nickname that it occurs as 
a tavern sign rather frequently in London. 
There is a " Hampshire Hog " at 410, 
Strand. There was also one in Charles 
Street, Grosvenor Square. Other survivals 

are in Berwick Street, Soho, and at 227, 
King Street, Hammersmith. " The Hamp- 
shire Hog Inn," opposite the church of St. 
Giles -in-the -Fields, gave its name to Hamp- 
shire Hog Yard. A sum of 3 a year, 
issuing from the ground rent of this inn, was 
in 1677 given to the poor by Mr. William 
Wooden, a vestryman of that time (see 
' Bloomsbury and St. Giles,' by George 
Clinch, 1890, p. 49 ; and Parton's ' St. 
Giles,' p. 243). J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 
Wroxton Grange, Folkestone. 

Is not "Hampshire hog " a nickname 
for a Hampshire man, just as " Moonraker " 
is the sobriquet of a Wiltshire man, the 
allusion being derived from the wild hogs 
of the New Forest ? The late Thomas W. 
Shore, F.G.S., in his 'History of Hamp- 
shire,' 1892, p. 42, writes that 

"wild boars were common, and from them was 
probably derived the old breed of hogs which was 
at a very early period iden titled with this county, 
and from which its jocular name of 'Hoglandia' 
was derived. The forest land of Hampshire, which 
is so considerable at the present day, was of much 
greater extent in Romano-British, and even in 
mediaeval time, and these forests have always 
afforded pannage for a large number of hogg. 
Traces of the ancient breed still remain in the 
swine of the New Forest." 

Near Farnham, just over the border in the 
adjoining county of Surrey, is the narrow 
chalk ridge known as the Hog's Back. In 
Southampton there was formerly common 
land known as Hoggeslonde, Hogland, or 
Hoglands (see Rev. J. Silvester Davies, 
'History of Southampton, 1 1883). The 
Hampshire hog will probably be found in 
many place-names. In the metropolitan 
borough of Hammersmith, where I am 
writing, there is a public-house called ' ' The 
Hampshire Hog," J and leading from it down 
to the riverside is a narrow lane called 
Hampshire Hog Lane. 


MB. BENTINCK asks whether a Hampshire 
hog is a sheep or a pig. I venture to think it 
is neither. In Hazlitt's ' English Proverbs ' 
the following four lines are quoted taken 
from ' Vade Macum for Malt-worms (1720), 
Part I. p. 50 : 

Now to the sign of Fish let 's jog, 
There to find out a Hampshire Hog, 
A man whom none can lay a fault on, 
The pink of courtesie at Alton. 

It would thus appear that a Hampshire hog 
was simply a native or resident in the county. 
At the same time, the reference does not 
seem to be altogether complimentary. 

W. S. S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY i6, 1010. 

' E. D. D.' gives the meaning " a country 
simpleton." It used to have this significa- 
tion in this part of Sussex, rather hostile in 
import. I well remember some fifty years 
ago my uncle's carter -bailiff saying of a 
new hand lately come over the border, whose 
work I was criticizing, " Wa-al, what can yer 
'spect ? He be on'y a (H)ampshire (h)og." 



[MR. TOM JONES also thanked for reply.] 


(10 S. xi. 488; xii. 71, 139, 214, 253, 514; 
11 S. i. 338). In support of what I wrote at 
the penultimate reference on the derivation 
of "Hocktide" from A.-S. hedh tid and a 
hypothetical Anglo-French haut tide, Douce 
inBrand's 'Popular Antiquities, 'p. 101, note, 
is made to say : "I find that Easter is called 
' Hye-tide ' in Robert of Gloucester " ; and, 
strange to say, the same authority on p. 100, 
speaking of Florence of Worcester, Langtoff, 
and Robert of Gloucester, has : " These 
three last writers do not mention a word 
about hocktide." 

To me it seems more than likely too that 
"high day" in the ' N.E.D.* is a doublet 
of "heyday" (A.-S. hedh, M.E. heh, hetfi, 
hey-}, though the editors prefer to regard the 
latter word as "of uncertain origin." 

N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

COWES FAMILY (11 S. i. 508). On 
3 August, 1630, the will was proved (P C.C. 
Scroope, 72) of Simon Cowse of the parish 
of St. Bartholomew the Great, London, 
citizen and goldsmith, by his widow Alice. 

The following were married at St. James's, 
Duke Place, London : 

Alexander Cowse and Anne Mekins, 1667. 

John Driver and Elizabeth Cowes, 1 680. 

Will. Dennis and Martha Cowes, 1682. 

In 1 681 a Robt. Cowes is mentioned in the 
marriage registers of the same church. 

H. Cowe of 22, Parade, Berwick-on-Tweed, 
changed his name to Co wen ; see Times, 1 9 
September, 1894. B. U. L. L. 

The following rough jottings, chiefly on 
Scottish family names, gathered in the course 
of desultory reading or from inspection of 
records, may perhaps be of use to Y. T. 

Goose is found in the ' Edinburgh Marriage 
Registers l in 1622. 

The author of a book on ' Mechanical 
Philosophy, 2 published at Boston, U.S.A., 
in 1851, S. E. Coues, perhaps indicates 
a variation of Goose or Cowes. 

In 1618, and several following years, 
Thomas Coo appears as unjustly detained in 
Newgate on some unspecified charge. 

Cow, as a family name, emerges frequently 
in Scotland, as in Perthshire, 1594 and 1675 ; 
Forfarshire, 1614 and 1621 ; Berwickshire, 
1653 ; Edinburgh (city and county), 1687 
and 1744 ; Banffshire, 1740. In London I 
have only seen it in this spelling in 1816 and 

The name Cowe appears in Aberdeenshire 
as early as 1550, and again in 1650. It is 
mentioned in connexion with Middlesex in 
1797 and 1806; and in London for 1816, 1842, 
1849, and 1868. 

Cowie, as a place-name, is found as early as 
1090. It is a fishing village in Kincardine- 
shire, with remains of a castle the Castle of 
Cowie built by Malcolm Canmore. 

As a family name, Cowie occurs very fre- 
quently, as in Edinburgh, 1576, 1594, 1623, 
1658, 1702, and 1765 ; Perthshire, 1622 ; 
Fifeshire, 1626 ; Forfarshire, 1628 ; Stirling- 
shire, 1636; Aberdeenshire, 1674, 1771, 
1799, and 1800 ; Lanarkshire, 1680 ; Inver- 
ness, 1731; Elginshire, 1766; Montreal 
(Canada), 1809 and 1812 ; London, 1816, 
1842, 1845, 1851, 1861, and 1866 ; India, 
(Civil Servants), 1825, 1829, and 1832 ;' 
Australasia (Rev. W. G. Cowie, Bishop of 
Auckland, born in London, 1831) ; Dundee 
(R. Cowie), 1871. 

Might one venture the opinion that the 
place-name Cowie is the source whence the 
different varieties of the family name have 
been derived ? W. S. S. 

Why cannot this family have come from 
the " Coo " family ? The pronunciation of 
the word " cow " on Tyneside is " coo." 

R. B R. 
[MR. J. T. KEMP also thanked for reply.] 

ii. 6). I have a copy of this print, and 
append a description which owners of Mrs. 
Frankau's book may like to have for in- 
sertion therein. It is rather curious that 
Mrs. Frankau should have omitted the 
portrait from her catalogue, seeing that 
Chaloner Smith describes it. 

William Sannders. Nearly whole length, sitting, 
directed towards left, facing and looking to front. 
White hair, dark clothes ; coat buttoned across 
vest ; right arm on table to left, on which lie books ; 
fore-finger pointing. Left elbow on arm of chair. 
Under : in centre various medical emblems and 
books. Inscribed : Published April 29 th 1803 by 
I. R. Smith 31 King Street Covent Garden & I. 
Ackerman 101 Strand. J. R. Smith pinxt et ex- 
cudit William Saunders M.D. F.R.S. & S.A. From 

ii s. ii. JULY 16, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Original Picture in the possession of James 
Curry, M.D. Physician to Guy's Hospital." Height 
19 inches. Subject 18 inches. Width 13| inches. 
See Chaloner Smith, ' British Mezzotinto Portraits,' 
vol. iii. p. 1300. 


510). The arms described by Mr. G. 
MATTHEWS are those given for Stoneley 
Abbey by Pap worth (' Ordinary of British 
Armorials '), who cites as his authority 
Dugdale's ' Monasticon.'- S. D. C. 

"TEART" (11 S. i. 466, 497; ii. 11). 
This word is the pronunciation here of 
" tart "= sharp. A gooseberry tart is said 
to be " tart," or " teart," as it is sometimes 
pronounced. The word "pert" is pro- 
nounced "peart." R. B R. 

South Shields. 

MOCK COATS OF ARMS (11 *S. i. 146, 313, 
497)._On the title-page of 'The Lord 
Chief Baron Nicholson, an Autobiography, 
I860,' there is a very funny mock coat of 
arms with the motto " Ecce incorporo 
hilaritatem cum lege." 


[Modern instances are those published by the 
militant Suffragettes. See Coat of Arms of Henry 
Asquith, Votes for Women, 16 July, 1909.] 

0n ?800ks, &t. 

Grammar of the Gothic Language. By Joseph 

Wright, Ph.D. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
WITH untiring energy Prof. Wright has followed 
up his ' Old English Grammar ' and ' Historical 
German Grammar ' with one on the same lines 
dealing with Gothic. It is needless to say that 
it is thoroughly scientific and minutely accurate 
in its phonology and accidence. No English 
student who desires to possess a comparative 
knowledge of his own tongue can afford to stop 
short of Gothic as the ne plus ultra of the Teutonic 
branch of languages. Sufficient specimens of 
Ulfllas's translation of the New Testament are 
given to serve as a praxis, with notes and a 
complete glossary, to which Old English and Old 
High German cognates are added. The first 
entry in the Glossary only gives " man, husband," 
as the meaning of aba, while in the text (pp. 96, 
170) that of " father " is also assigned to it, this 
being probably the original meaning, if the word 
is akin to abba. Ulfilas, however, it must be 
admitted, seems always to use it in the sense of 
11 husband," keeping fadar for the paternal 

Ix The National Review politics occupy, as 
often, a dominant part, and are discussed in the 
usual trenchant style. Mr. Alfred Austin's 
' Byron in Italy ' goes over a good deal which is 
familiar to us, but possibly not to the rising 
generation. Byron has hardly held his place 
witli the modern critic, and we take leave to 
doubt if all readers of Mr. Austin's paper know 
by heart the stanza concerning the Dying 

Gladiator. His scorn for those who " prefer 
erotic lyricism and egotistical sentiment to the 1 
noblest poetry on the rise, fall, and decline of the 
Roman Empire " is somewhat overdone. As Mr. 
Austin shows a few lines earlier, Byron is himself 
not free from " splendid egotism," and the fact is 
as much a commonplace as many pronouncements- 
on poetry which now flourish in the press. Com- 
pliments from Goethe concerning Byron are 
quoted to which we do not object, but it may be 
added that more searching sentiments from the 
same source are available. 

We are delighted with Mr. H. C. Biron's article 
on ' A Red-faced Nixon.' Such, it may be 
recalled, was the designation of a somewhat 
mysterious prophet in ' Pickwick.' Mr. Biron 
found at a second-hand bookstall a slender 
volume which dispelled his doubts as to the 
soundness of commentators on the prophet. It 
was ' Nixon's Prophecies : the Original Predic- 
tions of Robert Nixon, commonly called the 
Cheshire Prophet,' and contained some details 
of his shrewdness which Mr. Biron comments 
on in an agreeable style. The prophecies quoted 
have that vein of wide application which we 
remember in certain Greek oracles, and has, we 
dare say, always, as Gibbon suggests, distin- 
guished the discreet seer. Mr. J. Barnard- James 
has an interesting article ' In the Track of the 
Locust.' The account of the efforts made to 
divert or destroy the advance of these insects is 
most striking. The devastation they cause is 
almost beyond belief, and " each female is esti- 
mated to lay about 10,000 eggs. These, clinging 
together and forming a kind of brown cocoon, 
are deposited on the ground, which they resemble 
in colour, and they are therefore not easily dis- 

Mr. A. Maurice Low writes well, as usual, on 
' American Affairs,' indicating, amongst other 
things, that President Taft will have to be re- 
nominated ; otherwise it is " tantamount to an 
admission that he personally or his administration 
as a whole has been a failure, and that is a heavy 
handicap to overcome." 

Mr. Austin Dobson has one of his neat and 
informative articles on ' Chambers the Architect,' 
who is known to Fame as the layer-out of the 
grounds at Kew Palace and the architect of 
Somerset House, and on whom MR. ALECK 
ABRAHAMS had a note in last week's ' N. & Q.' 
(ante, p. 25). The article on ' Greater Britain ' 
has some remarkable facts concerning Australia- 
For instance, there is good land only twenty- 
five miles from Melbourne that has never been 
cultivated. Such a state of affairs may rightly 
be called " disease." 

IN The Burlington Magazine the usual editorial 
articles do not figure, but Mr. Lionel Cust leads 
off with ' A Portrait of Queen Catherine Howard * 
by Hans Holbein the Younger. The discovery 
of a new and authentic portrait of an English 
queen, painted in England by such a hand, is 
" an event of no little interest." Illustrations of 
the picture and of others of the same lady are 
given for purposes of comparison. The new find 
from a private collection in the West of England 
is said to excel in every detail the portrait of the 
same queen acquired for the National Gallery in 
1898. It is further recognized, it appears, by 
foreign critics as a genuine and important speci 
men of Holbein's work. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. JULY IB, iaio. 

!*Mr. G. F. Laking continues his criticism of 
' The Noel Pa ton Collection of Arms and Armour,' 
and is able this tune to award high praise to some 
of it. ' Early Chinese Pottery and Porcelain at 
the Burlington Fine-Arts Club ' is considered in a 
brief article by Mr. Edward Dillon, who points 
out that recent times of stress in China, leading 
to the breaking-up of many old native collections, 
and excavations for new railways, have given 
" the ruthless antiquary and those who cater 
for him " a rich harvest. So the early wares of 
China are now for the first tune exhibited in some 
profusion to Londoners. ' The Old Plate of the 
Cambridge Colleges,' a recent book by Mr. E. A. 
Jones, is reviewed by Lieut.-Col. Croft Lyons. 
The plate of Corpus is, we think, the best, Trinity 
not being so conspicuous in this respect as it is 
in most academic distinctions. Mr. D. S. Mac- 
Coll writes on ' Twenty Years of British Art ' 
at the Whitechapel Gallery, and his article is one 
of the most satisfactory in an expert paper which 
is more concerned with the glories of the past 
than the efforts of the present day. Two illus- 
trations of Mr. Wilson Steer's ' Richmond Castle 
in Storm,' and Mr. Augustus John's ' Nirvana ' 
represent pictures which may rank as Old Masters 
some day. Mr. MacColl points out incidentally 
that the Committee which inquired in 1904 into 
the administration of the Chantrey Bequest 
proposed that, instead of a Council of ten as 
purchasers, a committee of three should be ap- 
pointed including an Associate nominated by 
the Associates, who had hitherto had no voice 
in deciding purchases. Such a committee was 
appointed for the following year, and is under- 
stood to have recommended a good example of 
Mr. Rothenstein, and one of Buxton Knight's 
masterpieces, the ' Winter Sunshine.' " Both 
recommendations were thrown out by the Council." 
The Academy thus shows once more the farcical 
character of official committees, which seem only 
a means of stopping the course of public inquiry 
by resolutions which are of no avail. 

An informal meeting was held on the 29th of June, 
at which it was agreed that an attempt should be 
made to secure the support of fifty representative 
genealogists. These, as founders, will subscribe a 
guinea apiece for the purpose of placing before the 
greater genealogical public a scheme, and one that 
shall be well-considered and likely to endure, for 
the formation of a "Society of Genealogists of 
London." Influential support has been already 
promised, and those interested will be advised of 
the progress of the movement if they will send their 
names to the Hon. Secretary pro tern., Room 22, 
227, Strand, W.C. 

DR. FURNIVALL. The veteran scholar Dr. 
Frederick James Furnivall, who died on the 9th 
inst., and was born as long ago as 1825, had 
contributed to ' N. & Q.' for many years, both 
under his own name and the initials F. J. F. 
His work is well known to all lovers of English, 
for he was a champion founder of societies for 
literary study, beginning with the Early English 
Text Society in 1864. His share in the Philological 
Society led to his being one of the early pro- 
moters of the Oxford English Dictionary, and 
he was indefatigable in supplying quotations 
for that great work. He was also deeply interested 

in Shakespeare, a subject on which he wrote 
several times, introducing, for instance, the 
"Leopold Edition" of several years ago, and 
adding to the " Century Edition " two years ago, 
with Mr. John Munro, a characteristic little 
volume on the poet's life. 

Throughout his career Dr. Furnivall was a man 
of splendid enthusiasms, who was able to achieve 
much for his favourite subjects by his untiring 
energy. An essential part, perhaps, of such a 
temperament was that he " loved a row." His 
life was certainly unconventional, like his spelling, 
and his taste, as exhibited in various outbursts 
of his which got into print, was repugnant to 
many. But such things are as nothing when we 
consider his long labours (largely labours of love) 
for the cause of English, and the generous way 
in which he always encouraged and helped other 
workers. It is some while since his eminence was 
recognized by the unusual compliment of a 
" Festschrift " presented to him by a represen- 
tative body of scholars on the occasion of his 
seventy-fifth birthday. 

We need more such impassioned students if 
English in these days of commercialism is to hold 
its own. 

D. W. FERGUSON. The Times of the 2nd inst- 
notices the death at Croydon on 29 June of Mr. 
Donald William Ferguson, who had for some 
time been suffering from consumption : 

" Mr. Ferguson was the younger surviving 
son of the late A. M. Ferguson, C.M.G., a well- 
known publicist and leading colonist, who arrived 
in Ceylon from the Scottish Highlands in 1837, 
and lived there for 55 years till his death. He 
became chief proprietor and editor of The Ceylon 
Observer, &c., and his son succeeded him for a 
time ; but eventually in 1893 retired to England 
where he worked on the past history, especially 
in the Portuguese and Dutch annals and records, 
of Ceylon administration." 

We may add that both in The Athenceum and 
our own columns Mr. Ferguson's work was highly 
valued. He had a remarkable knowledge of the 
earlier history of India, and of the class of tra- 
vellers whose writings have been published by 
the Hakluyt Society. His latest contribution is 
at US. i. 41. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

:ut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

H. P. LEE. Forwarded : delayed through change 
of address. 

ii s. ii. JULY 23, 1910.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 30. 

:NOTES : Skeat Bibliography, 61 Peacock on Fashionabl 6 
Literature, 62 South African Slang, 63 Sir W. Godbold 
64 Jeremy Taylor and Petronius Royal Tombs at St 
Denis Boys in Petticoats, 65 "Vote early and vote 
of ten " " Obsess " " Dispense Bar " Dalmatian Nighi 
Spectres, 66. 

QUERIES : General Haug St. Leodegarius and the St 
Leger 'Jane Shore,' 66 Holy Crows at Lisbon Ben 
Jonson C. Gordon, Publisher American Words anc 
Phrases, 67 Licence to Eat Flesh Prince Bishop o 
Basle Egerton Leigh F. Peck ' Reverberations ' 
E.I.C.'s Marine Service Mrs. Fitzherbert's Sale -Wind 
sor Stationmaster, 68 "Seersucker" Coat Warren anc 
Waller Families Egyptian Literary Association John 
Brooke J. Faber Thompson, R.A., 69. 

REPLIES : Clergy retiring from the Dinner Table, 69 
Edwards, Kings of England Princes of Wales, 70 
Arabian Horses " Denizen," 71 Chapel le Frith 
Earthenware Tombstone, 72 Ansgar, Master of Horse- 
Sir M. Philip Manchester Volunteers, 73 Sir Isaac's 
Walk Beke's Diary Sir J. Robinson Maginn's Writings, 
74 Hewoi th Donne's Poems, 75 ' Lovers' Vows ' Dame 
Elizabeth Irvvin B. Rotch Authors Wanted Andro- 
nicus Lascaris, 76" British Glory Revived "City Poll- 
Books' Merry Wives of Windsor ' Lieut. Pigott, 77 
Botany Doge's Hat Folly Roosevelt Newspapers 
printed with Bibles Mark Twain, 78 Robin Hood's Men 
" Scribble " Toasts and Sentiments Princess Clara 
Emilia of Bohemia, 79. 

TTOTES ON BOOKS: Leadam's 'History of England 
1702-60 ' Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

ON a previous occasion (see 8 S. ii. 241) 
I gave a list of fifty-two books, as published 
down to 1892. In 1896, at p. Ixxix. of my 
* Student's Pastime,' I continued the list 
down to that date with one alteration in the 
numbering. The book numbered 52 in 
1892 was then altered to 36*, because I did 
no more than edit it. 

I now beg leave to continue the list of 
1892, beginning with No. 52 as newly applied. 

52. Chaucer's House of Fame. Oxford, 1893. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 136. 

53. (a) The Bruce. By John Barbour. Part I. 
(Scottish Text Society.) Edinburgh, 1893-4. 
Demy 8vo, pp. 1-351. (6) The same ; Part II. 
1893-4. Pp. i-viii, 1-431. (c) The same ; 
Part III. 1894-5. Pp. i-xci. N.B. 'c) and (a) 
form Vol. I. ; (6) is Vol. II. 

54. The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. 
Oxford, 1894. Six vols. demy 8vo. Vol. I. 
The Romaunt of the Rose, and Minor Poems ; 
pp. Ixiv, 568. Vol. II. Boethius ; Troilus ; 
pp. Ixxx, 506. Vol. III. House of Fame ; 
Legend of Good Women ; Astrolabe ; Sources of 
the Tales ; pp. Ixxx, 504. Vol. IV. Canterbury 
Tales ; Tale of Gamelyn ; pp. xxxii, 667. Vol. V. 

Notes to the Canterbury Tales ; pp. xxviii, 515. 
Vol. VI. Introduction ; Glossary ; Indexes ; 
pp. ciii, 445. 

55. The Student's Chaucer. Oxford, 1895. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xxiv, 732 ; with Glossarial Index, 
pp. 149. [This Glossarial Index was also pub- 
lished separately.] 

56. Nine Specimens of English Dialects. 
(E.D.S., No. 76.) Oxford, 1895. Demy 8vo, 
pp. xxiv, 193. 

57. Two Collections of Derbicisms. By S. 
Pegge, A. M. Edited by W. W. S. and Thomas 
Hallam. (E.D.S. No. 78.) Oxford, 1896. Demy 
8vo, pp. c, 138. [From Pegge's MS. copy.] 

58. A Student's Pastime ; being a select series 
of articles reprinted from ' N. and Q.' Oxford, 

1896. Crown 8vo, pp. Ixxxiv, 410. 

59. The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. 
Vol. VII. (supplementary). Chaucerian and 
other Pieces. Oxford, 1897. Demy 8vo, pp. 
Ixxxiv, 608. 

60. Chaucer : The Hous of Fame. Oxford, 

1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. 136. 

61. The Chaucer Canon. Oxford, 1900. Crown 
8vo, pp. xi, 167. 

62. Notes on English Etymology. Oxford, 

1901. Crown 8vo, pp. xxii, 479. 

63. The Place-Names of Cambridgeshire. (Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society.) Cambridge, 1901. 
Demy 8vo, pp. vi, 80. 

64. The Lay of Havelok the Dane. Oxford, 

1902. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. Ix, 171. See No. 9. 

65. The Place-Names of Huntingdonshire. 
(Cambridge Antiquarian Society.) Cambridge, 

1903. Demy 8vo, pp. 317-60 (in vol. x.). 

66. The Knight's Tale. By Geoffrey Chaucer 
Done into modern English. London, A. Moring 
& Co. 1904. 16mo, pp. xxiii, 106. 

67. The Man of Law's Tale, the Nun's Priest's 
Tale, and the Squire's Tale. By Geoffrey Chaucer. 
London, A. Moring & Co. 1904. 16mo, pp. xxiii, 

68. The Prioress's Tale and other Tales. By 
Geoffrey Chaucer. Done into modern English. 
London, A. Moring & Co. 1904. 16mo, pp. xxvi, 

69. The Place-Names of Hertfordshire. Hert- 
ford, 1904. Demy 8vo, pp. 75. 

70. The Vision of Piers the Plowman ; prologue 
and Passus I.-VII. By William Langland. 
Done into modern English. London, A. Moring 
& Co. 1905. 16mo, pp. xxix, 151. 

71. A Primer of Classical and English Philology. 
Oxford, 1905. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. viii, 101. 

72. Pierce the Ploughman's Crede. Oxford, 

1906. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 73. 

73. The Place-Names of Bedfordshire. (Cam- 
aridge Antiquarian Society.) Cambridge, 1906. 
Demy 8vo, pp. vii, 74. 

74. The Legend of Good Women. By Geoffrey 
Chaucer. Done into modern English. London, 
"hatto & Windus, 1907. 16mo, pp. xxiii, 131. 

75. The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, 
and Minor Poems. By Geoffrey Chaucer. Done 
nto modern English. London, Chatto & Windus, 

1907. 16mo, pp. xxxi, 168. 

76. The Proverbs of Alfred. Oxford, 1907. 
Sxtra fcap. 8vo, pp. xlvi, 94. 

77. The Parliament of Birds and The House of 
?ame. By Geoffrey Chaucer. Done into modern 

English. London, Chatto & Windus, 1908. 
~6mo, pp. xxvii, 135. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY 23, 1910. 

78. Early English Proverbs. Oxford, 1910. 
8vo, pp. xxiv, 147. 

The following are later editions of books 
first published before 1896, and not noticed 
in the former list : 

35. (d) JElfric's Lives of Saints. Part. IV. 
(E.E.T.S.) Vol. II ; concluding part. 1900. Pp. 
Ixiii, 225-474. 

38. (D) An Etymological Dictionary of the 
English Language. Third edition. Oxford, 1898. 
4to, pp. xxxiv, 844. (E) The same ; New edition, 
revised and enlarged. Oxford, 1910. 4to, pp. 
xliv, 780. 

39. (E) A Concise Etymological Dictionary 
of the English Language. New edition ; re- 
written and rearranged. Oxford, 1901. Crown 
8vo, pp. xv, 663. 

40. (B) The Tale of Gamelyn ; with notes and 
a glossary. Oxford, 1893. Second edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xl, 64. 

46. (B) Chaucer: the Minor Poems. Oxford, 
1896. Second and enlarged edition. Crown 8vo, 
pp. Ixxxvi, 502. 

50. (B) A Primer of English Etymology. Second 
edition. Oxford, 1895. (C) Third edition, 1898. 
(D) Fourth edition, 1904. (E) Fifth edition, 1910. 


(Concluded from p. 5.) 

I NOW give the remainder of the first part 
of Peacock's Essay from MS. 36,815 in the 
British Museum : 

" The monthly publications are so numerous 
that the most indefatigable reader of desultory 
literature could not get through the whole of their 
contents in a month a very happy circum- 
stance, no doubt, for that not innumerous class 
of persons who make the reading of reviews and 
magazines the sole business of their lives. All 
these have their own little exclusive circles of 
favour and fashion, and it is very amusing to 
trace in any one of them half-a-dozen favoured 
names circling in the pre-eminence of glory in 
that little circle, and scarcely named or known 
out of it. Glory, it is said, is like a circle in the 
water that grows feebler and feebler as it recedes 
from the centre and expands with a wider circum- 
ference ; but the glory of these little idols of 
little literary factions is like the many circles pro- 
duced by the simultaneous splashing of a multi- 
tude of equal-sized pebbles, which each throws 
out for a few inches its own little series of con- 
centric circles, limiting and limited by the small 
rings of its brother pebbles. 

" Each of these little instructions of genius 
has its own little audience of admirers, who, read- 
ing only those things belonging to their own party 
or gang, peep through these intellectual telescopes 
and think they have a complete view of the age, 
while they see only a minute fraction of it. Thus 
it fares with the insulated reader of a solitary 
review, the inhabitants of large towns, the fre- 
quenters of reading-rooms who consult them ' en 
masse.' In these publications the mutual flattery 
of 'learned correspondents ' to their own 'inestim- 

able miscellany ' carries the ' Tickle me, Mr. 
Hayley,' principle to a surprising extent. There 
is a systematical cant in criticism which passes 
with many for the language of superior intelli- 
gence ; such, for instance, is that which pro- 
nounces unintelligible whatever is in any degree 
obscure, more especially if it be really matter of 
deeper sense than the critic likes to be molested 
with. A critic is bound to study for an author's 
meaning, and not to make his own stupidity 
another's reproach. 

" Knight's ' Principle of Taste ' is as admirable 
a piece of philosophical criticism as has appeared 
in any language. One of the best metaphysical 
and one of the best moral treatises in any language 
appeared at the same time. The period seemed 
to promise the revival of philosophy, but it has 
since fallen into deeper sleep than ever, and even 
classical literature seems sinking into the same 
repose. The favourite journals of the day, only 
within a very few years, were seldom without a 
classical and philosophical article for the fear of 
keeping up appearances : but now we have 
volume after volume without either, and almost 
without anything to remind us that such things 
were. Sir William Drummond complains that 
philosophy is neglected at the universities from an 
exclusive respect for classical literature. I wish 
the reason were so good. Philosophy is dis- 
couraged from fear of itself, not from love of the 
classics. There would be too much philosophy 
in the latter for the purposes of public education 
were it not happily neutralised by the very ingeni- 
ous process of academical chemistry which 
separates reason from grammar, taste from- 
prosody, philosophy from philology, and absorbs 
all perception of the charms of the former in 
tedium and disgust at the drudgery of the latter 
Classical literature, thus discarded of all power 
to shake the dominion of venerable iniquity and 
hoary imposture, is used merely as a stepping- 
stone to church preferment, and there, God knows 
Small skill in Latin and still less in Greek 
Is more than adequate to all we seek. 

" If periodical criticism were honestly and 
conscientiously conducted, it might be a question 
how far it has been beneficial or injurious to 
literature ; but being, as it is, merely a fraudulent 
and exclusive tool of party and partiality, that 
it is highly detrimental to it none but a trading 
critic will deny. The success of a new work is 
made to depend, in a great measure, not on the 
degree of its intrinsic merit, but on the degree of 
interest the publisher may have with the periodical 
press. Works of weight and utility break through 
these flimsy obstacles, but on the light and 
transient literature of the day its effect is almost 
omnipotent. Personal or political alliance being 
the only passports to critical notice, the inde- 
pendence and high thinking that keeps an 
individual aloof from all the petty subdivisions 
of fashion makes every gang his foe. There is a 
common influence to which the periodical press 
is subservient : it has many ultras on the side of 
power, but none on the side of liberty (one or 
two publications excepted). And this is from 
want of sufficient liberty of the press, which 
is ample to all purposes ; it is from want of an 
audience. There is a degree of spurious liberty 
a Whiggish moderation with which many will go 
hand in hand, but few have the courage to push 
enquiry to its limits. Now though there is no 

ii s. ii. JULY 2.3, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

censorship of the press, there is an influence widely 
diffused and mighty in its application that is 
almost equivalent to it. The whole scheme of our 
government is based on influence, and the immense 
number of genteel persons, who are maintained by 
the taxes, gives this influence an extent and com- 
plication from which few persons are free. They 
shrink from truth, for it shows those dangers 
which they dare not face. Corruption must be 
stamped upon a work before it can be admitted 
to fashionable simulation. 

" In orthodox families that have the advan- 
tage of being acquainted with such a phenomenon 
as a reading parson or any tolerably literate 
variety of political and theological orthodoxy 
the reading of the young ladies is very much 
influenced by his advice. He is careful not to 
prohibit unless in extreme cases Voltaire's, for 
example, who is by many well-meaning ladies 
and gentlemen in leading strings considered 
little better than a devil incarnate. He is careful 
not to prohibit, for prohibition is usually accom- 
panied with longing for forbidden fruit it is much 
more easy to exclude by silence, and preoccupy 
by counter-recommendation. Hence ladies read 
only for amusement : the best recommendation 
a work of fancy can have is that it should incul- 
cate no opinions at all, but implicitly acquiesce in 
all the assumptions of worldly wisdom. The next 
best is that it should be well-seasoned with 
' petitiones principii ' in favour of things as they 

" Fancy indeed treads a dangerous ground when 
she trespasses in the land of opinion the soil 
is too slippery for her glass slippers, and the 
atmosphere too heavy for her filmy wings. But 
she is a degenerate spirit if she be contented 
within the limits of her own empire. She should 
keep the mind continually poring upon phan- 
tasies without pointing to more important realities. 
Her province is to awaken the mind, not to 
enchain it. Poetry precludes philosophy, but 
true poetry prepares its path. Cervantes 
Rabelais Swift Voltaire Fielding have led 
fancy against opinion with a success that no 
other names can parallel. Works of mere amuse- 
ment that treat nothing may have an accidental 
and transient success, but cannot, of course, have 
influence in their own times, and will certainly 
not pass to posterity. Mr. Scott's success has 
been attributed, in a great measure, to his keeping 
clear of opinion. But he is far from being a 
writer who teaches nothing. On the contrary, 
he communicates fresh and valuable information. 
He i3 the historian of a peculiar and minute 
class of our own countrymen who, within a few 
years, have completely passed away. He offers 
materials to the philosopher in depicting, with 
the truth of life, the features of human nature 
in a peculiar state of society before comparatively 
little known. Information, not enquiry manners, 
not morals facts, not inferences are the taste of 
the present day. If philosophy be not dead, she is, 
at least, sleeping in the country of Bacon and 
Locke. The seats of learning (as the universities 
are -still called according to the proverb ' Once a 
captain always a captain ') are armed cap-a-pie 
against her. The metaphysician, having lifted 
his voice and been regarded by no man, folds up 
his Plato and writes a poem." 

The second part of the essay consists 
of a long defence of Coleridge's ' Christabel ' 

and ' Kubla Khan ' against Thomas Moore, 
who reviewed them in The Edinburgh Review 
in 1816, and contains references to the Scotch 
periodical, and those connected with it, 
which equal in sarcasm and virulence any 
passages on the same subject in Peacock's 
novels. Although of considerable length, 
it is incomplete ; the sentences are in places 
unfinished, while some have been com- 
mitted to paper rapidly, and only here and 
there exhibit their author's singular but 
genial style. A. B. YOUNG, M.A., Ph.D. 

May I point out that the name Romeo 
" Loates " (ante, p. 4, col. 2, 1. 22 from foot) 
should be Romeo Coates, the self-styled 
" Amateur of Fashion " ? 


125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 


IN Dr. Karl Lentzner's ' Worterbuch der 
englischen Volkssprache Australiens und 
einiger englischen Mischsprachen,' which has 
the sub -title ' Colonial English, a Glossary * 
(Halle, Leipzig, and London, 1891), I find 
on p. 101, under the heading ' South African 
Slang,' the following item : 

" Foptsac, be off ! An apostrophe to drive away 
intrusive dogs. Apparently a compound of the 
French f outre,, pronounced foute, and sacre." 

As this word may perhaps find its way 
into a supplement to the ' N.E.D.,' it may not 
be useless to point out that it is simply a con- 
traction of Dutch Voort, zeg ik, " Away 
(forth], say I." 

The "High" Dutch zeggen has become 
ze or se in South Africa, as leggen has beccme- 
le, &c., and as M.E. seggen and leggen became 
"say'* and "lay.'* Voort ^vort ; so we 
have vort ze'k, and this, heard by English 
ears and pronounced by an English tongue,, 
quite explains the " word.'* 

On p. 102 of the same book scoff, food, and 
to scoff or to scorf, " to devour, eat voraci- 
ously " (this definition is not correct : it 
means simply " to eat "), are compared with 
Danish skaffe, a naval term "to eat.' 1 But 
there is a Dutch schaffen or schaften, "to 
knock off work for taking meals," a work- 
man's term, and doubtless originally a 
Dutch naval term. The word occurs in 
English dialects as well ; Wright, ' E.D.D.,* 
also defines it "to eat voraciously, to 

There is a bit of a knot in the etymology. 

The word means in Dutch also "to pro- 
cure " (ver-schaffen, procure), and " to do," 
"to bring about.' 1 In these meanings it i& 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. n. JULY 23, 1910. 

certainly from Germ, schaffen, and connectec 
by the prolific root skap with schopfen, Du 
scheppen, Engl. scoop. 

All through the history of this root run 
two meanings, "to scoop (up)" and "to 
create, make, form," and they meet in Du. 
scheppen. "They cannot be separated,' 
says J. Franck. ' ' The original meaning is 
obscure, because this root is not known out- 
side Germanic."- Let me say that French 
has chope, a large beer-glass and measure, 
from Germ. Schoppen ; and chopine, a 
popular (and by no means obsolete, as the 
dictionaries state) measure for wine, about 
half a litre. Thus it seems easy to explain 
the verb to scoff, " to eat," through the 
meanings "to make," "to prepare" (for 
eating), " to dish up." 

But in the Dutch language they have a 
verb schoften, "'to knock off work for 
meals," which would be derived from the 
noun schoft, "the fourth part of a workday," 
separated by the meals. This noun has 
equivalents in Scandinavian and Low- 
German. Dutch has both schaft-tyd and 
schoft-tyd, meaning the same thing, yet 
Franck would have them unrelated. " This 
word schoft," he says, " relates to schuiven, to 
glide, to shove" Does it though ? Not 
more than in so far as the root of shove may 
be related to the root of scoop. It seems to 
me that the similarity of schaften and 
schoften, and their derivatives, has escaped 
the attention of Franck. Might not the 
meaning "working-time," "part of the 
day," be secondary, and the result of trans- 
position from the meaning " meal-times " 
to " the time between meals "? The plural of 
schoft, schoven, shows that the t is excrescent; 
so is that in schaften ; they may both be due 
to the compound schaf(t)-tyd, schof(t)-tyd= 
41 scoff-time," " scoffing-time." 

If that is so, then they are evidently 
identical, and the noun schoft in the above 
sense is derived from the verb. Then the 
etymologist in connecting scoff with the 
root of scoop, &c., is safe. N. RAAFF. 

SIB WILLIAM GODBOLD. Sixty years is a 
long period for a query in your ever-interast- 
ing paper to remain unanswered. 

While it is doubtful if the original querist 
be still alive to glean the information, I wish 
to place on record a partial reply to G. A. C., 
who upon p. 93 of the first volume of the 
First Series of ' N. & Q.,' on 8 December, 
1849, asked for information about Sir 
William Godbold, to whose memory a mural 
monument still exists in the church of 

Mendham, Suffolk. A similar inquiry had 
been made in The Gentleman's Magazine for 
July, 1842, but without eliciting any reply. 

The monument states that Sir William was 
of illustrious and ancient lineage, had made 
seven journeys into Italy, Greece, Palestine, 
Arabia, and Persia in the pursuit of litera- 
ture, and grew old in his native land, dying 
in London in April, MDCXCIIIC. 

Up to the present no reply has, I belisve, 
been forthcoming. It is remarkable that no 
records have come to light of so great a 
traveller at a period when it was no easy 
matter to get about the world. 

S. H. A. H. in his book upon the Hearth 
Tax in Suffolk considers him to have been 
a bogus or blunder knight. (He was charged 
for ten hearths at Mendham, seven at West- 
hall, and three at Weybread.) I find, how- 
ever, that in the Allegations of Marriages at 
Canterbury, when, in 1669, he was about to 
wed the widow of the Third Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, he is described as Sir William God- 
bold. One would hardly think that upon 
such an occasion any honourable man 
would assume a title to which he had no 
right, nor would the Bodleian Library with- 
out good reason describe him thus in its 
printed catalogues of manuscripts, as it does' 
in several places. 

I am indebted to that library for the 
information contained in a manuscript 
letter which I transcribe from a photo- 
graphic reproduction, and which contains 
evidence of his having been in Italy in 1654 : 
Rome 25 th July 1654. 

:or newes, we haue our sceanes here as well as you, 
many jealousies, the markes of future troubles, stil 
more great ones in disgrace ; his holinesse <fc the 

Spanyard dayly affronting & affronted, ready to lay 

landes to sword, florentines & Genoes dispute the 
greatnesse of theur little Commonwealths : in short 

;his age is active in all parts. The 23 rd Instant at 
midnight we had here a terrible earthquake ; some 

louses & a part of the wall of this place is falne, 
many quitted their houses, we only our beds, which 

vith the whole fabrick of our pallace was rocked as 
a, cradle, which put vs in minde of our Infancy & 
caused vs to wish for the like innocency : God 

protect & deliver vs from such prodigies. 


It would be interesting to learn at which 
Dalace in Rome Godbold was staying, and if 
records exist of this earthquake, for they 
vould confirm the authenticity of the letter. 

Before discovering this letter I was in- 
clined to consider the account of his various 
oyages somewhat mythical, in spite of the 
mural inscription ; but since it partly con- 
irms them, I hope it may lead to further 
ight upon his travels. 

ii s. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Although bearing the same surname, I 
do not claim to be a descendant of his, but 
belong to a collateral branch of the family. 

6, Loris Road, Hammersmith, W. 


11 S. i. 466.) In ' A Course of Sermons for 
all the Sundays of the Year,' Summer Half- 
year, Serm. xxiii., there is the following 
anonymous quotation : 

mendacium in damnum potens. 

This remains unidentified in Eden's edition 
of Taylor's works (iv. 612). The words are 
from Petronius, an author not unfrequently 
quoted by Taylor : 

Hoc ad furta compositus Sinon 
Firmabat, et mendacium in damnum potens. 

Petronius, cap. 89, vv. 13, 14 of the poem 
on the taking of Troy. 

The right reading of the second line, as in 
Buecheler's text, seems to be 

et mens semper in damnum potens. 
which spoils the application in Taylor. 


before me an interesting pamphlet, 16 pp. 
8vo, entitled, ' Inventaire ou Denombrement 
tant des Corps Saints et Tombeaux des 
Hois, qu'autres Raretez qui se voyent en 
1'Eglise de S. Denys, hors le Thresor.' 
Other than " A Paris," it has no imprint 
or date indication, but it was clearly pub- 
lished about 1680, as " Dans le Caveau com- 
munes des Ceremonies n are buried three 
infant daughters of the King (Louis XIV.), 
and the last important interment was " Hen- 
riette-Marie, Reyne d'Angleterre, le 10 
Septembre, 1669." 

Prepared, and probably sold, by the 
attendants who explained the monuments 
to curious visitors, it is much earlier than 
anything of the kind issued for Westminster 
Abbey, and we may assume that either the 
local demand was sufficient, or the numerous 
visitors from other countries justified such 
enterprise. The date is about forty years 
later than John Evelyn's visit ('Diary,' 

12 November, 1643), but a great many of the 
" Raretez qui sont dans le Choeur " are 
described by him. Unfortunately, the little 
guide terminates with this characteristic 
sentence : " Ceux qui montreront le Thresor 
& les Tombeaux, diront le reste de ce que les 
Curieux veulent S9avoir " ! ; so we cannot 
through this source authenticate the marvels 

which Evelyn describes the " large gundola 
of Chrysolite,"' Solomon's cup, &c. Very 
enthusiastic and full are the notes of what he 
saw, and we can believe that it was with 
much satisfaction that, "having rewarded 
our courteous fryer, we tooke horse for 
Paris " ; and I like to think he brought 
away a copy of some earlier issue of this 
visitors' guide with him. 


COATS AND FAIRIES. Harper's Magazine for 
May contains an article on the Aran Islands, 
in which is the following passage : 

" Little boys, until they are ten or eleven, dress 
in long petticoats ; nobody knows why." 

Possibly an explanation may be found in a 
paragraph which appeared in The Hospital 
in 1905 : 

" In Connemara, in some of the districts, a 
nurse has met with boys of twelve and fourteen in, 
petticoats. The mothers insist that the petticoats 
are worn to prevent the fairies from taking their 
boys, but the common-sense nurse often attributes 
the custom to motives of economy." 

Even if the nurse's explanation (which 
seems somewhat surprising to the mere 
man) were correct of the present day, it is 
evident that the belief in fairies and their 
habit of stealing boys must have existed quite 
recently. A similar superstition seems to 
exist in the Far East. Thus in 'The 
World's Children,' by Menpes, we read that in 
China the mother of a family 

*' is continually occupied with trying to deceive 
these evil spirits ; and if there is only one boy 
in the family, and several girls, she will cunningly 
change their clothing and their mode of dress, 
putting the girl's dress on the boy and the boy's 
on the girl, so that if the spirits do come they 
may take one of the girls by mistake." 

Readers of ' Kim ' may now call to mind 
how the Jat relates all that had been done 
to cure his sick child : 

" We changed his name when the fever came. 
We put him into girl's clothes." 

To revert to Ireland. A man who stayed 
in Galway more than twenty years ago told 
me that at that time the custom in question 
was not confined to Connemara, as he used to 
see big boys in petticoats in other parts 
of the county ; he had not inquired the 
reason of the dress. 

It would be interesting to know if there 
are any traces of this superstition in other 
parts of the United Kingdom. I presume 
that it has no connexion with the genesis of 
the Highland kilt. G. H. WHITE. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. n. JULY a, mo. 


expression occurs in 1858. Mr. W. P. 
Miles of South Carolina said in the House of 
Representatives on 31 March : 

" It has been recently told me that not long ago, 
at an election held in one of our northern cities, 
justly considered one of the brightest centers of 
intelligence and refinement, banners were openly 
displayed with this inscription, for the guidance of 
the popular sovereignty, upon their folds, 'Vote 
early and vote often.' " Appendix to ' The Congres- 
sional Globe,' 35th Congress, 1st Session, p. 286. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

"OBSESS": "OBSESSION." This is an 
old dictionary word, obsolete for centuries, 
but I venture to doubt whether it was ever 
used by Shakespeare, Milton, Scott, Thacke- 
ray, or Dickens. Modern journalists have 
got hold of it, and it is now finding its way 
into serial fiction. One cannot resist a 
feeling of repugnance whenever it occurs, 
as at an unnecessary, ostentatious, and 
impertinent intruder. E. M. 

[The use of words is largely a matter of taste. 
Our own feeling is in favour of " obsession," and 
against "obsess," to which we should prefer 
" obsede," used by R. L. Stevenson.] 

"DISPENSE BAR." I note that one of 
the compartments in a Brighton hotel is 
labelled " Dispense Bar," and presumably 
it is used for service to the waiters. The 
name, however, is a striking instance of 
survival, for one of the three meanings of 
" dispense " as a substantive given in the 
' N.E.D.' is " A place where provisions are 
kept ; a storeroom, pantry, or cellar " ; and 
an illustrative quotation of 1622 mentions 
" a little Dispense, or Pantrie." 

A. F. R. 

imagination in Croatia and the neighbour- 
ing country of Dalmatia has evolved a series 
of nocturnal monsters with singular names. 
I do not remember hearing of the following, 
which I have just come across in a Servian 
passage in a Slavonic reading-book. Some 
of them suggest the ' Arabian Nights.' 

The orcho marin is a sea-monster, at home 
on land, which can assume any shape at 
will, attain a huge size, and travel at great 
speed. The mora is a fearsome creature 
which can assume any shape, and goes 
about at night killing the servants. The 
maninyovo resembles the orcho marin. The 
mitsitch is a familiar spectre. The tentsima 
frightens children, and haunts dark spots. 
The vukodlatsy appear during grape harvest. 

They can change shape, and generally re- 
semble ragamuffins with sacks on their 
shoulders, going round at night to steal 
grapes. The last name recalls the better- 
known vourdalak, vampire (e.g., in A. S. 
Pushkin's songs of the Southern Slavs), 
discussed long ago in ' N. & Q. J 

Streatham Common. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

GENERAL HAUG. I shall be much obliged 
if any of your readers can give me infor- 
mation about General Haug, who fought 
in the defence of Rome, 1849, and again 
under Garibaldi in 1866. Between those 
dates he took part in various campaigns 
on both sides of the Atlantic, especially 
distinguishing himself in the Polish revolu- 
tion, at which time he went by the name of 
Bossack. I have an impression that he 
was connected with the family of the Counts 
of Erbach, but I have been unable to verify 
this. There may exist a biography in 

Sale, Lago di Garda. 

STAKES. I should be glad to be referred 
to some account of the history of the con- 
nexion of the saint with the race at Don- 
caster which bears his name. The histories 
of Doncaster mention the last week of 
September as the date of the races, and St. 
Leger's day is 2 October ; but late in the 
eighteenth century the race would hardly 
have got its name from the saint except 
for some special reason. I do not know 
where to look for the reason. 


Queen's College, Oxford. 

' JANE SHORE.' I shall be greatly obliged 
if any reader can favour me with information 
regarding the authoress of this old novel : 

"Jane Shore; or, The Goldsmith's Wife. An 
Historical Tale. By the Authoress of ' The Jew's 
Daughter,' 'The Canadian Girl,' etc. [720 pp.]. 
London : John Bennett, Junr., 9, Newgate Street, 
1836. 8vo." 

It has an engraved frontispiece, portrait of 
Jane Shore, and other steel plates, by W. 

Wigan Public Libraries. 

n s. ii. JULY 23, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


one indicate a truthful history of the " holy 
crows " which were kept with great venera- 
tion at the Cathedral of Lisbon in 1787 ? 

In 1834 Richard Bentley of New Burling- 
ton Street published " Italy ; with Sketches 
of Spain and Portugal, by the Author of 
* Vathek,' " who was, it need hardly be 
said, William Beckford. The two volumes 
of which the work is composed are made 
up of a series of letters. The passages we 
are about to quote from vol. ii. occur in a 
letter dated 8 November, 1787. They 
indicate that some Portuguese believed that 
these birds had a miraculously prolonged 
existence, and that they were deeply 
venerated by every one. Can any one point 
out when they were first introduced into the 
Cathedral of Lisbon, and how long their 
descendants remained there ? So many 
changes have happened between the period 
when Beckford wrote and to-day that it is 
scarcely probable that their successors 
inhabit the cathedral at the present, though 
if they do we should like to hear of it. 
Are there instances of birds or mammals 
being kept in this fashion in other parts of 
Europe, or of the world in general ? If it 
be so, how are they regarded from a folk- 
lore point of view ? 

Beckford, leaving another subject, re- 
marks : 

*' All this is admirable ; but nothing in comparison 
with some stories about certain holy crows. ' The 
very birds are in being,' said the sacristan. 

What!' answered I, 'the individual crows who 
attended St. Vincent?' 'Not exactly,' was the 
reply (in a whisper, intended for my private ear) ; 

but their immediate descendants.'" 

A note added at a later date states : 

" At the time I wrote this, half Lisbon believed 
in the individuality of the crows, and the other 
half prudently concealed their scepticism." P. 203. 

"At length, however all this tasting and praising 

haying been gone through with we set forth on the 

wings of holiness, to pay our devoirs to the holy 

rows. A certain sum having been allotted, time 

onal, for the maintenance of two birds of 

118 species, we found them very comfortably 

ished in a recess of a cloister adjoining the 

cathedral, well fed, and certainly most devoutly 


"he origin of this singular custom dates as high 
the days of St. Vincent, who was martyrized 
near the Cape which bears his name, and whose 
nangled body was conveyed to Lisbon in a boat 
attended by crows. These disinterested birds, 
liter seeing it decently interred, pursued his 
murderers with dreadful screams and tore their 
eyes out. The boat and the crows are painted or 
sculptured m every corner of the cathedral, and 

upon several tablets appears emblazoned an end- 
less record of their penetration in the discovery of 

" It was growing late when we arrived, and their 
feathered sanctities were gone quietly to roost ; but 
the sacristans in waiting, the moment they saw us 
approach, officiously roused them. Oh, how plump 
and sleek and glossy they are ! My admiration of 
their size, their plumage, and their deep-toned 
crpakings carried me, I fear, beyond the bounds of 
saintly decorum. I was just stretching out my 
hand to stroke their feathers, when the missionary 
checked me with a solemn forbidding look. The 
rest of the company, aware of the proper cere- 
monial, kept a respectful distance whilst the 
sacristan and a toothless priest, almost bent double 
with age, communicated a long string of miraculous 
anecdotes concerning the present hcly crows, their 
immediate predecessors, and other holy crows of 
the old time before them. To all these super- 
marvellous narrations, the missionary appeared to 
listen with implicit faith, and never opened his lips 
during the time we remained in the cloister, except 
to enforce our veneration and exclaim with pious 
composure, ' honrado com?.' " Pp. 207, 208, 209. 

Do the Corvidse breed in captivity ? 

N. M. & A. 

BEN JONSON. Will some one kindly give 
me the correct interpretation of the italicized 
words in the three following quotations from 
Ben Jonson ? 

"We have the dullest, most imbored ears for 
verse amongst our females.'' ' Staple of News,' 
II. i. 

" If you would be contented to endure a sliding 
reprehension at my hands." ' Magnetic Lady,' I. i. 

" Strummel-patch'd, goggled-eyed grumbledories." 
'Every Man out of his Humour,' v. 4. 

The usual interpretation of " strummel " 
does not seem to go comfortably with 
"patch'd.' r M. E. 

Fyvie Mayo in her new book of recollections 
makes several references to Mr. Charles 
Gordon, a publisher of Paternoster Row. 
He had also a nephew in the publishing line. 
I have made various inquiries as to the 
identity of this publisher, but have failed 
to find any facts about him. Can any 
reader tell me who he was and when he died ? 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

tinued from 10 S. xi. 469 ; xii. 107.) 

Magooffer (1795). Some kind of turtle or tortoise, 

apparently, on the back of which a fire might be 

Mendoza (1830). "A Mendoza under the chin," 

with allusion to the Hebrew pugilist. 
Mistake one's man (1794). Is there an earlier 

instance ? 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. u. JULY 23, 1910. 

Moeock (10 S. viii. 107). This is a birch-bark basket 
or pannier. The word occurs as early as 1827. 

Mud-wasp (1824). Is this creature separately re- 
cognized by entomologists ? 

Mung news (1844). False news (?). Earlier 
examples ? 

Nail-driver (1872). A rapid horse. 

Pikery (1878, Mrs. IS to we). Something bitter ; but 
what ? 

Place (1855). To place a person is to identify him. 
Scantily noticed in 'N.E.D.' 

Plug-muss (1857). An uncommonly lively "row." 
Earlier examples? 

Pot and can (1789). Hand in glove. 

Powder- falbin (1861). Some kind of root. 

Preach a funeral (1851). Earlier examples? 

Prex, a college president (1828). Ditto. 

Prickly heat (1830). Ditto. 

Priming, no part of a (1833). Ditto. 

Propaganda (1800). The ' N,E.D.' gives no early 
example ; but surely the term was used in Eng- 
land in the 18th century with reference to political 
and other opinions. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

I shall be grateful if any correspondent of 
' N. & Q.' will say what the statute of 
5 Elizabeth is which is referred to below. 
The extract is from the Penshurst register, 
and I have seen a similar entry in the 
register of Sandhurst Church, Kent, signed 
or witnessed by the curate of the parish. 
The two entries are of about the same 
date : 

** Mem : that Sir John Rivers and his Lady, 
bryng' certificate from Paul Dane, Physician, of 
their indisposition of body, and so of hurt that 
might come to them by eating of fish in time of 
Lent, had licence given them to eate flesh by me 

Henry Hammond of Penshurst for the space of 

eight days statute Eliz. 5th which time now 

desire to have it renewed, which of registered 

it, in the presence of " 

Dr. Henry Hammond became Rector of 
Penshurst in 1633. A. L. F. 

any one tell me if the Prince Bishop of 
Basle in 1790-92 was a Roman Catholic or 
Lutheran ? I know he had a residence at 
Arlesheim at that date, but am not sure if his 
palace at Basle had been given up. I should 
also like to know his name. 


Heathcote, Wellington College, Berks. 

EGERTON LEIGH was admitted to West- 
minster School, 19 June, 1771. Particulars 
of his parentage and the date of his death 
are wanted. He must surely have been 
one of the Leighs of West Hall, High Leigh, 
but I cannot find him in my edition 
of Burke's ' Landed Gentry. * 

G. F. R. B. 

FRANCIS PECK, son of Francis Peck of 
Hythe, Kent, was elected from Westminster 
to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1706. He was admitted to 
Trinity as a pensioner 28 May, 1706, and as 
scholar 25 April, 1707 ; he graduated B.A. 
1709, and M.A. 1713. I should be glad to 
know any further particulars of his career 
and the date of his death. 

I ought perhaps to add that this Francis 
Peck is not the antiquary of that name,, 
with whom he is confused by the writer of 
the article in the ' Diet, of Nat. Biog.' (xliv. 
184). The antiquary, who was educated at 
the Charterhouse and St. John's College,. 
Cambridge, graduated B.A. 1715, and M.A. 
1727. G. F. R. B. 

' REVERBERATIONS.' I have a volume of 
short poems with this title which belonged 
to the late William Davies of Warrington, the 
author of ' The Pilgrimage of the Tiber * 
and other works. It has his name and the 
date 1853 written on the top of the title,. 
and contains many notes and verbal correc- 
tions by him. It is in two parts : Part I.. 
pp. IV, 68 ; Part II. pp. IV, 108, 12mo, 
1849. It has been somewhere stated, I 
believe, but with what authority I do not 
know, that William Davies had intimate- 
relations with D. G. Rossetti and his circle. 
Can any of your readers say who is the 
author of these poems ? He was evidently 
deeply imbued with Saga lore. 

Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

I shall be glad if some reader will oblige 
me with the name of the author of a bio- 
graphy (or autobiography) which gives a 
spirited account of an officer's adventures in 
the East India Company's marine service- 
against French privateers, Arab pirates, &c. 


92, Clarence Road, Wimbledon. 

herbert died at Brighton in March, 1837, 
and a sale of her effects took place there 
soon after. I shall be glad to know if there 
is a catalogue in existence. A. H. S. 

reader remember the name of the G.W.R. 
stationmaster at Windsor towards the end 
of the seventies ? Having quarrelled with 
his company, he resigned his position, and 
published some amusing reminiscences, 
which I should like to read again. 

L. L. !rv. 

ii s. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" SEERSUCKER " COAT. In a recent nove 
by an American writer " in a seersucker 
coat "' occurs thrice in the first twelve 
pages, and it is recorded as an East Indian 
material in 'The Century Dictionary.' 
' Hobson- Jobson ' makes no mention of it, 
and I ask its origin. Can the latter part of 
the word be a corruption of shikar ? 

H. P. L. 

Burke's 'Landed Gentry l it is stated that 
the family of Waller of Cully and Finoe, co. 
Tipperary, is a branch of the Warrens of 
Poynton, co. Chester, and that one William 
Warren, alias Waller, of Bassingbourne, 
co. Cambridge, and of Ashwell, co. Herts 
assumed the name of Waller, probably from 
an intermarriage with an heiress of the Waller 
family. Any information on the subject 
will be welcomed. The Wallers of Cully 
and Finoe bear the Warren and Waller arms 
quarterly. The Wallers of Prior Park, co. 
Tipperary, use the Warren arms only. 

' Nouvelles Annales des Voyages,' Paris, 
1845, tome ii., it is stated that 
"lasociete litteraire d'Egypte (Egyptian Literary 
Association) a public le premier volume de ses 
Memoires, sous le titre de * Miscellanea ^Egyptiaca,' 
tome ler, premiere partie." 

Prince Ibrahim-Hilmy, in his ' Literature 
of Egypt,' vol. ii., 1888, p. 438, has this 
entry : 

" Miscellanea ^Egyptiaca de 1' Association Litte- 
raire d'Egypte. Anno 1842 v Vol. I, part 1, pp. 20, 125. 
Alexandria, 1842. 4to. [No more published.]" 

Where can I find any information about 
this Association ? And where can a copy 
of the ' Miscellanea ' be seen ? 


39, Agate Road, Hammersmith, W. 

RISTER. John Brooke, a barrister and 
bencher of the Middle Temple, was Treasurer 
of that Inn of Court from 1501 to 1504. 

There was also a contemporary John 
Brooke who became a serjeant-at-law and a 
judge. It is not known to which Inn of 
Court he belonged, or when he was made 
serjeant, but he died in 1522. He was a 
Somersetshire man, his pedigree being given 
in the Visitations for that county, and he 
was buried at St. Mary Redcliffe Church, 

Can any one kindly tell me to which Inn 
of Court Serjeant Brooke belonged ? If the 
Middle Temple, the two John Brookes are 

possibly the same. I may say I am ac- 
quainted with the printed records of the 
various Inns of Court. B. WHITEHEAD. 
2, Garden Court, Temple. 

J. FABER. Who was this artist ? His 
name appears below a portrait of my great 
grandfather, the late William Rutter, 
formerly of Hull and Heligoland. Ihe 
signature is followed by the words and figures 
"fee. 1814, Heligo-land." 


formation about him is desired Christian 
name, dates of birth and death. He painted 
the portraits of three members of the family 
of Mr. James Sykes about 1793. *. 

Hilfield, Yateley. 



(11 S. ii. 9.) 

SEE the annotated edition of ' Esmond ' in 
Macmillan's " English Classics," 1903, p. 405, 
and the admirable edition by T. C. and W. 
Snow, Oxford, 1909, p. 470, and Index, 
s.v. ' Clergy.' It was not the clergy in 
general, but the private chaplains, that were 
exposed to this indignity. 

In the ' Satires l (ii. 6) of Joseph Hall, 
1597, we read : 

A gentle squire would gladly entertaine 
Into his house some trencher-chaplaine : 
Some willing man that might instruct his sons, 
And that would stand to good conditions. 
First, that he lie upon the truckle-bed, 
Whiles his young maister lieth o 'er his head. 
Second, that he do, on no default, 
Ever presume to sit above the salt. 
Third, that he never change his trencher twise. 
Fourth, that he use all common courtesies ; 
sit beare at meales, and one halfe rise and wait. 
Last, that he never his young maister beat, 
But he must ask his mother to define 
How many jerkes she would his breech should line. 
All these observ'd, he could contented bee, 
To give five markes and winter liverie. 

I have copied the poem from Anderson's 
' British Poets," only substituting she for 
he in the last line but two. Of course it 
was the mother who was to decide on the 
number of jerks (strokes, lashes) the de- 
inquent should receive in each case. Prof. 
H. V. Routh (in the ' Cambridge History of 
English Literature,' iv. 330) calls this mock 
advertisement the most perfect piece of 
workmanship in Hall's ' Satires.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 23, 1910. 

John Oldham (1653-83) in 'A Satire 
addressed to a Friend that is about to leave 
the University ' says : 

Some think themselves exalted to the sky, 

If they light in some noble family ; 

Diet, a horse, and thirty pounds a year, 

Besides the advantage of his lordship's ear, 

The credit of the business, and the state, 

Are things that in a youngster's ears sound great. 

Little the inexperienced wretch does know 

What slavery he oft must undergo, 

Who, though in silken scarf and cassock dressed, 

Wears but a gayer livery at best ; 

When dinner calls, the implement must wait, 

W T ith holy words to consecrate the meat, 

But hold it for a favour seldom known, 

If he be deigned the honour to sit down. 

Soon as the tarts appear, Sir Crape, withdraw ! 

Those dainties are not for a spiritual maw ; 

Observe your distance, and be sure to stand 

Hard by the cistern with your cap in hand : 

There for diversion you may pick your teeth. 

Till the kind voider conies lor your relief. 

Tor mere board wages such their freedom sell, 

Slaves to an hour and vassals to a bell ; 

And if the enjoyment of one day be stole, 

They are but prisoners out upon parole ; 

Always the marks of slavery remain, 

And they, though loose, still drag about their chain < 

See Oldham' s ' Poetical Works,' edited by 
B. Bell 1854, pp. 223-5. The editor 
explains "voider " as "the basket, or tray, 
used for carrying away the relics of the 

Macaulay, 'History/ i. 160, 161 (Popular 
Edition), refers to The Tatler, Nos. 255, 258. 
He is wrong, by the way, in saying (at the 
same place) that Corusodes in Swift's ' Essay 
on the Fates of Clergymen ' has to take up 
with a cast-off mistress. Swift says : "He 
married a Citizen's widow, who taught him 
to put out small sums at ten per cent." 



The alleged custom of the clergy retiring 
before the sweets has no recondite signi- 
ficance, and has nothing to do with bishops 
and archbishops, who, as Thackeray elsewhere 
says, used to be noted for the excellence of 
their dinners. Macaulay alleges the custom, 
and gives three authorities in support of his 
statement Eachard, Oldham, and The 
Tatler. The passages clearly prove that 
some private chaplains had to retire before 
the sweets, and Macaulay, more suo, by a 
brilliant leap from the particular to the 
general, predicates the custom of all clergy. 
But the custom, such as it was, had no 
mystic significance. It was pure stinginess. 

W. A. H. 

" We may guess the customary nature of the talk 
or the songs after dinner when we find that, 

in great houses, the Chaplain was expected to retire 
with the ladies." 'History of England,' by Lord 
Mahon [Stanhope], 7 vols., 1854, vol. vii. p. 479. 

No authority is cited. 

G. W. 

(11 S. i. 501 ; ii. 31). I apologize for my 
carelessness, and admit that SIB HERBERT 
MAXWELL is right in objecting to the sentence 
in my note in reference to Edward the Elder. 
It would, of course, have been more exact 
had I written that he was the first chosen by 
the kings of Britain ' ' for father and for 
lord," as the ' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' 
expresses it. A. S. ELLIS. 


I venture to send a few corrections of 
some errors contained in The Daily Telegraph 
list reproduced at the above reference. 

Edward II. of Carnarvon. Succeeded to the crown 

1307, murdered 1327. Created Prince of Wales 

and Earl of Chester, 7 Feb., 1301, at the famous 

Lincoln Parliament. 
Edward III. of Windsor. Summoned to Parliament 

as Earl of Chester, but never bore the title of 

Prince of Wales. 
Richard II. of Bordeaux (1367-1400). Succeeded to 

the crown 1377. 
Edward V. of the Sanctuary (1470-83). Eldest sou 

of Edward IV. Created Prince of Wales on 

26 June, 1471. Succeeded to the crown 9 April, 

Edward of Middleham (1476-84). -Created Prince 

of Wales 8 September, 1483. Died 9 April, 1484, 

at Middleham Castle. 
Henry VIII. of Greenwich (1491-1547). Created 

Prince of Wales 18 February, 1503. 
Mary I. (1516-58). In 1525 styled Princess of Wales. 

Two years earlier Linacre, when dedicating his 

' Rudiments ' to Mary, had addressed her as Prin- 
cess of Cornwall and Wales. 
Henry Frederick of Stirling (1594-1612). Created 

Prince of Wales 4 June, 1610. 
Charles I. of Dunfermline (1600-49). Created Prince 

of Wales 3 November, 1616. 
Charles II. of St. James's (1630-85). About 1638 an 

establishment was provided for him as Prince of 

James Francis Edward of St. James's (1688-1766). 

Only son of James II. by Mary of Modena. He is 

styled by his father Prince of Wales on Monday, 

22 October, 1688, in the Depositions made in 

Council concerning his birth. 
George Augustus II. of Herrenhausen (1683-1760). 

Created Prince of Wales 27 September, 1714. 
Frederick Louis of Hanover (1707-51). Created 

Prince of Wales 9 January, 1729. 
George William Frederick III. (1738-1820). Born 

in Norfolk House, St. James's Square, London. 

Created Prince of Wales 19 April, 1751. 
George Augustus Frederick IV. of St. James's (1762- 

1830). Created Prince of Wales 17 August, 1762. 

n B. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


There are two slight errors in the list 
reprinted from The Daily Telegraph. 

Under the first name it is stated ' ' Became 
Edward II. in 1327." The date should be 
1307. Oddly enough, the opposite mistake 
is made in Low and Pulling' s * Dictionary 
of English History,' 1884, s.v. Edward II. : 
"It is generally accepted that he was 
secretly murdered in Berkeley Castle on 
Sept. 21, 1307," instead of 1327. In Haydn's 
* Dictionary of Dates ? the first Prince of 
Wales is divided into two, there being 
entries for " Edward Plantagenet (afterwards 
king Edward II.) " under 1284, and " Edward 
of Carnarvon made prince of Wales and earl 
of Chester n under 1301. 

The second error is under the name 

Edward of the Sanctuary (1470-83), who is 

stated to be " son of Edward V." instead of 

" son of Edward IV., afterwafds Edward V. n 


DAYS (11 S. i. 421, 515). MR. ST. CLAIR 
BADDELEY, quoting from a foreign journal 
the statement that horses were rare among 
the pre -Mohammedan Arabs, and that the 
camel was their chief means of locomotion, 
adds that this would involve the conclusion 
that battles among the tribes were fought 
exclusively on foot or on camel-back. 
The reply is simple, and is given by Sir 
Charles Lyall in the Introduction to his 
' Translations of Ancient Arabian Poetry,* 
p. xxv. When men went on an expedition, 
they rode camels, and led their mares along- 
side until they arrived at the place of action, 
when they mounted the latter. There are 
few poems of pre-Islamitic times in which 
some reference is not made to the war- 
horse. For instance, in the great war of 
Al-Basus, which took place some seventy 
years before Mohammed's birth, when the 
wrath of the heroic Al-Harith was kindled by 
the death of his son Bujair, he at once gave 
orders to prepare for war, and cried out : 
Tie close by my tent An-Na'amah, my war-mare 
Y ears long was War barren, now fruitful her womb. 

The same custom prevails to this day in 
Abyssinia, where many of the customs of the 
old pre-Islamitic Semites survive, the only 
difference being that the mule is used for 
riding to the scene of war, instead of the 
camel. Every warrior has his charger led 
alongside, to be mounted at the first sign 
of the enemy. When travelling through 
Abyssinia many years ago, my companions 
and I were compelled to follow this custom, 
the horses which were presented to us by 

King Theodore being never used on the 
march, but only for an evening ride after we 
had reached our camp. 

The horse, as Sir Charles Lyall points out, 
was a rare and costly possession among the 
early Arabs, who employed it not only for 
military purposes, but also for their favourite 
pastime of horse-racing. This did not 
cease with Al -Islam, although the general 

Erohibition against games of chance uttered 
y the Prophet was unfavourable to its 
continuance. The horses were run, as at 
Rome in the Corso, without riders ; the 
usual number was ten, though matches were 
sometimes made up (as in the famous race of 
Dahis and Al-Ghabra, which gave rise to a 
desolating war) with smaller numbers ; and 
the ten horses received special names accord- 
ing to the order in which they came in 
(Lyall, o.c., p. 19). W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

Youatt I know not on what authority 
states that among the articles exported from 
Egypt to Arabia at the end of the second 
century were horses ; also, that in the fourth 
century 200 Cappadocian horses were sent 
by a Roman emperor as the most acceptable 
present he could offer to a powerful prince of 
Arabia. Youatt further adds that as late as 
the seventh century the Arabs had few 
horses, and those of little value. 


Vermilion, Alberta, Canada. 

" DENIZEN ?? : " FOREIGN " (11 S. i. 506). 
The assumption by PROF. SKEAT and the 
'N.E.D. 1 that "denizen" represents L. 
de-intus, Anglo-French deinz (modern Fr. 
dans), seems to me untenable. The forms 
deinzein, denzien, point to a very different 
source. In the Occitanian dialects of 
Southern France there are deinicha, deinia, 
variants from the Provencal form of the verb 
desnisa, to leave the nest, to leave one's 
country ; and se desnisa t se denia, is to 
change nests. It is probable that desnisa 
was originally desniza, since in the sixteenth 
century " nest il was nizal in the literary 
language of Toulouse. 

The 'N.E.D.* under the verb " denize," 
to make a denizen, says it "probably repre- 
sents an A Fr. denizer ; in med. (Anglo-) L. 
denizdre. But the clue, obvious to any one 
familiar with Provencal, is lost, and it is 
assumed that the verb " denize'* is *'f. 
Deniz-en, by dropping the termination." 
And yet the quotations under "denize,' 1 
though of later date, seem to show that its 
original meaning was to change nests, to 
acquire a settlement in another country, the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 23, 1910. 

equivalent sense of Prov. se desnisa and of 
Gr. metoikeo. "Denizen" is the equivalent 
of Fr. meteque and of Gr. metoikos, as dis- 
tinguished from citizen and from foreigner. 

The final n of " denizen,*' instead of in- 
fluencing that of " citizen,'* as has been 
suggested, was more probably influenced by 
the ending of the latter word, often 
associated with it, as in " citizen or denysen " 
(1467) ; and the common use of " denizen " 
as a verb, according to the custom of our 
language, tends to show that " to denize " 
was the originally introduced word, whence 
"denizen,*'- first as a noun, then as a verb. 
If the word had come in as a noun, the verb 
would have been formed from it as " deny- 
senize," corresponding to "citizenize" (1593). 

While the ' N.E.D.* under " denizen " says 
"cf. foreign, forein,' 2 the conference is only 
in regard to the 1 termination ein. And yet 
it is so probable that " foreign " is a word 
out of the same nest as "denizen" that I 
venture to add the evidence it affords to that 
which I have brought forward in regard to the 
latter word. The ' N.E.D.' cannot go back 
further than Mid. L. foraneus, O.F. forain, 
which it derives from L. foras, out of doors, 
as it derives "denizen"- from (de-) intus, 
indoors. I consider that both these deriva- 
tions are wrong, and that both words have 
a common source in L. nidus, Prov. nizal, 
nis. Just as " denizen '* is derived from 
desnisa, to change nests, so " foreign " is 
derived from foronisa, to leave the nest ; 
whence enforonisa, to turn out of the nest ; 
enfourniau, a fledgeling taken from the nest : 

E per rejougne 
Lis enfourniau qu a dins soun jougne. 

4 Mireio,' ii. 

(And to stow away the fledgelings that she has in 
her bodice.) 

For " foreigner " Provenal has the 
words estrangie, fourestie, foro-pais, but some 
dialects retain the old words foronia (corre- 
sponding to deinia) and fouragna. The 
people of Auvergne like maliciously to call 
their neighbours of the Forez district 
forignat, i.e. foreigners. The forms fouragna 
and forignat show that the g in " foreigner " 
is possibly not so unmeaning as has been 
assumed. In modern French the old sense 
of forain is lost ; the term is applied to 
itinerant booth -keepers at fairs, and hence 
has been incorrectly connected with foire, a 


CHAPEL LE FRITH (11 S. ii. 9). I still 
think that, in this name as in others, le 
represents the Anglo-French Us, i.e. "near," 

which gives excellent sense. But it cannot 
be denied that, at a somewhat early period, 
it was written Chapel en le Frith, i.e., Chapel 
in the frith, by scribes who did not know that 
les was a preposition. 

As to frith, especially used of a coppice or 
wood with a fence round it, though it had 
other senses also, it can be found in Todd's 
' Johnson,* or any common dictionary of 
value. It is fully explained in ' N.E.D.,' 
and there is an excellent article on all the 
provincial uses of it, and its varieties of 
spelling, in the ' E.D.D.* also. Why it is 
that the ' English Dialect Dictionary ? still 
remains so unknown is a puzzle to me. 
There was once a great clamour that the work 
ought to be done ; and now that it is done, 
it is not much consulted. But the fullness of 
its information is wonderful. It duly gives,, 
not only the Devon and Cornwall vraith, 
but the Glouc., Som., and Devon vreath or 
vreathe, the N. Devon vreeth, the Devon 
vreth, the Glouc., Isle of Wight, Devon, and 
Dorset vriih ; and further, the Pembroke 
freeth, the Kentish fright, and the Cumber- 
land frid. The sb. is used in five senses, 
and the verb in four. The derivatives are 
freathed and frithing. And the etymology 
is given, with references to the ' Cursor 
Mundi ' and Earle's ' Charters.* What more 
can reasonably be required ? 


Chapel-en-le-Frith signifies the "Chapel 
in or near the Forest," i.e., the Peak Forest. 
See Dr. Cox's ' Derbyshire,* " Little Guide " 
Series. S. D. C. 

[MR. E. LAWS also thanked for reply.] 

(11 S. i. 189, 255, 312, 356, 409, 454 ; ii. 14). 
The memorials in Burslem and Wolstanton 
churchyards to which MR. STAPLETON refers 
as earthenware tombstones are made of 
coarse clay got in the locality. They 
measure respectively above ground 9 by 15 
in., 16 by 21 in., and 18 by 10 in. The 
inscriptions are almost illegible or effaced. 
One measures 32 by 20 in., but I doubt 
whether this is earthenware. The incised 
letters and date (1816) are clear and sharp. 
If it were earthenware, they would have 
been distorted in baking. 

I think Church uses the preterite and says, 
"There were many earthenware tomb- 
stones," &c. He also says there are repre- 
sentative pieces of this class in the Liverpool 
Museum, and refers to something in the 
British Museum. I write from memory. 


ii s. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (11 S. i. 369). The 
name is considered by Freeman ( ' Norman 
Conquest ') to be identical with that of 
Esegar (see note E E), in which form it 
occurs in the chronicle of Guy of Amiens. 
He was the son of ^Ethelstan, a son of the 
Danish Tofi the Proud, founder of the church 
of Waltham. When Tofi fell into disgrace 
his lands were granted by Edward the Con- 
fessor to Earl Harold, who immediately con- 
stituted Waltham an abbey. Several men 
seem to have held the office of Staller, or 
Constable, in the Confessor's reign, at the 
same time. Freeman mentions eight (vol. iii. 
p. 34), of whom Esegar was one. Ansgar, 
Ansgardus, or Esegar was appointed as 
early as 1044, and retained the post into the 
reign of William the Conqueror. In addition 
to this he was nominated in, the same year 
Shire-reeve of Middlesex, then a position of 
the first importance. Thierry erroneously 
supposes Ansgardus to have been the 
denomination of an office, the Hansgardus, 
or chief magistracy of London ; but, as 
Freeman points out, the chief magistrate of 
London in those days was the Port-reeve. 

^ As Shire-reeve of the Middle Saxons, 
Esegar played a very prominent part both 
prior and subsequent to the battle of Hast- 
mus, organizing the powerful contingent 
which the City furnished to King Harold. 
Marching with his men, he was severely 
wounded at the hill of Senlac, but was borne 
off the field, and taken to London by his 
following. While the Conqueror was en- 
camped at Berkhampstead, Esegar, who 
had become the heart and soul of the City's 
defence, was acting as the military adviser 
of the Witan, and was carried about from 
place to place on a litter. He convened an 
assembly of aldermen, and messages are said 
to have passed between him and William. 
Seeing that further resistance was hopeless, 
he finally concurred with the views of the 
assembly in the advisability of accepting the 

Duke of the Normans as king. Little is 
known of his subsequent doings ; but Free- 
man notes that his widow is mentioned in 
Domesday as suffering an illegal tax for 
certain lands held by her. 

N. W. HILL. 
IS e\v \ ork. 


24). The source from which 

Nicolas and Shaw derived their information 

is evidently Numb, xlviii. p. 31, Appendix, 

to John Anstis's ' Observations Introductory 

) an Historical Essay upon the Knight- 

hood of the Bath,' 1725, where the date 
is given as 1464 ; but as the regnal year 
5 Ed. IV. is specified, it is clear that a mistake 
has been made, and that 1465 is the year 
intended. Anstis quotes from Sprott's ' Chro- 
nicle ' the fragment published by Hearne, 
1719, and also frcm Fabian's ' Chronicle.' 
Sprott writes (p. 295) : 

"And on the xxvj day of May the queene Eliza- 
beth was a 5 crownid att Westmonstre with grete 
solempriite, where as were made knistes of the 
Bath, as I knew, the lorde Duras, Sir Bartelot de 
Rybaire of Bayen Gascons, Sir John Wydevile 
brother to the quene : &c. and of the cite iiij 
Thomas Cooke, Matthew Philippe, Rauf Josselyn 
and Harry Waffir, where also were made dyvers 
othir att Wemonstre the day biforesaide of 

Fabian (p. 655, ed. of Sir Henry Ellis, 1811) 
writes : 

"And in this Mayres yere [John Stone] and 
begynnynge of v. yere, that is to say, y e xxyj daye 
of May that yere Whytsonday, quene Elizabeth 
was crowned at Westmynster with grat solempny tie. 
At the which season at the Tower the nyght before 
the coronacion amonge many Knyghtesot the Bathe 
there made, was as of y e company sir Thomas Cook, 
sir Mathewe Philip, sir Rauffe losselyne, and Sir 
Henry Wauyr, cytezeins of London, than and there 
made knyghtes." 

This agrees with Sprott. What does MR. 
BEAVEN say to this ? 

[Reply from MR. W. D. PIXK shortly.] 

VOLUNTEERS (11 S. i. 484). After the return 
of the 72nd Regiment from Gibraltar, they 
were received with enthusiasm, and their 
colours were deposited with much ceremony 
in the Collegiate Church, whence they were 
removed to Chetham College, Manchester. 
They were presented with five shillings each, 
together with their pay and arrears, 30 
August, and were disbanded 9 September, 
1783. The colours were still at Chetham 
College in 1866. 

On 24 August, 1794, the colours of the 
Royal Manchester Volunteers were con- 
secrated in St. Ann's Church by the Rev. 
Thomas Seddon, chaplain to the regiment. 
The corps subsequently became the 104th 

Col. Ackers's Regiment of Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers were drawn out at 
Piccadilly, and presented with their colours 
by Mrs. Hartley, 14 February, 1798. 

The first and second battalions of the 
Manchester and Salford Volunteers were 
disembodied. The colours were deposited 
at the house of Col. J. L. Phillips at Mayfield, 
1 June, 1802. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. n. JULY 23, 1910. 

Col. Ackers' s regiment of Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers were disbanded, and the 
colours deposited in the Collegiate Church, 
10 March in the same year. 

The following paragraph appeared in 
The Manchester City News of Saturday 
25 June last : 

Notable June Days. 
A Manchester Calendar. 

June 1. Colours which had belonged to the 
1st Battalion of the Independent Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers of 1803, presented to the Press 
Company of the 3rd Manchester Rifle \ olunteers, 

Particulars of the " Volunteers of the 
Manchester Military Association " are given 
in Earwaker's ' Local Gleanings,' Nos. 159, 
165, 187. 

2, Welton Place, Rusholme, Manchester. 

ii. 9), was called after Sir Isaac Rebow. 
He was M.P. for Colchester in the reigns of 
William and Mary, part of Queen Ajme's, 
and the first of George I. He erected a 
monument in the church of St. Mary-at-the- 
Walls, in the west of the town, in memory of 
his father John Rebow, merchant of Col- 
chester, who died in 1699. The Rebow 
family came from the Netherlands in the 
sixteenth century, and settled as manu- 
facturers of the cloths called bays and 

Sir Isaac's Walk appears to be named after 
Sir Isaac Rebow. See Cutt's 'Colchester, 7 
" Historic Towns Series." S. D. C. 

[W. G. B. also thanked for reply.] 

DR. BEKE Z S DIARY (11 S. i. 427, 511). 
In connexion with the Rev. Dr. F. Biallo- 
blotzky's ' Journey to discover the Sources 
of the Nile ' Beke issued several circulars, 
dated July, 1848, January, 1849, May, 1849, 
and January, 1850. Not any of these refer 
to his own travels or any diary, although 
such comparative reference would have 
been useful and convenient in explaining 
Bialloblotzky's failure. It will be remem- 
bered that this strange individual styled 
himself "Ex itinere Africano redux." MR. 
EDWARDS is welcome to the loan of these 
Beke circulars if they interest him. 


SIR JOHN ROBINSON, BT. (11 S. i. 428, 
489). MR. HUMPHREYS is correct in stating 
that Sir John Robinson was alderman 
successively of Dowgate and Cripplegate, but 
his total service for these wards amounted 

to less than eight years (Dec., 1655, to Sept., 
1663), whereas he served for Tower Ward 
from the latter of these dates till his death 
in Feb., 1680, a period of more than sixteen 

The date "17 March, 1662," of the 
reference in Pepys, where Robinson is 
described as a " bufflehead ? ' whatever 
that may mean is that of the legal, not the 
historical, year. Robinson was not elected 
Lord Mayor till Michaelmas, 1662. The 
Globe edition of Pepys gives the date, 
according to the modern computation, as 
17 March, 1663. 


DR. MAGINN'S WRITINGS (11 S. i. 507). 
Shelton Mackenzie in his collected edition 
of Maginn's works, vol. i. p. 179 (New York, 
1855), in a foot-note to ' Don Juan Unread ' 
says : 

" This, one of the earliest of Maginn's contribu- 
tions to Blackwood, appeared in November, 1819." 

In the memoir prefixed to vol. v. (ib., 1857) 
he says :- - 

'" In the early part of 1842 Dr. Maepnn was thrown 
into prison for the expenses incurred by the publica- 
tion of the ten numbers of his ' Miscellanies.'" 

These commenced in 1840, weekly numbers of 
16 pages each. Shackell (I think) was the 
printer. Within recent years the British 
Museum has obtained a copy of this un- 
fortunate and now rare publication, but a 
list of its contents would be too long for your 
pages. Speaking from memory, I should say 
they are all his best-known pieces. 

The late Dr. Kenealy had also a complete 
set, which may still be in the library of his 
daughter, Miss Arabella Kenealy the novelist. 

Kensal Lodge, N.W. 

Maginn is undeservedly forgotten, or re- 
membered only through * Pendennis ' in 
which there are sketched but a few com- 
paratively uninteresting peculiarities. How- 
ever, though his life has been imperfectly 
investigated, answers can be given to MR. 
MCMAHON'S questions. 

' Don Juan Unread ' first appeared in 
Blackwood, November, 1819. Incidentally, 
it may be added that R. W. Montagu and the 
' D.N.B.' are at variance about the date of 
Maginn's personal introduction to Black- 
wood, nor does it appear probable that such 
a brilliant contributor was in 1819 unknown 
and unpaid. Curiously enough, the parody 
does not appear in Coleridge and Prothero' 
fine edition of Byron, but it is given in m 
ten-volume edition of 1879. 


n s. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In Blackwood it came out covered by a 
detter signed M. N., with a few notes 
appended. The only one of interest is that 
which pretends that " clovenfoot "- is not an 
^allusion to Byron's infirmity. 

The publication ' Magazine Misecllanies, 5 
by Dr. Maginn, appeared without date or 
title-page. The British Museum copy has 
a pencil note by one J. Hoblyn to the 
effect: " I do not think these papers can 
be got anywhere except a few detached ones 
in the 'Tales from Blackwood.'' The 
papers are numerous. The first is ' A Story 
without a Tail,' the second ' The Wile of 
Juno ' (from Homer), the third ' Bob Burke's 
Duel,' and so on. The papers on Homer 
and Shakespeare appear to be the best. 

W. A. H. 

Dr. Maginn's ' Don Juan 'Unread,' con 
sisting of 8 eight-line stanzas, finds a place in 
Hamilton's ' Parodies, 3 vol. iii. p. 229. 

The ' Magazine Miscellanies ' are supposed 
to have been nine in number. In ' N. & Q.' 
for 1850 (1 S. ii. 13) MB. WILLIAM CARPEN- 
TER gave a general description of the 
contents of these numbers, all of which 
were then in his possession. About thirty 
years later MR. WILLIAM BATES stated, in a 
notice of Maginn, that after twenty years' 
search among London bookstalls he had 
been able to recover only an odd number or 
two, so rare had copies of the ' Miscellany ' 
become. W. SCOTT. 

It is always difficult to deal with Northern 
names, owing to the lack of pre-Conquest 
documents. The spelling " Heworth iuxta 
'- occurs in the Inquisitiones post 
Mortem in the twentieth year of Edward I. 
Bardsley quotes Heworth, and refers us to 
Haworth, which is an unrelated word, as 
his own quotations show. Heworth is not 

Haworth, for the reason that hew differs from 
haw as dew from daw or as pew from paw, 
i.e. fundamentally. In the D.B. spelling 
Heuuarde " we plainly see that the prefix 
the A.-S. hlwa, "a domestic," which 
regularly became hewe, once a common word, 
used by Langland, Chaucer, and Gower, and 
fully explained in the ' N E.D.' The suffix 
worth is correctly derived at 11 S. i. 458 from 
the A.-S. weorthig ; but weorthig itself is 
incorrectly derived, at the same reference, 

rom an imaginary A.-S. wdrian, to defend, 
the true form being warian (with the a 
short), with which weorthig is only remotely 
connected. ' 

It would appear, therefore, that Heworth 
meant, originally, a farm or homestead 
farmed by a farming-man or farming-men. 
I need not copy out all that the ' N E.D.' 
says about hewe. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Heworth, which I knew fifty years ago, 
appeared in seventeenth-century bocks as 
Hey worth. The Yorkshire gentry met 
Charles I. there, and presented a petition 
to him. Many modern writers in describing 
this incident repeat the form " Heyworth," 
without inquiry, and I have been asked, as 
a Yorkshireman, to tell where the place is. 
See, e.g., ' D.N.B.,* xviii. 141 b. In like 
manner Hedon is disguised under the un- 
authorized spelling "Heydon" ('D.N.B.,' 
Ix. 416 a). W. C. B. 

The name of this village appears in the 
Conqueror's survey as " Hewarde n and 
" Heworde.'* It is not derived, like Fingall in 
the valley of the Ure, from the name of a 
sometime Saxon possessor, for the prefix 
precludes the assumption that the name 
Haward or Hawart, borne by the thegn 
of Stokesley, might be the same name. 
The prefix in Heworth may represent a 
personal name or the sense of a fence or 
hedge, as applied to a homestead, A.-S. 
weorthig, a protected place. If this supposi- 
tion is correct, the meaning will be "a 
place protected by a hedge. ' 


DONNE'S POEMS (11 S. ii. 7). PROF. 
GRIERSON is no doubt acquainted with 
the Donne MSS. in the Dyce Collection at 
South Kensington. Several of Donne's 
printed books are also noted in the Cata- 
logue, but none, I fear, quite corresponding 
to those inquired after. 

The library of the Rev. T. R. O'Flahertie 
was sold by Messrs. Sotheby & Co. on 
14 January, 1896. It included a number of 
Donne's works, MS. as well as printed. The 
earliest dated work sold, * Pseudo -Martyr,' 
first edition, 1610, was acquired by Mr. 
Pickering. The other lots included ' Prose 
and Prose Paradoxes J (with poems by Donne 
and others), MSS. of date 1620 ; ' Poems,' 
first edition, dated 1633, with MS. additions ; 
and a contemporary MS. of the poems ' ' con- 
taining considerable variations from the 
printed texts." These were all purchased 
by Mr. Quaritch. A copy of the 'Five 
Satyres,' in MS. written by John Cave, 1620, 
became the property of Mr. Catton. The 
other Donne entries, poetry and prose, were 
of a later date. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY 23, 1910. 

Might not the Hazlewood-Kingsburgh 
MS. perhaps be found at Hazlewood Castle, 
Yorkshire ? W. SCOTT. 

' LOVERS' Vows ' (11 S. i. 468). This play 

is to be found in " The British Theatre 

with .... critical remarks by Mrs. Inch- 
bald," 1808, vol. xxiii., also in ' The British 
Drama,' 1872, published by John Dicks, 
vol. x, p. 129. 

It was " altered " from the German of 
Kotzebue's ' Child of Love ' by Mrs. Inch- 
bald. In her preface she alludes to various 
difficulties which she had to deal with, 
especially that, being wholly unacquainted 
with the German language, she had to 
depend upon a "literal translation" into 
" broken English " made by a German. 
This translation was given to her by the 
manager of Co vent Garden Theatre. She 
mentions that the original German play was 
printed in 1791, and that up to the time of 
her adaptation "no person of talents or 
literary knowledge. . . .has thought it worth 
employment to make a translation of the 
work."' Mrs. Inchbald did not write every 
word of ' Lovers' Vows.' She says : 

"I suggested the verses I have introduced; but 
not jbeing blessed with the butler's happy art o!: 
rhyming, I am indebted for them, except the seventh 
and eleventh stanzas in the first of his poetic stories, 
to the author of the prologue." 

Neither the prologue nor the name of its 
author is given. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

.MURRAY (11 S. ii. 28). Relationships men- 
tioned in wills must not be construed too 
literally. A ' ' brother " may be a brother-in- 
law, a " daughter " a step -daughter, a 
" cousin " a remote kinsman. In making a 
tentative tabulation of the particulars given 
by G. D. B. I did not hesitate to place 
Lettice Loftus as a stepdaughter of Dame 
Elizabeth Irwin. My experimental placing 
was justified when I afterwards found the 
marriage of " Mr. Dudley Loftus, Doctor of 
ye Law, and ye Lady Elizabeth Ervin, ? 
11 May, 1693, at St. John's, Dublin. If 
Dame Elizabeth was originally a Murray ; 
she must have married four times : 1st, Sir 
(? John) Irwin; 2nd, in 1693, Dr. Dudty 
Loftus, who had previously married Frances 
Nangle, by whom he had a daughter Lettice 
Loftus ; 3rd, Mr. Broughton ; 4th, in 1720 
Walter Bunbury. This merely explains ho\\ 
Lettice Loftus was " daughter-in-law " to 
Dame Elizabeth Irwin. 

There are hundreds of knights not includec 
in Dr. Shaw's work. A John Irvin, knight 

lied abroad in 1705 ; his inventory is at 
Dublin. This, naturally, could not be the 
msband of the much-married Elizabeth, for 
he was already Dame Elizabeth Ervin when 
he married Dr. Loftus in 1693 ; but he is not 
n Dr. Shaw's list. 

In wills I have come across knights men- 
ioned as baronets, and unknighted indi- 
viduals mentioned as knights. Perhaps 
here is still a chance for " Sir John Murray." 


B. ROTCH (11 S. i. 468 ; ii. 37). Benjamin 
Rotch's widow, Isabella Anne Rotch, was 
Dorn in 1808 and died in 1909. Her obituary 
lotice in the Harrow papers stated that her 
husband " had been in Paris during the 
terrible days of the Revolution." This 
eems to throw some light on the author- 
ship of ' Manners and Customs of the 
French. 5 HARROVIAN. 

ii 28). 
Tis the faith that launched point-blank her dart 

At the head of a lie taught Original Sin. 
The Corruption of Man's Heart. 

R. Browning, ' Gold Hair,' xxx. 

Theological College, Lichfield. 
[PROF. E. BENSLY also supplies the reference.] 

TOPHANES (11 S. ii. 7). Two noble Greeks 
named Lascaris, who may have been 
brothers, and were certainly closely related,, 
took refuge in Italy after the capture of 
Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. One 
of them, named Constantine, went to Milan,, 
thence to Rome, next to Naples, and finally 
settled at Messina, where he died about 
1500. In 1493 he bequeathed his library to 
Messina, part of which gift was afterwards 
carried away by the Spaniards, and is now 
in the Escorial, near Madrid. 

The other Lascaris, Andrew John by name 
(frequently mentioned as John merely), was 
probably the person referred to in the 
query. He took up his abode at Florence, 
and was employed by Lorenzo de ? Medici 
to visit Greece and purchase certain valuable t 
manuscripts. This commission he executed 
some time previous to 1494. The MS. 
mentioned by MR. JOHNSON WALKER was 
in all likelihood one of those acquired for his 
employer by Andrew John Lascaris. ^ Ii 
1494 he entered the service of Louis XI7 
of France, who sent him as his envoy 
Venice. Betaking himself to Rome in 1513, 



n s. ii. JULY 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


became Principal of the Greek College 
founded by Pope Leo X., and was also 
appointed superintendent of the Greek press. 
Returning to the service of France in 1518, 
he was employed by Francis I. in forming the 
royal library. His death took place in 1535. 

w. s. s. 

ii. 29). There is a large series of medals 
generically known as " Porto-Bello Medals," 
which are fully described in ' Medallic Illus- 
trations of the History of Great Britain and 
Ireland to the Death of George II.,' 1885, 
vol. ii. pp. 530-57, wherein some ninety-odd 
medals are mentioned (Nos. 92-183). 

It is here stated that 

"Admiral Vernon, who had always been a most 
violent opponent of the Ministry, somewhat rashly 
declared in the House of Commons that he could 
take this place (i.e. Porto Bello) w^ith six ships, and 
when the opportunity was given him he fortunately 
succeeded. Commodore Brown was his second in 
command, and the place surrendered after a siege 
of two days, 22 Nov., 1739." 

The medals indicated the feeling of gratifi- 
cation that an Englishman had at last done 
something to check the Spaniards, in contra- 
distinction to the apathy of the " Ministry of 
the day, who were charged with long having 
allowed the Spaniards to insult and plunder 
our merchants and interrupt our trade with- 
out any effectual attempt at resistance," 
rather than an appreciation of the feat, which, 
as a matter of fact, was not particularly 
meritorious. The most curious perhaps 
of the whole series is No. 182, of Admiral 
Haddock and Admiral Vernon, the legend 
on the obverse being 


It was commonly believed that his instruc- 
tions restricted him from activity with his 
fleet in the Mediterranean, where he made 
two unsuccessful attempts to prevent the 
junction of the French and Spanish fleets. 

I have a small collection of these medals, 
and among them there are twelve with the 
legend of "The British Glory Revived by 
Admiral Vernon." JOHN HODGKIN. 

The medal bore the inscription "The 
British Glory Revived" because Admiral 
Vernon recovered the prestige which, by no 
fault of his own, Admiral Hosier had lost. 
The story is given in full in the introduction 
to Glover's famous ballad entitled ' Admiral 
Hosier's Ghost,' in Percy's ' Reliques of 
Ancient Poetry,' Series II., Book III. 
The story is somewhat long, but is easily 
accessible. WALTER W. SKEAT. " 

(11 S. ii. 29). I believe I am right in saying 
that no poll -books for any of the years named 
in MR. GOULD'S list were ever published, and 
it is' hardly likely that copies of these polls in 
MS. are accessible anywhere. With regard 
to five of MB. GOULD'S dates (1742, 1758, 
1770, 1817, 1830) his question is superfluous, 
inasmuch as the elections in those years were 
uncontested, and consequently there were no 

In my ' Aldermen of London ' (pp. 261-97) 
may be found fuller details as to the elections 
for the City of London than have been 
collected elsewhere. 



(11 S. ii. 28). Might not the phrase quoted 
by K. D. read "Marry, sir, the pit-ward," 
&c. ? 

We know from Act I. sc. i. there were bears 
in the town, and it was, perhaps, near the 
bearpit where these animals were confined 
that Simple had looked for Dr. Caius. 

It might also be noted that in Act II. 
sc. ii. 1. 19, Falstaff says to Pistol," To your 
manor of Pict-hatch ! Go." TOUCHSTONE. 

In the list of hospitals founded in England 
before 1547 given in the appendix to Miss 
Clay's ' Mediaeval Hospitals of England ' are 
the following : " Windsor, St. John, 1316 " ; 
"Windsor (Without), St. Peter, 1168." 
The saints named are those to whom the 
hospitals were dedicated ; the dates are those 
of the first accredited reference to them. 

C. C. B. 

(11 S. i. 509). This Lieut. John Pigott, who 
survived the Black Hole of Calcutta in 1756, 
according to the records at Chelsea Hospital, 
joined the 12th Regiment as captain on 
26 December, 1778 ; became captain of one 
of the six Independent Companies of Royal 
Invalids at Plymouth, 7 February, 1780, and 
died on Monday, 19 May, 1788. 

I want to ascertain if he was identical with 
a Lieut. John Pigott who joined the 39th 
Dorset regiment in 1750, went out to India 
with this regiment in 1754, and took part 
in the battle of Plassey in 1757 ; returned to 
Dublin with the regiment in 1758, and in 
this year exchanged into Strode's Regiment 
of Foot (the 62nd) ; was in Carrickfergus 
Castle, Ireland, in February, 1760, when 
attacked by the French officers Flobert and 
Thurot ; and married, 17 June, 1760, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY 23, 1910. 

Elizabeth Jefferson, spinster, of the parish 
of St. Andrew, Dublin. 

Strode's Regiment seemingly went out 
to the West Indies in 1754-5, and this John 
Pigott's name disappears from the Army 
Lists of 1775 as a " Captain in the Army." 
Is there a probability of his having been 
transferred to the 12th Suffolk Regiment in 

Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

(11 S. ii. 29). Probably 'Wild Flowers 
Month by Month,' by Edward Step, F.L.S. 
(F. Warne & Co.), would meet MB. PHILLIPS'S 
requirements. A. MOBLEY DAVIES. 

See ' Field and Woodland Plants,' by 
W. S. Furneaux (Longmans, 1909), in which 
a leading feature is the arrangement of the 
plants and trees according to their seasons, 
habitats, and habits. W. H. PEET. 

Does MB. PHILLIPS know ' How to find 
and name Wild Flowers,' by Thomas Fox, 
F.L.S., published by CasseU & Co. in 1906 ? 

G. F. R. B. 

DOGE'S HAT (11 S. ii. 8, 56). This is 
usually called the doge's cap. In German 
heraldry it is a Dogenhut. In Italian 
heraldry it is a corona dogale, but it is 
spoken of as "il corno dogale." LEO C. 

FOLLY: PLACE-NAME (11 S. ii. 29). 
Since a " Folly " is generally a very preten- 
tious or highly ornamented house, as well as 
any curiosity in domestic architecture, 
often of no practical use, would not such a 
place-name as that alluded to at Shenley 
in Herts be likely to have had its origin in 
being near the mansion known as Colney 
Chapel, erected about 1774 by Governor 
Bourchier ? It was built of Tottenhoe stone 
at an expense of about 53,000/., including the 
charges for laying out the pleasure-grounds. 
A more extended description of the mansion 
will be found in Dr. Dugdale's ' British 

I can speak for the meaning of the word 
"Folly" as used in Essex. It simply 
means a plantation or wood, and is, I 
suppose, connected etymologically with Fr. 
feuille, foliage. For example, an estate 
at Walthamstow abutting on the Forest, 
called by its eighteenth -century owner 
Bellevue, has, since two oak plantations were 
made upon part of it about fifty years 
ago, been commonly known as " Cooke's 
Folly " Cooke being the owner's name. 

One of these plantations is still standing, and 
is, I believe, now part of the Forest, while 
its fellow has been felled, and the site laid 
out for building. Perhaps the lanes referred 
to by your correspondent are, or have been 
leafy lanes. F. SYDNEY EDEN. 

Maycroft, Fyfield Road, Walthamstow. 

404). Sunday Times of 5 June there is no 
"The" in the name of this paper prints 
a letter from the American ex -President 
which confirms my note. It is as follows : 

MY DEAR SIR, My name is pronounced in three 
syllables, the first syllable being pronounced like 
" rose," the flower. Very sincerely yours, 



ii. 26). I have a volume of The War-wick 
and Staffordshire Journal, with the History 
of the Holy Bible, extending from Saturday,. 
12 November, 1737, No. xiii., to Wednesday, 
18 June, 1740, No. cxlix. It appears to 
have been published for some time on 
Thursdays, but afterwards en Wednesdays. 
The Journal consists of four quarto leaves ; 
the History of the Bible of eight quarto leaves 
of a somewhat smaller and better paper,, 
fairly well-printed, and having every other 
week an engraving on a separate quarto 
sheet of moderately good execution. It is 
published by " R. Walker, the Corner of 
Seacoal Lane, next Fleet Lane " ; and I 
transcribe the opening announcement, which 
is quaint : 

" This Paper will be regularly carried on every 
Week at the easy Rate of Two Pence, which is no> 
more than what the Country News Papers cost. 
With every other Number will be given Gratis, a 
Curious Scripture Cut, engraven on Copper. When 
the Book is finished, it will be a very valuable 
Legacy from Generation to Generation ; and abso- 
lutely necessary for instructing Youth in the- 
Rudiments of the Scripture ; for which reason it is- 
hop'd One Person will recommend it to another." 


MABK TWAIN (11 S. i. 367, 418, 457). As 
an addition to the somewhat contrary ideas 
expressed anent this American humorist's 
style as a lecturer, the following excerpts 
from a review of the book ' Mark Twain's 
Speeches ' in The Observer of the 10th inst. 
may be worth recording : 

"I shall never forget hearing him lecture in 
Vienna, where he was living at a time when things 

English were not particularly popular He was so 

entirely easy, apparently so much in earnest, so- 
terribly outraged by the length of his own sentences, 

ii s. ii. JULY 2.3, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that the whole audience 'rose' to him; he carried 
them away completely, though I cannot remember 
that he said a single original or really witty thing. 
He was immensely popular there." 

The reviewer also gives it as his opinion 
that Mr. Clemens would have " risen to the 
very top of the tree as an actor. n 


Junior Athenaeum Club. 

(11 S. i. 346, 493; ii. 16). " Robin 
Hood " customs in connexion with the 
" Hooden Horse' 1 are very interestingly 
discussed by Mr. Percy Maylam of Canter- 
bury in ' The Hooden Horse : an East 
Kent Custom, 1 Canterbury, 1909. 

T. S. M. 

" SCRIBBLE " (11 S. i. 447, 494). The fol- 
lowing is in ' Josephi Laurontii Lucensis 
S. T. D. Amalthea Onomastica,' Lucse, 1640 : 
" Scribida, epistola. Isid. gloss.'* 


ii. 32). The four following books are of the 
nature of collections of toasts and sentiments; 
they are all modern. References to the 
subject occur in several old cookery books 

Toasts and Maxims : A Book of Humour to pass 
the Time. Collected from various sources. Green- 
ing & Co., n.d. (c. 1905). 

The Banquet Book. By Cuyler Reynolds. With 
an introduction by Elbert Hubbard. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, MCMII. 

Quotations for Occasions. Compiled by Katharine 
B. Wood. T. Fisher Unwin, 1897. 

The Diner-Out: A Classified Collection of Apt 
Quotations for Toasts, After-Dinner Speeches, &c. 
(Adapted from 'The Banquet Book.') By Cuyler 
Reynolds. George Routledge & Sons, 1905. 

Kew Green. 

(11 S. i. 508). Of the thirteen children 
born to Frederick V. of Bohemia and the 
Princess Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of 
James I., five were females, namely, Eliza- 
beth, Louisa Hollandina, Henrietta Mary, 
Charlotte, and Sophia. No such name as 
" Clara Emilia '* appears among them. If 
it be allowed me to hazard a guess, I would 
suggest that " Clara Emilia " was an 
assumed name, religious rather than bap- 
tismal. Two of the daughters of King 
Frederick embraced a religious vocation : 
Elizabeth became Superior of the Lutheran 
Abbey of Harvorden in Westphalia ; Louisa 
entered the Roman Catholic Church, and 
died Abbess of Maubisson in France. 

Possibly the Princess Louisa took the name- 
Clara Emilia. She was, at all events, a lady 
of many accomplishments, and a patroness 
of literature. W. S. S. 

The History of England from the Accession of Anne 

to the Death of George II. (1702-1760). By 

I. S. Leadam. (Longmans & Co.) 
THIS is the ninth volume of ' The Political History 
of England,' edited by Dr. William Hunt and Dr.. 
Reginald L. Poole, a series which by this tune 
has secured the regard of all competent scholars. 

It is almost impossible to review hi a brief 
space any political history without rewriting it,, 
so complicated are the threads which go to make 
up the fabric of native and foreign intrigue. We 
prefer to say that Mr. Leadam's book is welE 
worth its place in the series, and, where we have 
tested its conclusions, both sound and clear. 

The additions to the volume at the end are 
thorough and satisfactory, being an Appendix 
' On Authorities,' and another on ' Administra- 
tions ' ; a full Index ; plans of the battles of 
Dettingen, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, 
and Fontenoy ; and two maps. 

Jamiesori's Dictionary of the Scottish Language. 
Abridged by J. Johnstpne, and revised and 
enlarged by Dr. Longmuir. With Supplement, 
to which is prefixed an Introduction, by W. M- 
Metcalfe, D.D. (Paisley, Alex. Gardner.) 
THIS is a large and comprehensive repertory of 
the Scottish tongue which we have already 
profited by consulting. At the same time, the 
work of Jamieson which forms the first part loses 
in interest by its brevity. The addition of 
examples of the words with their context serves 
to fix usages in one's memory which are apt to be 
forgotten when one has only a bare explanation 
and no more. In this way the book compares 
unfavourably with such a work as Charles 
Mackay's ' Dictionary of Lowland Scotch * 
(1888), which gives, for instance, to illustrate 
" toom "= empty, quotations from Allan Ramsay, 
Burns, Dean Ramsay (2), Donald Cargill, and 
James Telfer. 

On this scale, however, the book would outrun 
the proportions of a single volume ; as it is, the 
first part extends to 635 pages of text, apart from 
introductory matter, while the Second Part has 
48 pages of Introduction, and 263 of Supplement, 
in which further words are added. Dr. Metcalfe, 
who is responsible for this section, is abreast of the 
scientific scholarship which has cleared up many 
things, and gives an excellent selection of speci- 
mens of Middle Scots. His list of words is 
fortified by references to the E.E.T.S., S.T.S., 
and S.B.R.S., and various published records due 
to the energy of recent scholars. A main source 
of this part of the book is the four-volume edition 
of Jamieson, and Mr. Donaldson's fifth volume, 
which forms a supplement to the same. Here, 
too, illustrative passages have been but sparingly 
used for want of space. The whole forms a very 
useful book for the elucidation of words which, 
though in many cases fairly impressed on literary 
language, are a puzzle to the Southron. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t n s. n. JULY 23, mo. 


MB. P. M. BARNARD sends two Catalogues from 
Tunbridge Wells. One is devoted to Book 
Catalogues, some of them being auction catalogues, 
with prices and names of purchasers. The other, 
No. 37, is devoted to Early English Books, and 
contains books printed in England and books 
in English printed abroad up to 1640, books 
relating to the Tudor period, and purchases from 
the library of Coventry School. The school was 
founded by John Hales in 1548, but the library 
was not formed until 1601. Mr. Barnard gives 
an index of the printers and booksellers of the 
works in the first part of the catalogue. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son's Catalogue 222 
contains Engravings and Drawings. The first 
items are on a subject of engrossing interest at 
the present time aeronautics. The ' Battle of 
the Balloons,' circa 1780, shows four English a,nd 
French balloons, with cannon, fighting in the air : 
Behold an odd fight, two odd Nations between, 
Such odd fighting as this was never yet seen ; 
But such Fights will be common (as Dunce to 

feel Rod) 
In the year of One Thousand eight Hundred 

and odd. 

The ascents include Godard's Montgolfier balloon 
from Cremorne, 1864 ; that of " M. Blanchard, 
accompagne par le Chevalier Lepinard, fait a 
Lille, en Flandre, le 26 Aout, 1785," full of 
spectators, with cordons of troops ; the Nassau 
from Vauxhall, with Cocking's fatal descent, 
24 July, 1837; Cornillot's ascent from the village of 
:Seal, 25 August, 1825, when he " established the 
principle of sailing in an horizontal direction at 
any point of elevation required " ; and the 
destruction of the Victoria and Albert balloon, 
16 June, 1851, injuring Mr. and Mrs. Graham, 
and damaging 16, Arlington Street. There are 
many caricatures, balloons waiting for hire, &c. 
The general portion contains original sketches 
by Hablot K. Browne, Cruikshank, and Phil May. 
Under Rowlandson is an interesting collection of 
water-colour drawings. Under Fires we find 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 17 September, 1795 ; 
the Great Fire ; the Houses of Parliament, 
16 October, 1834 ; Newgate, and the Royal 
Exchange. There are long lists under Military 
and under Napoleon, that under Uniforms 
in3luding Hull's Army and Navy, 100Z. A collec- 
tion of over 1,700 caricatures comprises the 
Georges, William IV., the French Revolution, 
Napoleon, Russia, ladies' fashions, social , customs, 

Messrs. Sotheran are removing their West-End 
house from 37 to 43, Piccadilly, and their Price 
Current 706 is devoted to the first part of a clear- 
ance list of a great portion of the second-hand 
stock, at a discount of 25 per cent, during the 
next two months. The list extends from A to G, 
and as it contains nearly three thousand items, 
there is plenty to choose from. We note Robert 
and James Adam's ' Works in Architecture,' 
3 vols., imp. folio, 1773-1822 (one of 500 copies), 
6Z. 6s. ; Ainsworth's Novels, 16 vols., half- 
morocco by Riviere, 8Z. 8s. ; and ' The Annual 
Register,' complete to 1908, with index volume, 
1758-1908, 3QL There is a cheap copy of a fine 
work, ' Archeologie de 1'Empire de Russie,' 

508 plates, beautifully coloured, 6 vols. atlas, 
folio in 4, and 6 vols. 4to of text (in Russian) in 2. 
uniformly bound in crushed levant, Moscou", 
1849-53, very rare, 63Z. A set of the works of 
Arnold of Rugby, 16 vols., morocco, 1845, is 
4:1. 4s. ; Pickering's edition of Bacon, 17 vols., 
original cloth, 4Z. 10s. ; the large-paper edition 
of ' The Badminton Library of Sports,' 29 vols., 
4to, one of 250 copies, 30Z. ; an edition of 
Balzac on Japanese vellum, 11 vols., 1897, 
6L 10s. ; and Bancroft's works on Western Ame- 
rican origins, 39 vols., 191. Under Ward Beecher 
is Abbott's sketch of his career, New York, 1883, 
4s. Qd. This volume ends with statistics of the 
proceeds of the auctions by which the preacher 
let his pews. A rich collection of Bibles includes 
a fine copy of the rare version by Matthew, 1537, 
551. ; also two fine copies of the second edition 
of Coverdale. An original copy of Botta's 
' Monument de Ninive ' is 35Z. There is Southey's 
copy of Brathwait's ' English Gentleman and 
English Gentlewoman ' ; it is the third edition, 
revised and enlarged, 1641, 11. 10s. The following 
is part of the note written by the poet on the fly- 
leaf : " The second edition of the English Gentle- 
man (1633, sm. 4to) was dedicated to the Nobly 
accomplished the Right Honourable Thomas 
Viscount Wentworth, Lord Deputy of Ireland. 
.... In the present edition it is enlarged but not 
otherwise altered. I hope the Bookseller and 
not the Author may have been the person who 
struck out from the superscription the name of the 
greatest man of his age ; and substituted in its 
place that of the most worthless." There are 
sets of The Garden, Fraser, Engineering, and many 
other publications. 

Two volumes for subscribers are to be pub- 
lished of the excavations at the Glastonbury 
Lake Village, 1892-1907. The writers are Mr. 
Arthur Bulleid, the discoverer of the site, and 
Mr. H. St. George Gray, well known for his 
work in excavation. There will be an intro- 
ductory chapter by Dr. Robert Munro, and also 
reports on the human and animal remains, bird 
bones, botanical specimens, and metals, by 
experts. The work will be published in a hand- 
some style with numerous illustrations by the 
Glastonbury Antiquarian Society, and Mr. Gray 
at Taunton Castle, Somerset, will answer further 
inquiries concerning it. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

G. W. E. R. and H. K. ST. J. S. Forwarded. 

NORTH MIDLAND (" George III.'s Birthday "). 
He was born on 24 May, 1738, before the altera- 
tion of the calendar. See the interesting note by 
MR. A. F. ROBBINS at 9 S. iv. 305. 

ii s. ii. JULY so, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : S. Joseph, Sculptor, 81 Danteiana, 82 Richard 
Sare, Bookseller Hakluyt and Bristol 'The Star- 
Spangled Banner,' 84 Pitt's Statue in Hanover Square- 
Thomas Coryate's Death Prior Thomas Percy, 85 John 
Ranking " Sokol " and Bohemian Physical Culture- 
Sweepstake as Surname " Leap in the Dark" in 
Parliament, 86. 

QUERIES :-" Storm in a teacup" Rev. M. W. Peters, 86 
Col. J. B. Glegg Edward Bull, Publisher Stone in 
Pentonville Road J. M. Que"rard Writers on Music- 
Sir S. Duncombe Dickens on Royal Humane Society 
Abp. Montaigne, 87 Authors Wanted Amaneuus as 
Christian Name The Sleepless Arch Christopher 
Moore " Portygne " Bp. E. Wetenhall Sir John 
Wilson John Worthen Sir John Alleyn : Dame Ethel- 
dreda Alleyn, 88 David Hughson Corio Arms 'The 
Case Altered ' Friendless Wapentake ' Erlkonigs 
Tochter' Pearson Family, 89. 

REPLIES : Thames Water Company, 89 Nelson's Birth- 
place, 91 Barabbas a Publisher Authors Wanted 
" Merluche, " 92 Col. Skelton ' ' Tilleul " ' ' Quilt " 
Snuff-box Inscription Sir W. B. "Rush, 93 Strettell- 
Utterson Paris Family iSir Matthew Philip 'Draw- 
ing-Room Ditties 'Tennyson's 'Margaret,' 94 Knapp 
Family Garrick's Version of ' Romeo and Juliet' Moses 
and Pharaoh's Daughter -Pigeon -houses in the Middle 
Ages, 95 ' Tess of the D'Urbervilles ' E. Hatton Stones 
in Early Village Life 'Sir Ed ward Sea ward's Narrative,' 
96 Garibaldi and his Flag Cowes Family Circle of 
Loda Market Day, 97 Goldsmith and Hackney 
George I. Statues, 98 Queen Katherine Parr Duchess 
of Palata, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' edited 
by Greg" The Little Guides." 


THE following list has come into my hands 
through granddaughters of the sculptor. 
Busts, like portraits, probably easily lose 
their attribution, and it is well to have them 
put on record. It will also be useful as a 
list of portraits, although the present loca- 
tion is lacking. There are a number of busts 
in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, and 
several in the Law Courts at Edinburgh. 

In England the best -known work of 
Joseph is the delightful statue of Wilber- 
force in Westminster Abbey, of which 
Thomas Brock. R.A., says : " The fineness 
and beauty of this masterpiece would be 
difficult to surpass in any age." The original 
competition plaster sketch for this is still in 
the hands of the family. 

This is by no means a complete list of the 
sculptor's works, but presumably only of 
those of which the plaster casts were in his 
hands at the time. 

Joseph was a pupil of Flaxman, and did 
much of the work of the famous Achilles 
shield. He was a friend of Walter Scott 
and the Edinburgh literary set of the day, 

and was an original member of the Scottish 
Royal Academy. He came to London about 
1830 and was a favourite in artistic and 
literary circles. It may be worth recording 
here that his daughter Emily (afterwards 
Mrs. Geo. T. Tweed of Honiton), who 
died in 1904, was the model from whom 
Uwins painted the well-known ' Chapeau de 
Brigand * now in the National Gallery or 
on loan. > : 


To be seen by Tickets at his House .... 
[the rest torn off]. 


1. Bust of His Most Gracious Majesty George the 
Fourth. Executed by command, of His 

The late Right Hon. the Earl of Morton. 
G. Stuart Monteath, Esq., of Closeburn. 
The late George Rennie, Esq., of Phantassie. 
The Revd. Dr. Chalmers. 

Thomas Allan, Esq., of Laurieston, Edin- 

The late Dr. Barclay, Lecturer on Anatomy, 
&c., in Edinburgh. 

Esq., Advocate, &e., 










Esq., Civil Engineer, 


Thomas Thomson, 

Robert Stevenson, 


The Revd. Dr. Peddie, of Edinburgh. 
The late John Flaxman, Esq., R.A., 

fessor of Sculpture in R.A. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Herbert Taylor, Adjutant- 
Gen, of H.M. Forces. 
The late Professor Dugald Stewart. 
James Hamilton, Esq., of Homehead, N.B. 
Thomas Stothard, Esq., R.A. 
The late Revd. Sir Henry Wellwood Moncrieff, 


Miss Margaret Alison. 
His Grace the Duke of Argyll. 
John Jackson, Esq., R.A. 
Robert Ferguson, Esq., of Raith, &c. &c. 
David Wilkie, Esq., R.A., Principal Portrait 

Painter to His Majesty. 

Lieut. -General Sir Ronald Ferguson, K.C.B. 
John Listen, Esq. 
The Hon. Lord Eldin (formerly John Clerk, 

Esq., of Eldin). 

The late Infant Son of the Hon. Lord Elcho. 
The late Dr. Gregory, of Edinburgh. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Lowry Cole, K.C.B. 
The late Sir Humphry Davy, Bart. 
The late Matthew Miller, Esq. 
Lord Moncrieff, of Edinburgh. 
John Leslie, Esq., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. 
The Right Hon. Lord John Campbell. 
Gen. Hamilton, of Dalziel. 
Mrs. Frederick North. 
Charles Kemble, Esq. 
The Rt. Hon. the Countess of Kintore. 
Walter Fergus, Esq., Provost of Kirkcaldy. 
The late President of the Royal Academy, 

Sir Thomas Lawrence. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY so, 1910. 

39. Hamilton Grey, Esq., of Carntyne, N.B. 

40. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh (William 

Allan, Esq., of Glen and Hillside). 

41. Mrs. William Russel, Daughter of Lady Char- 

lotte Campbell. 

42. Alexander Allan, Esq. 

43. The late Alexander Allan, Esq., of Hillside, 


44. Dr. James Hamilton, of Edinburgh. 

45. The Revd. Archibald Alison, Author of the 

' Essays on Taste,' &c. &c. 

46. Francis Jeffrey, Esq., Dean of Faculty. 

47. Henry Mackenzie, Esq., Author of ' The 

Man of Feeling,' &c. &c. 

48. His Excellency Lord Bloomfield. 

49. Flounders, Esq. - 

50. The late Robert Ramsay, Esq. 

51. The late Dr. Campbell, of Aberdeen 

executed for the College. 

52. Miss Janet Rennie. 

53. The late Mrs. Vidal. 

54. A Sketch of Monsieur Alexandre, in the 

assumed Character of the French Doctor. 

55. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. 

56. Lady Ellinor Campbell. 

57. William Trotter, Esq., of Ballendean, N.B. 

58. Davies Gilbert, Esq., M.P., President of the 
Royal Society. 

59. Dr. M'Lagan, of Edinburgh. 

60. Perkins, Esq., Civil Engineer. 

61. The Right Hon. the Chief Commissioner of 

Scotland, Sir Wm. Adam. 

62. Dr. M'Culloch. 

63. Robert Buchan, Esq. 

64. Lady White. 

65. Mrs. Thomas Kinnear. 

66. John Prideaux Selby, Esq., of Twizel House, 

Northumberland ; Author of * History of 
Birds', &c. &c. 

67. Richard Ellison, Esq., of Sudbrook Holme, 

near Lincoln. 

68. Sketch for a Monument to the Memory of the 

late Earl of Hopetoun. 

69. Sketch for a Monument to the Memory of the 

late Right Hon. Wm. Pitt. 

70. Part of a Design for a Monument to the 

Memory of His late Royal Highness the 
Duke of York. 

71. Sketch for a Monument to the Memory of 

the late Profes. Dugald Stewart. 

The following are on a new page : 


1. Bust of His Most Gracious Majesty George 

the Fourth. 

2. Ditto, the late President of the Royal 

Academy, Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

3. Ditto, Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

4. Ditto, the late Professor Dugald Stewart. 

5. Ditto, John Flaxman, Esq., R.A. 

6. Ditto, Henry Mackenzie, Esq. 

7. Ditto, David Wilkie, Esq., R.A. 

8. Ditto, Thomas Stothard, Esq., R.A. 

9. Ditto, Professor Leslie. 
10. Ditto, John Liston, Esq. 

George Boyle, Printer, 284, Regent Street. 

Castle Hill, Guildford. 



Inf. ? xvii. 21 : 

E come la tra li Tedeschi lurchi. 
It is doubtful whether this hostile line merits 
the emphasis of comment. Many treat it 
with the rebuke of silence. Lombard! 
contents himself with referring to Tacit us' s 
' De Mor. Germ., ? and observing : 

" E da riflettersi, che i nostri Jpadri da van 
questo epiteto sempre in disprezzo." 

And so Dante meant it, whether we render 
lurchi as *' greedy German boor " (Gary), 
" guzzling Germans " (Tomlinson), " full- 
fed Germans" (Plumptre), or "gobbling 
Germans " (Ford). But why and whence- 
this venomous expression ? Is it open to 
explanation or attenuation ? The possi- 
bility of either alternative is my only warrant 
for dealing with it here. Dean Plumptre's 
view is : 

" The poet's ideal imperialism was obviously 
compatible with a strong dislike to the Teuton 
as such. For the character given to Germans- 
comp. Shakesp;, ' Merch. of Ven.,' I. ii." 

The reference (1. 82) runs thus : 

Ner. How like you the young German, the 
Duke of Saxony's nephew ? 

For. Very vilely in the morning, when he is 
sober, and most vilely in the afternoon, when he 
is drunk. 

The comparison is not to the credit of 
either poet, though probably both expres- 
sions merely reflect biased Italian opinion 
in their respective periods (1300, 1595). But 
neither charge deserved such brutal im- 
mortality. Reduced to their elemental 
dimensions, the antipathy of the untravelled 
Shakespeare and that of the more experienced 
Dante evidently alike originated in a fallacious 
ab uno disce omnes argument. Of the latter 
Scartazzini says, commenting on this 
line : 

" Dante non conosceva per avventura che 
quei Tedeschi mandati da Manfredi in soccorso- 
dei fuorusciti Fiorentini e che si lasciarono- 
ubbriacare da Farinata degli Uberti." 

Possibly also the poet beheld instances of 
inebriety amongst the dwellers by the 
Rhine and Danube ; more probably still our 
own poet's solitary instance was gleaned 
from hearsay. But whencever their sources 
of information, neither "ideal imperialism," 
nor national disgust, nor personal experi- 
ence, still less mere hearsay, justified either 
of them in branding to posterity an entire- 
nation with the shortcomings of a few of its 
representatives. It is open to debate whether 
the England and Italy of their epochs could 
not be similarly stigmatized. 

ii s. ii. JULY so, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


But as a reference to the MS. variants of 
this offensive phrase will possess more 
interest for some students than an inquiry 
into its raison d' et re, I append the following, 
culled (except the last) from Dr. Moore's 
' Textual Criticism of the " D. C." J : " Tran 
Ii" is found in MS. A. (De Batines, 491). 
This MS. is in the Bodleian, " a fine MS. on 
vellum, in large folio Its date is pro- 
bably that of the early part of the 15th 
century." C. has " elurchi " (De Bat., 492), 
"another beautifully written MS. in the 
Bodleian on vellum. . . .not later than 1380," 
while a has " ilurchi " (De Bat., 537). " This 
very beautiful MS. in the British Museum, the 
gem of the whole collection, dates from 
about the middle of the 14th century." 
A and H (De Bat., 486), both also in the 
Bodleian, have " tedeschi Ii urchi " ; and 
E. (De Bat., 489), likewise in the Bodleian, 
a MS. on paper, in large folio, of which 
the date is given in the colophon (Finito adi 
15 Febrar, 14^}, has " todeschi burchi." 

Of perhaps wider insular interest is the 
variant in the Landi Codex (on paper) in 
the John Rylands Library in this city, which 
has " E come la tralli tedeschi eliurchi," 
a somewhat unusual phrasing, for which 
I am indebted to the Librarian, Mr. H. 
Guppy, who observes in supplying it : 

" A correction has been made in what must be 
a slightly later hand by stroking through the e 
and the i of ' eliurchi,' and a marginal reading 
given as ' latralli tedeschi lurchi.' " 

The intended emendation, at least in the 
corrector's careless union of three words in 
"latralli," is less acceptable than the text, 
the II of which allies it with the curious 
orthography of MSS. II and < as instanced 
by Dr. Moore. 

This valuable MS., of date 1416, possesses 
additional interest on account of its com- 
posite character, containing, besides the 
text of the * D. C.' (with Latin and Italian 
marginal glosses), a Latin poem by Ben- 
venuto da Imola, two Latin ethical treatises, 
a ' Cangone di Dante Aleghieri, J a Latin 
prayer of St. Augustine, an Italian transla- 
tion of Cicero's ' De Senectute,' &c. I 
inspected it in June, 1905, and quoted from 
it at 10 S. iii. 483 and xii. 449. It is as 
yet little known to Dantologists, but, in 
addition to my references in ' N & Q., 1 it 
has .been admirably introduced to them by 
Dr. Aluigi Cossio in the June issue of The 
Antiquary. The transcriber is unknown 
beyond his name (Bartholomew Landi de 
Landis), occupation (notary), birthplace 
(Prato), and later residence at Volterra, 
where he concluded his translation of 

Cicero's work, 23 Dec., 1426 ; but no future 
Dante bibliography will be complete without 
reference to his important legacy. 

II. Ibid., 68-9 : 

Sappi che il mio vicin Vitaliano 
Sedera qui dal mio sinistro fianco. 
This passage is mainly remarkable for a fact 
thus stated by Dean Plumptre : 

" For the first time we have, as it were, a 
prophetic condemnation of one who was living- 
at the date assumed for the vision, but dead 
when he wrote this canto." 

But the identity of this Vitaliano is less 
easy to determine. Some commentators,, 
with more assurance than accuracy, boldly 
proclaim him to be Vitaliano del Dente. 
Says Scartazzini : 

" Gli antichi comm. [he might have added some 
moderns also, e.g., Gary, Bianchi, Venturi, Lom- 
bardi] dicono pressoche unanimi che costui fosse 
Vitaliano del Dente, eletto podesta nel 1307. 
II Morpurgo si avvisa invece che Dante parli dE 
certo Vitaliano di Jacopo Vitaliani, usuraio 
marcio : ' Dante e Padova,' p. 213 e seg." 

The great commentator adds a humorous 
tag to his note: "Che tutti gli antichi 
abbiano preso un granchio ? " Is this 
expression ("caught a crab") equivalent 
to our " finding a mare's nest " ? 

Dean Plumptre confidently sides with 
Morpurgo : 

" He is identified with a Vitaliano dei Vitaliani 
of Padua, whose usury was notorious, and of 
whom a local chronicle of 1323 speaks as con- 
demned to Hell by the Doctor Vulgaris, sc. Dante,. 
as the great scholastic poet who had written in 

The Rev. H. F. Tozer ('English Com- 
mentary on the " D. C." ') is more wary, 
and wisely observes : 

" Vitaliano : he was still alive, but as to who 
he was there are conflicting views." 

His interpretation, however, of "sinistro,' 2 
" as being the worse of the two," seems to 
me to be less wise, although he has Scartaz- 
zini's support for it " perch e piu colpevole 
di me." Surely " sinistro fianco " has 
neither an heraldic nor an ethical significa- 
tion, and can only mean what the words 
naturally and grammatically imply " left " 
side or hand, which, qualified by "mio, ?? 
would obviously attach the greater culpa- 
bility to the speaker (conjecturally, from 
the device a sow azure on field argent 
of his family, Reginald Scrovigni, " usuraio 
famigerato," says Scartazzini). And this 
is further confirmed if, as has apparently 
been done, " sinistro " is taken as an equi- 
valent to our "sinister," which signifies 
bad, unlucky, unjust, unfair, perverse, as 
well as " left," 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. JULY ao, 1910. 

For some curious MS. variants of the 
couplet under review (" Vitiliano,'* D. 
"Italiano," K. ; "Dal tuo sin.,' ? G., &c. 
the student is referred to Dr. Moore (ut 
supra}. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 


THERE are comparatively few biographies oi 
booksellers, and there is certainly no 
adequate history of the English book-trade. 
It may therefore not be without interest 
-to set down some notes about a worthy 
bookseller of the eighteenth century. He is 
not mentioned by Timperley. His funeral 
sermon was preached by a man of distinction, 
Dr. George Stanhope, Dean of Canterbury. 
It is from this sermon that the following 
particulars are ta"ken. The Dean's text was 
taken from Psalm cvii. 30-31. After speak- 
ing of his more than thirty years' acquaint- 
ance with Sare, he continued : 

" His Descent was from the Clergy ; to which 
Order his whole Character and Conduct was not 
only suitable, but an Ornament and a Blessing. 
For he both believed, and lived, as became one 
so born and bred ; and was a true son of the 
Christian in General, and of the Church of Eng- 
land in particular. And This, not from Fashion, 
or Education, or Interest only ; but upon Principle, 
and Judgment, and such well weighed Convic- 
tion, as enabled him with great Readiness, to 
give an answer, as St. Peter exhorts, to every one 
that should ask him a Reason of the Hope that 
was in him. 

" His Knowledge of Books and Men, the 
Candour and Ingenuity of his Temper, the oblig- 
ing Manner of his Behaviour, and the gratefull 
Acknowledgments of any Favours and Benefits 
received, did indeed long time since, effectually 
recommend him, not only to the Countenance and 
Conversation, but also to the Friendship and 
special Regards of many Persons, eminent both 
in Post and Learning. 

" Nor ought I to omit, that I scarce ever heard 
his Name, come out of the mouth of our present 
most Reverend Primate, without being honour'd 
by some Epithet, which spoke Affection, and 
Esteem for him. 

" His Fortune, like most of Theirs who are Sons 
of Our Order, was originally very moderate ; But 
given him by his Father, with this comfortable 
Declaration ; that he might depend upon that 
little wearing like Iron, since there was not one 
dishonest Penny in it. So carefully had that 
Maxim of the Psalmist, been instill'd into this Son ; 
a small Thing that the Righteous hath, is better 
than great Riches of the ungodly. As that Saying 
of the good old Man made great Impression, so, 
he told me, the Experience which Verify'd it, 
made continually greater ; and confirmed him 
more and more in his good Purposes, of taking the 
same honest Course to insure a blessing, upon 
whatsoever Addition to those slender Beginnings, 
tthe kind Providence of God should enable him 
to make. 

" How constant he was to this Resolution, 
They, who dealt with him in the Way of Trade, 
best can, and will, I doubt not, bear him Testi- 

" One Instance of it he hath often told me, which 
ought not to be passed over in Silence, because 
much to his Honour. It is, that he would never 
suffer himself, by any Temptation of Profit, to be 
concern'd in publishing any Book, obnoxious to 
the Censure of our Governours, either in Church 
or State, or any way prejudicial to Religion oh 
good Manners. A Reader therefore may, with 
great Security, after his Name seen in the Title- 

Sage, go on, and depend upon finding the whole 
lat follows, innocent at least always ; and for 
the most Part usefull and greatly edifying. I 
hope, of this commendable Conduct we have many 
more Examples ; and happy sure it were, if All of 
the same Profession, would walk by the same 

The sermon is entitled : 
" Death just Matter of Joy to good Men. A Ser- 
mon preach'd at the Parish Church of St. Pancras, 
on Tuesday the llth of February, 1723. At the 
funeral of Mr. Richard Sare, of London, Book- 
seller. By George Stanhope, D.D., Dean of 
Canterbury and Chaplain in Ordinary to his 
Majesty. London Printed by W. Bowyer for 
Richard Williamson, near Grays - Inn Gate in 
Holborn, 1724." 4to, pp. 24. 

These biographical data, although some 
of them are rather vague, should be placed 
on record where they can easily be found 
when needed. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 
191, Plymouth Grove, Manchester. 

just been placed at the east end of the north 
choir aisle of Bristol Cathedral with this 
inscription : 

" To the glory of God and the pious memory 
of Richard Hakluyt, A.M., Queen's Scholar of 
Westminster School, student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, sometime Archdeacon of Westminster, 
and for 30 years Prebendary of this Cathedral 
hurch (MDLXXXVI. MDCXVI.), who by his 
listorical collections earned the gratitude both 
of his country and of this ancient port. His 
studious imagination discovered new paths for 
geographical science, and his patriotic labours 
escued from oblivion not a few of those who 
went down to the sea in ships, to be harbingers 
of Empire, descrying new lands and finding larger 
room for their race. A.S., MDCCCCX. ' The ardent 
ove of my country devoured all difficulties.' 
From Hakluyt's dedication prefixed to the second 
edition of the Voyages.)" 

Canon Talbot raised the fund, the Royal 
geographical Society being donors of more 
)han half the total. Mr. Sidney Irwin of 
Clifton College wrote the inscription. 



owing note, derived from the President of the 
Burrows Brothers Company of Cleveland, 

ii s. ii. JULY so, i9io.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 


seems of interest. In a work on ' The 
American Flag,' edited by Mr. Harlan H. 
Homer, which the Department of Education 
of New York State is publishing, the state- 
ment is made that the original publication 
in a newspaper of ' The Star-Spangled 
Banner ' was on September 21st, 1814, in 
The Baltimore American, and this is the 
accepted view. 

But it is now shown that the poem 
appeared in The Baltimore Patriot and Even- 
ing Advertiser on Tuesday evening, Septem- 
ber 20th, a day earlier. This paper was dis- 
covered by Mr. J. C. Fitzpatrick of the 
Library of Congress. The new date will 
appear in the eighth volume of Mr. Avery's 
' History of the United States,' published 
by the Burrows Brothers Company. 

N. M. 

At 10 S. ix. 283 MR. JOHN T. PAGE men- 
tioned the " Statue of William Pitt, Hanover 
Square. Erected in 1831 at a cost of 7,OOOZ., 
subscribed by admirers of the great states- 

The following letter on the subject, which 
appeared in The Morning Post of 18 July, is 
of special interest in this connexion : 

SIB, TheHanover Square Enclosure Committee 
have been recently considering the condition of 
the statue of Pitt in that square. They feel that 
its appearance is more or less of a disgrace to 
one of the principal squares in London. The first 
difficulty which confronts them in their endeavour 
for a better state of things is the question of 
ownership. Will you grant them the hospitality 
of your columns to ask the question publicly : 
To whom does the statue of Pitt in Hanover 
Square belong ? Is there any representative of 
the family who would undertake the cost of 
cleansing the statue ? Yours, &c., 

Secretary, Enclosure Committee. 



We are told in the ' D.N.B.' that he died of a 
flux at Surat in December, 1617. On the 
other hand, G. Gerrard, writing to Carleton 
on 9 January, 1619, states that a vessel from 
Surat brings news from Sir Thomas Roe in 
Persia, and that Coryat has died in those 
parts, and has left enough written to fill 
the world with new relations. Again, 
Archbishop Abbot wrote to Sir Thomas 
Roe on 19 February, 1619, that the king 
blamed some of Thomas Coryat's tales from 
the East (Domestic State Papers under 
dates). This refers probably to his last 
letter from Agra, 31 October, 1616, which 
\va.s printed in 1618. L. L. K. 

ALDGATE. In the London volume of the 
Victoria County Histories, p. 471, there is 
an error which (by implication) impugns my 
own accuracy, and which is a striking illus- 
tration of the importance to young authors 
(and indeed to " old hands " also) of the 
advice " always verify your references." 

In my 'Aldermen of London,' p. 418, I 
have stated that Percy was Prior of Holy 
Trinity (in succession to Newton, who had 
been elected on the death of Charnock in 
1505) from October, 1506, till (his death in> 
1512, being succeeded by Bradwell. That 
statement is accurate, and can be verified 
by reference to the patents at the Record 

Miss Reddan, who contributes to this 
volume of the County History the article on 
the religious houses, in which Holy Trinity 
is included, says that " Percy was not Prior 
in 1506 nor in 1509, though he may have 
been reinstated before his death in 1512,'* 
referring in foot-notes to (1) Letters and 
Papers Henry VIII. xvi. 503 (15), and (2), 
Ancient Deeds, Public Record Office, A 
1773, as authorities for her statement. 

The first reference is to a lease granted 
by Prior Newton in February, 1506 (i.e.* 
1505/6), which proves that Percy was not 
Prior on a particular day in that month of 
1506, but does not prove that he was "not 
Prior in 1506. n Miss Reddan's second 
reference is to the printed ' Calendar of 
Ancient Deeds,' and not, as one would 
naturally infer, to the deed itself. The 
Calendar gives " 4 May, 1 Hen. VIII.," i.e., 
1509, as the date of a deed in which Bradwell 
is named as Prior. If, instead of being con- 
tent with the Calendar, Miss Reddan had 
referred to the deed itself, she would have 
seen that the deed is actually dated 4 May 
" anno octavo Henrici octavi " (i.e. 8 Henry 
VIII., 1516). I may add that the writing 
of the deed is perfectly clear, and that, to 
" make assurance double sure," I asked my 
criend Dr. W. A. Shaw, who is an expert in 
such things, to look at the manuscript with 
me. This is not the only case in which 
[ have found the * Calendar of Ancient 
Deeds ' misleading. The true date of the 
deed (1516) is quite consistent with the 
dates I have quoted above from my ' Alder- 
men of London,' and obviously does not 
support Miss Reddan's inference from the 
date given in the Calendar. 

As I am criticizing Miss Reddan for an 
error into which any one but such a con- 
firmed sceptic as myself with regard 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. n. JULY so, 1910. 

to accepted historical authorities might 
naturally fall, I feel it due to her to say 
that, so far as I am competent to judge, her 
work seems to be admirably and carefully 
done, and I should be sorry to appear to 
detract from its merits. 


JOHN BANKING. I have just seen by 
chance an inquiry by MB. E. I. CARLYLE at 
8 S. ix. 47 for particulars of the life of Mr. 
John Ranking. If MR. CARLYLE is still in 
need of this information, I shall be happy 
to give him all the particulars of which I am 
in possession, if he will write to me. 


Beech Lawn, Park Town, Oxford. 

CAL CULTURE. The visit of a team of 
Bohemian athletes to this country will 
have drawn attention to the word sokol. 
The movement was begun in 1862 by Dr. 
Miroslav Tyr, a profound Greek scholar and 
enthusiast for physical culture. Through 
his exertions, assisted by those of Mr. Jind 
rich Fiigner, a brotherhood was formed 
at Prague for the objects of mental and 
physical development, and before the deaths 
of these leaders branches were established 
all over Bohemia. The members adopted a 
picturesque dress, with the sokol (falcon) 
as their device. Their small copper badge 
shows the artistic figure of a fencer to his 
waist, with the words no, straz (on guard). 
At present there are thousands of centres, 
and vast numbers assemble for the periodical 
displays on the Letna plain, near Prague. 
The movement has spread to other Slav 
countries, including Russia, where centres 
exist in several large towns. 

Streatham Common. 

occurrence of this word, probably, is, as a 
surname, in the Poll Tax for Yorkshire, 
2 Richard II., 1378-9, under the heading 
of " Berwyk,' 2 in Elmet, near Leeds (Yorks 
Archceol. Journal, vi. 315) : " Robertus 
Swepstak et ux iiij d . n It was not " Swep- 
rstaker, n because there is no abbreviating 
mark. A. S. ELLIS. 

HART quoted at 9 S. xi. 466 some instances 
of the use of this phrase in 1708, and the 
* N.E.D.'- shows that it was used by Van- 
fcurgh and Defoe ; but the Earl of Derby 

made it famous in 1867. The first use of it, 
however, in a Parliamentary manner seems 
to be American ; for on 28 February, 1848, 
Mr. Sawyer of Ohio said in the House of 
Representatives at Washington that his 
colleague Mr. Schenck complained that in 
passing the Appropriation Bill then ' ' they 
were taking a leap in the dark " (see The 
Congressional Globe, Thirtieth Congress, 
p. 393). I do not find the phrase in Mr. 
Schenck's speech as reported. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their name's and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" STORM IN A TEACUP." Our earliest 
example at present of this familiar expression 
is of 1872. It was, of course, in use long 
before ; but I do not know who originated 
it. I am told that there is a variant with 
" teapot " in place of " teacup. " And I have 
seen an American strengthened equivalent, 
" tempest in a teapot.' 1 I should be glad of. 
examples of the first-mentioned form before 
1872, and of the variants of any date. 

The American version is given in the 
supplemental volume to ' The Century 
Dictionary l published last year. I remem- 
ber its occurrence some twenty years ago in 
some amusing verses, which appeared in the 
American newspapers, on the seven or eight 
current pronunciations of " depot,' 1 ending, 
if I remember aright, 

So all this wrangling about " depot " 
Was but a tempest in a teapot. 

I had a copy of this, which I have mislaid. If 
any reader of ' N. & Q., ? on either side of the 
Atlantic, happens to have preserved it, 
or knows where it occurs, I should be glad 
to see it again. JAMES A. H. MURRAY. 

[MR. A. F. BOBBINS quoted at 10 S. xi. 388 the 
phrase "storm in a cream bowl" from a letter of 
the first Duke of Ormond written in 1678. Some 
classical parallels are to be found at p. 456 of the 
same volume.] 

REV. M. W. PETERS. I am compiling a 
monograph on the life and work of the artist, 
the Rev. M. William Peters. I should be 
much obliged if any one possessing informa- 
tion about him, or pictures by him, would 
communicate with me. 


14, Chantrey House, Eccleston Street, S.W. 

u s. ii. JULY so, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LIEUT. -CoL. JOHN B. GLEGG. I should be 
much obliged, for purposes historical, to 
find the representatives of Lieut. -Col. John 
B. Glegg, Assistant-Adjutant-General. Ho 
was on Sir Isaac Brock's staff in Canada. ] 
do not know if he ascended further in the 
service. DAVID Ross McCoRD, K.C. 

Temple Grove, Montreal. 

readers add to my knowledge of Edward 
Bull the publisher, concerning whom I have 
the following facts ? He was the son of 
Simeon Bull of 10, Hollis Street, Cavendish 
Square, and Arundel House, Fulham (b. 
1750, d. 1818). Edward was born in 1798, 
and died on 19 October, 1843, being buried 
at Highgate. He carried on his publishing 
business at 19 and 26, Hollis Street, formerly 
the banking house of Sir Claude Scott, Bt., 
<fe Co. He published among other books in 
1827 ' Boyle Farm,' a poem by his friend 
Lord Francis Egerton, which ran through 
at least three editions (see ' D.N.B.,' Eger- 
ton). In 1839 he published * Indian Hours ; 
or, Passion and Poetry in the Tropics,' by 
R. N. Dunbar (see 'D.N.B.,' Dunbar). 
Edward Bull was, I think, educated at Gor- 
don House Academy, Highgate, under Dr. 
Mersal, whose daughter Frances married 
Edward Bull's elder brother, Simeon Thomas 
Bull the architect. His library was rather 
famous in its day, and the resort of literary 
London. He married a lady who subse- 
quently married a Mr. Buxton. 



of the readers of ' N. & Q.' tell me the history 

f a piece of stone resembling the base of a 

pillar ? It is on a level with the pavement 

between the shop of Mr. Fletcher, luncheon 

S'ovider, 280, Pentonville Road, and that of 
essrs. Hepworth & Son, clothiers, next door, 
78, at the corner of Caledonian Road. It 
sembles, in miniature, the base of the 
tewly purchased and restored south-western 
>way of St. Bartholomew the Great, close 
by here, after the exposure by excavation, 
ine stone is about a foot high, and about the 
same in breadth. 


41 and 28, Charterhouse Square. 

was Querard's first name ? His books bear 
only the initials " J. M." The British 

useum Catalogue calls him Joseph Marie 
and so does Mr. Ralph Thomas (' A Martyr 
to Bibliography'). But Lorenz's 'Cata- 

logue general de la Librairie franchise ' gives 
Jean Marie, and in this is followed by Dr. 
Hagberg Wright's recent ' Catalogue of the 
London Library. s 

Querard used the pseudonym "Mar. 
Jozon d'Erquard." The last word is an 
obvious anagram, but what do ' ' Mar. 
Jozon " represent ? P. J. ANDERSON. 

University of Aberdeen. 

WRITERS ON Music. Being engaged in 
collecting materials for an ' International 
Bibliographical Dictionary of Writers on 
Music, 4 I shall be obliged if readers of 
' N. & Q. ? will supply me with lists of their 
works in volume form (published or about 
to be published) relating to the history and 
criticism of music, for insertion in my book. 

25, Speenham Koad, Brixton, S.W. 

' Letters,' vol. i. p. 336, Sir Sauder Dun- 
combe is described as a traveller, a pensioner, 
and as having acquired a patent for carrying 
people in the street. There are two refer- 
ences in Evelyn's Diary to Sir Sanders Dun- 
combe, obviously the same person, in one of 
which his " famous powder,"- and, in the 
other, his sedan chairs, are referred to. 
Can any of your readers give me further 
particulars about him ? Y. 

Can any reader inform me where an article 
by Dickens is to be found in which he refers 
to some experiments on dogs, and I believe 
denounces the Royal Humane Society for 
bheir connexion with them ? I have been 
:old he called it " the Royal Inhumane 

[No such heading appears in the Index to 
Dickens's ' Miscellaneous Papers,' vol. xxxviii. 
of the " National Edition."] 

[ asked, and received replies to, a question 
about this prelate (see 7 S. xi. 487 ; xii. 
38, 78). Last autumn his monument in 

awood Church which originally was 
situated in the chancel, but, during the 
restoration of the church some thirty years 
since, was moved to the west end of the 
south aisle was restored under Mr. Oldrid 
Scott, and reset at the west end of the nave. 
It had been shamefully knocked about at 

he first removal, but the fragments were 
carefully preserved in a large chest, and under 
skilful treatment this beautiful monument 
las now resumed the appearance which it 
>vore at the time of its erection. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL JULY so, 1910. 

A local paper, describing its unveiling and 
rededication, stated that the Latin epitaph 
signed " Hugo Hollandus flevit '* was com- 
posed by Hugo Grotius, said to be a great 
personal friend of the Archbishop. I 
should very much like to know the authority 
for this statement. I asked the editor 
for it, but received no reply. I had always 
supposed it to be the work of Hugh Holland, 
a poet of that period, to whom, indeed, it is 
attributed in Racket's ' Life of Archbishop 
Williams,' quoted in ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
Grotius was in England in 1613, but must 
have left before 1619, as in the latter year 
he was imprisoned in his own country. 
Montaigne died in 1628. 

One of your correspondents gives the con- 
clusion of the epitaph thus : " Vixit annos 
59. m. b d. 2. u Flrom personal inspection 
I am able to say that these numbers do not 
exist, a blank being left in each case. 

E. L. H. TEW. 

Upham Rectory, Southampton. 

any correspondent tell me where the follow- 
ing passage is to be found, and who is the 
author ? 

" He did not know, poor fool, why love should 
not be true to death." 

L. S. M. 

Who wrote the poem ' Art in the Market- 
place ' ? The first verse runs : 

Hear ye the sellers of lavender ? Sweetly they 

cry it. 

Soft on the ear the tones of their voices fall. 
See how your children and maidens are eager 

to buy it. 
Sweet as the lavender's self is the singer's call. 


name, spelt as above, occurs twice in the 
Rolls Calendars of the time of Edward III. 
" Amaneuus de Chesthunt chivaler '* is pro- 
ceeded against for (after having received pay) 
not carrying out his engagement to serve in 
the war in Brittany, 1350-51. Is there any 
other form of this name ? R. B. 


THE SLEEPLESS ARCH. Will some one 
explain the allusion in the following extract ? 

"In the ^Egean area, except, oddly enough, 
in the out-of-the-way district of Acarnania, it 
[the arch] was avoided until Roman times, on the 
Hindoo principle, perhaps, that ' an arch never 
sleeps.' " Burrows, ' The Discoveries in Crete.' 

Stromness, Orkney. 

HENBY VIII. Are any biographical details- 
known of this officer ? He is said to have 
been of Norton, North Derbyshire, and 
seems to have helped into office the Fan- 
shawes from the same district. H. A. 

" POBTYGNE." John Agmondesham of 
Barnes, Surrey, by his will, dated 1571, and 
proved 1572/3 (7 Peter), bequeaths to 
" Elizabeth my daughter, the wife of my 
son John, a portygne with a hole through it, 
and a ring of gold with a blue stone." What 
is a ' portygne " ? A. RHODES. 

I should be glad to ascertain particulars of 
the parentage and first marriage of this 
Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh. The ' Diet, 
of Nat. Biog.' (Ix. 382) is silent on these 
points. G. F. R. B. 

SIB JOHN WILSON (1780-1856). I should 
be glad to ascertain the particulars of his 
parentage, and the full date of his birth. 
The 'Diet, of Nat. Biog.' (Ixii. 112) gives 
neither. G. F. R. B. 

JOHN WOBTHEN was elected from West- 
minster to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1681. Particulars of his parentage and 
career, as well as the date of his death, are 
desired. G. F. R. B. 

or Alen, Mercer, knighted 1529, Alderman 
of London for the Vintry and Lime Street 
Wards, Lord Mayor in 1525 and 1535, Privy 
Councillor, and founder of the Mercers 8 
Chapel in Cheapside destroyed in the Great 
Fire, is said to have married Margaret, d. of 
John Legh of Essex (see Archceologia 
Cantiana, xxiv. 197) ; but it is possible this 
statement is due to a confusion of him with 
his brother, also named John, of Hatfield 
Peverel, Essex, who married Margaret, 
elder d. and coheir of Giles Leigh of Walton- 
on-Thames (see Harl. Soc. Publ., xiii. 333). 
By his will, dated 3 Aug., 1545, and proved 
15 Jan., 1545/6, he left his son Christopher 
various manors and lands in Nottingham- 
shire and Yorkshire (see Surtees Society, 
vol. cxvi. for 1908, p. 289). 

Christopher also succeeded to Ightham 
Mote House, Kent. He was knighted 
2 Oct., 1553, was M.P. for New Romney 
1562, and died towards the end of 1585. 
He had married Etheldreda, one of the 
daughters of the first Lord Paget of Beau- 
desert (Banks' 'Extinct Peerage,' ii. 410). 

ii s. ii. JULY so, wio.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


She was a recusant in 1587 (Strype, ' Annals, 
III. ii. 597). When and where did she die ' 
In a list of Catholics who had died in York 
shire prisons apparently before 1590, drawn 
up by Father Richard Holtby, S.J., anc 
printed in vol. v. of the Catholic Recorc 
Society (London, 1908), occurs at p. 193 
the entry " uxor cujusdam Allani ordinis 
equestris atque civis Eboracensis." I shoulc 
like to know whether this is the widow of 
Sir Christopher Alleyn. 

Their son Charles sold Ightham Mote 
House to Sir William Selby, and died before 
1607. Had he issue ? 


should be glad to have some particulars as 
to the author of ' London : being an Accurate 
History and Description of the British 
Metropolis and its Neighbourhood to Thirty 
Miles Extent, From An Actual Perambula- 
tion.' It was published in six volumes, at 
dates ranging from 1805 to 1809, by J. 
Stratford of 112, Holborn Hill. The title- 
page gives the author as David Hughson, 
LL.D., but the British Museum Catalogue 
prints this as a pseudonym, having in 
brackets after the name "i.e. Edward 
Pugh." There is no reference under either 
name in the 4 Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy ' or in the Supplement. 


CORIO ARMS. I should be much obliged 
if any of your readers could give me in- 
formation as to the arms of the noble Italian 
family of Corio. E. ATKINSON. 

In a ' Book of Humorous Poetry, ' published 
by Nimmo, n.d., a piece called ' The Case 
Altered l (" Hodge held a farm, and smiled 
content ") is included as anonymous. 

I see it occurs in The Mirror, 13 March, 
1824, as by K. S. Who was K. S. ? 


Under the title 'Wapentake' in ' Les 
Termes de la Ley, 1 1667, two instances are 
given from the county of York "Stainctife," 
a misprint for Staincliffe, and " Friendless 
Wapentake in Craven." I should be glad 
to hear more of the latter. Craven itself is in 
Staincliffe. The book professes to cite the 
statutes 3 Hen. V. cap. 2, 9 Hen. VI. cap. 10, 
and 15 Hen. VI. cap. 7, and refers to Roger 
Hoveden, part, poster. AnnaL, fol, 346. 

W. C. B. 

I should be extremely obliged if any of your 
correspondents could give me a copy of, 
or tell me where I might find, the Danish 
poem ' Erlkonigs Tochter,' which is generally 
supposed to have suggested to Goethe his 
' Erlkonig. 1 Lewes in his ' Life of Goethe * 
gives some details of the poem, but I want 
to compare Goethe with the original. I 
shall be grateful for the information sought. 

H. B. 

PEARSON FAMILY. Can any of your 
readers give me information concerning the 
father, grandfather, or ancestors of Nicholas 
Pearson, who died in 1706 at Laugh ton-en- 
le-Moor, near Rotherham, Yorkshire ? He 
had three sons John Pearson, b. 1678 ; 
Nathaniel Pearson, b. 1679, d. 1767, Vicar 
of Stainton, Notts (where he was buried), 
who married Mary Wagstaffe of Haworth, 
b. 1692, d. 1786 ; and William Pearson, 
b. 1683. H. G. P. 


(11 S. ii. 29.) 

THERE is a considerable amount of informa- 
tion extant in reference to the waterworks 
in York House Garden, generally known as 
the York Buildings Waterworks ; and 
engravings showing the tower are frequently 
met with. In the Guildhall Library there 
s a collection relating to this undertaking. 
The works stood near the foot of Villiers 
Street, Strand. 

In 1676 Ralph Bucknall and Ralph Waine, 
gentlemen, obtained a licence under the 
Ireat Seal to erect a waterwork near the 
Thames, on and upon part of the ground of 
York House or York House Garden, being 
heir own ground, for the term of 99 years. 
The property was soon after divided into 
twelve shares, which were increased in 1688 
;o forty-eight. By an Act of 2 and 3 William 
and Mary the company was incorporated 
under the style of the Governor and Company 
f Undertakers for raising Thames Water 
n York Buildings. In 1719 the property 
was sold to a new company, who afterwards 
enlarged their capital for the purpose of 
Durchasing forfeited and other estates in 
"Scotland and the North of England. 

It was at York Buildings that the steam 
ump was first used for public water supply. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. JULY so, 1910. 

Originally the pumps were worked by a 
horse-mill, as was the case at Buhner's 
works at Broken Wharf, and Ford's at 
Somerset House ; but in 1712, or soon after, 
Savery, who had already set up one of his 
pumps at Camden House, Kensington, 
erected a larger and more complicated 
apparatus at York Buildings. This does 
not seem to have been a success, and about 
1726 a Newcomen engine was installed. 
This is in all probability the dragon re- 
ferred to in 

" The York Buildings Dragon | or a Full and 
true account of a most Horrid and Barbarous 
Murder | Intended to be committed | on Monday 
the 14th of Febr. next (being Valentines -day) | 
on the Bodies, Goods, and name of the greatest 
Part of his Majesty's Liege Subjects, dwelling 
and inhabiting between Temple-Bar in the East, 
and St. James s in the West ; and between Hunger- 
ford-market in the South, and St. Mary la Bonne, 
in the North, by a Sett of Evil-minded Persons, 
who (by the Instigation of Plutus, and not having 
the fear of several Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen 
before their eyes) do assemble twice a-week, to 
carry on their wicked purposes, in a private room 
over a stable, by the Thames side, in a remote 
corner of the Town. The Second Edition, Aug- 
mented by almost half. London, 1726." 16 pp. 

In Wright's * Caricature History of the 
Georges * will be found extracts relating to 
the York Buildings engine from ' The 
Foreigner's Guide to London,' 1729 ; Read's 
Journal, 1731 ; and All Alive and M erry ; or, 
The London Daily Post, 1741. There is some 
reason for thinking that it was eventually 
acquired by Sir James Lowther, and re- 
erected at a colliery at Whitehaven. 

The later history of the York Buildings 
undertaking is related briefly in Matthews's 
* Hydraulia.* In 1818 it was acquired 
by the New River Company, at any rate 
as far as the street works were concerned. 
In 1829 an Act of Parliament authorized the 
dissolution of the York Buildings Company 
and the sale of every kind of property 
belonging to it. RHYS JENKINS. 

The following quotation is from William 
Matthews's ' Hydraulia * (1835) : 

" In the year 1691, waterworks were constructed 
for supplying a part of Westminster; and the 
persons who engaged in this undertaking obtained 
an Act of Parliament for incorporating them by 
the designation of * The Governor and Company 
of Undertakers for raising Thames' water in York 
Buildings. The establishment was situate on 
the bank of the river, contiguous to the Strand, 
at the bottom of Villiers-street, under which 
their principal cistern or reservoir extended. 
These works conveyed water as far as Piccadilly, 
Whitehall, and Covent Garden, with the inter- 
vening streets ; but the greatest number of houses 

that at any time received a supply from this 
concern was about 2,700." P. 33. 

Matthews is by no means accurate histori- 
cally, but I have a note from the * Statutes 
at Large 2 that the Act of Incorporation is 
2 William and Mary, sess. 2, cap. 24, so that 
at the time of the lease quoted by C. L. S. 
(1679) the company must have been a 
private company, and the waterworks must 
have been constructed at least twelve years 
earlier than Matthews states. 


Winchmore Hill, Amersham. 

In The Builder of 6 June, 1906, will be 
found an illustration of this water tower, 
and possibly some descriptive letterpress. 
It stood on the site of old York House, and 
was established in the 27th of Charles II. to 
supply the inhabitants of St. James's 
with water. The patent granted in the 
reign of Charles II. in connexion with it is as 
follows : 

" Water house to supply St. James's. R. vij 
die May con Ralph Bucknall and Ralph Waine to 
sett upp a Water house upon the River of Thames 
upon parte of the Ground belonging to Yorke 
House to serve the Inhabitants of St. James's 
with water for 99 years." 

The works are described in ' The 
Foreigner's Guide to London,* 1720 ; but 
the company took to purchasing estates, 
granting annuities, and assuring lives, and 
proved to be one of the bubbles of that year 
of wild speculation. The fire engine ceased 
to be worked in 1731 ; but it was afterwards 
shown for several years as a curiosity. 

*' Its working by sea-coal was attended with 
so much smoke, that it not only must pollute the 
air thereabouts, but spoil the furniture." London 
Daily Post, 1741. 

The confused affairs of the company, and 
the consequent disputes and lawsuits with 
its creditors and debtors, gave rise to a host 
of pamphlets, and even a political novel. 
An interesting engraving by Boydell of a 
view of London from the Thames, near York 
Buildings, where the tower-spire of these 
waterworks is a conspicuous object, is 
exhibited (No. 53 in the catalogue) in St. 
Martin's Library. 

4, Hurlingham Court, S.W. 

G. A. Walpoole's ' New and Complete 
British Traveller ? (1780) refers (p. 254) to 
this water tower as " a high wooden tower 
called York Buildings Water -Works," at the 
east corner of the terrace-walk planted with 
trees in the centre of which was, and is, York, 
or Buckingham, Water-Gate ; and a full- 

ii s. n. JULY so, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


page engraving is given which shows the 
tower at what seems to be the west corner 
or end of the walk referred to. It looks 
from the illustration as if the tower stood 
either at the lower end of Villiers Street or 
on the site of Charing Cross Station. See 
also Thornbury and Walford's * Old and 
New London, 2 iii. 108 and 103, where a 
reduced reproduction of Walpoole's engrav- 
ing of the tower is given. 


C. L. S. will find an account of the York 
waterworks in the third volume of Mr. 
Wheatley's * London Past and Present/ 
under * York Buildings.* G. F. R. B. 

For full particulars of this company, the 
water house, &c., see * The York Buildings 
Company : a Chapter in Scotch History/ by 
David Murray (Glasgow, James MacLehose 
& Sons, 1883). T. F. D. 

[W. S. S. also thanked for reply.] 

NELSON'S BIRTHPLACE (11 S. i. 483 ; ii. 36). 
I believe Y. T. is mistaken in ascribing 
Horatio Nelson's birthplace to Barsham 
in Suffolk. Nelson's father, the Rector of 
Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, in 1781, penned 
with his own hand, a " Family Historical 
Register," in which he noted the births, 
birth-places, and sponsors of all his children. 
In this MS., which is still extant, he wrote 
of his children : 

" William, born att Burnham Thorpe Aprill 
20 th 1757." 

" Horatio, born att ditto Sept. 29 th 1758." 

In the Burnham Thorpe parish registers 
for 1758 is the baptismal entry thus : 

" Horatio, son of Edmund and Catherine 
Nelson, born September 29 th Baptised October 9 th 
priv : pub : November 15 th 1758." 

In the margin of this register is written the 
following : 

" Invested with the ensigns of the most honor- 
able order of the Bath at St. James, September 
27^ 1797 . Made Admiral of the Blue 1797. 
Created Lord Nelson of the Nile and of 
Burnham Thorpe, October 6, 1798. Cataetera 
[At caetera?] narret fama." 

In the aforesaid Family Historical Register 
the Rev. E. Nelson tells the life story of his 
wife and himself thus : 

" Myself, educated att a school in the country, 
admitted to Caius Coll., Cambridge, 1743, Dr. 
Gooch then Master ; my tutor Dr. Eglington. 
I took a bachelor's degree at the usual time, was 
ordained soon after, and att Michaelmass, 1745, 
went as curate to the Bev. Thomas Page, Rector 
of Beccles in Suffolk ; there remained till October, 
1717. My father died succeeded him in both 

lis livings : Hilborough on my mother's pre- 
sentation, and Sporle the Provost and Fellows 
of Eton. I resided with my mother att Hil- 
borough, and in May, 1749, married Catherine, 
daughter of Maurice Suckling, late Prebendary 
of Westminster and Rector of Barsham and 
Woodton, and Anne his wife, daughter of Sir 
Charles Turner, Bart., of Warham, Noff [?]. Att 
Michaelmass went to housekeeping at Swaffham, 
and at Michaelmas, 1753, removed into a hired 
aouse at Sporle. In November, 1755, on the 
death of Thomas Smithson (clerk), was pre- 
ferred to the Rectory of Burnham Thorpe on the 
presentation of the H onble Horace Walpole, after 
Lord Walpole of Wollerton. Maurice Suckling, 
D.D., died in the year 1729, buried att Barsham 
within the communion railing, aged 54. Anne, 
bjs widow, died at Burnham Thorpe January 5th, 
1768, aged 77, buried att Barsham near her 
husband. Catherine (Nelson), their daughter, 
died December 26th, 1767, aged 42, lies buried 
in the chancel of Burnham Thorpe." 

By this it will be seen that Catherine 
Suckling's father died in 1729-30 ; and, as 
a matter of fact, his widow immediately 
removed to Beccles with her young family, 
and was there residing when Mr. Nelson 
was appointed curate and made the acquaint- 
ance of her daughter Catherine. Lord 
Walpole of Wollerton was Mrs. Suckling's 
maternal uncle, and so gave the living of 
Burnham Thorpe to the husband of his great- 
niece. After the Nelsons* removal from 
Sporle to the old Rectory of Burnham 
Thorpe, Mrs. Suckling took up her residence 
in a house belonging to her uncle in that 
village, and there died on 7 January, 1768. 

It is possible that Y. T.'s informant has 
confused the family tradition that Horatio 
Nelson was born in his grandmother's house, 
there having been a slight fire at the Rectory 
of Burnham Thorpe in 1758, on which 
occasion Mrs. Nelson removed to her 
mother's house in the village, where her 
baby was born on the 29th of September. 
The house, now used by Lord Orford as a 
shooting cottage, is always believed by the 
Walpole family to have been the scene 
of the birth of the hero of Trafalgar. At 
all events, Nelson's grandmother, Mrs. 
Suckling, dated her will in December, 1767, 
from her house in the village of Burnham 
Thorpe, having long before severed her 
connexion with Barsham. Indeed, its 
rectory house at the time of the hero's 
birth was in the occupation of the Rev. 
Edward Holden (1774-97), while Robert 
Suckling of Woodton (1740-1802) was lord 
of the manor. 

I think this is conclusive that Admiral 
Lord Nelson was not born at Barsham. 

Highwood, Romsey. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. JULY so, 1910. 

False traditions die bard, but I supposed 
that this one had received its quietus long 
ago, as it has been refuted some scores of 

There is no reference in Byron's poems to 
Barabbas and a publisher. The story ran 
that Byron gave my grandfather a Bible, 
and that my grandfather was much touched 
by this evidence of the poet's religious 
fervour until, on turning over the leaves, 
he found in the 40th verse of St. John's 
Gospel, chap, xviii., the word " robber " 
changed into " publisher.' 1 

The joke was perpetrated by Thomas 
Campbell on another publisher : neither 
Byron nor my grandfather had any part in 
it. I have in my library Byron's Bible, and 
there is no mark or notch in it of any kind. 

Byron, however, did drink the health of 
Napoleon because he shot a bookseller. 


50, Albemarle Street, W. 

[MR. W. H. PEET thanked for reply to the same 

i. 227). In The Portfolio, July, 1894, p. 
6, William Sharp is named as author of the 
following : 

" In the beginning, said a Persian poet 
Allah took a rose, a lily, a dove, a serpent, a 
little honey, a Dead Sea apple, and a handful 
of clay. When he looked at the amalgam it 
was woman." 


La Tour de Peilz, Vaud, Suisse. 

"MERLUCHE" (11 S. i. 329) is a word 
of uncertain and equivocal use. For in- 
stance, I take Alfreid Elwall's Dictionary, 
which I used in my schooldays, and in the 
French -English part I find " Merluche, salt- 
cod,' 1 but in the English -French part 
" Hake, merluche." Turning to the ' Dic- 
tionnaire -General de la Langue Frangaise, 
by Hatzf eld, A. Darmesteter, and A. Thomas, 
I see that the name is given to several fishes 
of the species Gadus when dried in the sun, 
and especially to dried codfish. 

But the lexicological problem is solved 
in the late Eugene Holland's excellent 
' Faune Populaire,* vol. xi. (April, 1910). 
This volume treats of the reptiles and fishes. 
The article * Merlu,' p. 213, tells us that the 
merlu or merluche is the Gadus merlucius of 
Linnaeus, and in certain countries takes the 
place of the codfish and is prepared in the 
same way. Our morue (ibid., p. 221) is the 
English codfish, and Cuvier's Morrhua 

Holland adds that the merluche is less 
steemed than the codfish when salted ; 
but evidently both, hake and codfish, when 
dried or salted, became confused in common 
use. Fishmongers, grocers, and their cus- 
tomers are neither naturalists nor lexi- 
cographers. H. GAIDOZ. 
22, Rue Servandoni, Paris (VI e ). 

Cotgrave, 1650, has : " Merlus ou Merluz* 
A Melwell or Kneeling : a kind of small Cod 
whereof Stockfish is made." 

Miege, 1688, has: "Merlus. Poisson de 
haute mer, dont on fait le Stocfiche, a Mel- 
well, or Kneeling, a kind of small Cod 
whereof Stock-fish is made." 

Menage, 1694, derives the word from 
Maris lucius, and states that Scaliger calls 
it merlucius, and that Pont us de Thyard, 
referring to the fish called asellus by the 
Latins, says that this is the merluz. Menage 
also states that from Maris lucia came 
molue, to-day called morue ; that in Lan- 
guedoc merluce signifies morue, and that 
merlus is the equivalent of merlan. 

All of which seems to show that merluche 
is the codfish from which " stockfish " was 

Lemery (' Traite Universelle des Drogues, 2 
Paris, 1723), under morhua, has the following : 
" On fait secher des morues apres les avoir 
salees, & c'est ce qu'on appelle merluche ou 
mourue [sic] salee " ; and under salpa : 
' ' Salpa, en Fran$ois, Vergadelle, Stoch- 
fisch, Merlu, Merluche." The former fish 
is, of course, the cod ; the latter, from the 
description he gives, I should suppose to be 
the haddock, but in CasseU's 'Eng.-Fr. 
Dictionary 2 "Merlus, m., and merluche, f., n 
is the definition given of the hake. Under 
merlucius Lemery has " sive Callarias, 
Jonst. en Franois, Petite Morue,** which 
is still one of the French names of the 
haddock. The scientific name of the hake 
is, however, Merluccius vulgaris. Of the 
name merlucius Lemery says : '* Merlucius 
d mare & luce, comme qui diroit, lumiere 
de la mer, a cause que ce poisson a de grand 
yeux " (I give this as he prints it). 

The conclusion appears to be that merluche 
is a name given to various kinds of drie 
or salt fish. C. C.QB. 

Though merluche is a comprehensi 1 
term for stockfish, such as cod, Kng, hake, 
haddock, and torsk, it usually implies 
haddock on menu cards, while melus on the 
same is utilized more especially for hake. 

ii s. ii. JULY so, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Strictly, I suppose, merluche is salted cod 
"stockfish" according to some of the 
dictionaries ; but as a matter of practice 
and habit at restaurants throughout Europe, 
if you order merluche you will get haddock. 
I have no idea whether this is a correct inter- 
pretation or not, but I do know that in 
"kitchen-French,'* which is a mongrel 
tongue, merluche means haddock, whatever 
the dictionaries may say. 


ST. SWITHIN seems to halt in the definition 
of merluche as a word used indifferently for 
hake, cod, or other stockfish. Presuming 
as I do that it signifies in French any kind 
of dried fish, I also take it to be plainly 
borrowed from the Italian merluzzo, which 
he may ask for at any restaurant, and be 
supplied with " whiting " on his order. 


[Several other correspondents thanked for 

COL. SKELTON or ST. HELENA (11 S. ii. 
48). The references to this officer in the 
standard authorities on St. Helena are of 
an incidental and not particularly informa- 
tive character. T. H. Brooke (' History of 
St. Helena, 4 p. 377) records his arrival, 
on 22 June, 1813, to take up the office of 
Lieutenant -Governor. He appears to have 
been the last holder of that office, which was 
abolished on 16 January, 1816. His resi- 
dence, Longwood, was assigned to Napoleon. 
The illustrious exile proceeded there on the 
morning after his arrival, and breakfasted 
with Col. and Mrs. Skelton, but did not 
enter into permanent occupation until two 
months later. Beyond this brief association 
with the exiled Empejor there does not seem 
to be any outstanding episode in Skelton's 
career. J. F. HOGAN. 

Royal Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue. 

In 1889 1 happened to be at Potchefstroom 
in the Transvaal. I was there presented 
to an old lady of ninety years, a Mrs. 
Alexander, widow of a General Alexander. 
She was born (so I was told) at St. Helena, 
the daughter of an officer named Skelton 
[I do not remember his rank). She told me 
that she remembered Napoleon, and that 
when she was a girl he had often talked to 
her in a mixture of French and English. Mrs. 
Alexander died several years ago, but her 
grandchildren are still, I believe, to be heard 
of at Langlaagte, and other villages outside 
Johannesburg. FRANK SCHLOESSER. 

Kew Green. 

" TILLEUL 32 (11 S. ii. 47). The colour'of 
the fleurs de tilleul is a yellow-green the 
combination is two parts yellow and one 
part blue. This hue is not uncommon, 
and therefore it may bear a particular name 
at any season, according to the humour of 
fashion. The tilleul colour probably owes 
its origin to some Parisian textile merchant 
with an eye for novelty, who gave to this hue 
the name of the tree. But such colours 
get out of date, and the name loses its 
special significance. 

With regard to tilleul tea, the feuilles de 
tilleul are employed in medicine, either 
dried or in infusion, as an anti -spasmodic. 
These leaves may have replaced the ordinary 
tea, as they make a very good drink. 


" QUILT" (11 S. i. 448), meaning to 
thrash, is well known, but the sense of 
" traversing swiftly " does not occur, to 
my knowledge, in any dictionary. Is 
DR. SMYTHE PALMER, by any possibility, 
thinking of the Scottish verb " to kilt 3? a 
word not altogether dissimilar to " quilt " 
in sound ? At all events, " to kilt, ?1 in the 
Scottish vernacular, signifies " to lift up the 
dress so as to run more swiftly over the 
ground.' 1 It denotes, however, preparation 
for running rather than the act of running 
itself. W. S. S. 

Surely the mysterious inscription WITHE 
TEREP is of the " Bill Stumps His Mark " 
order, and is the very thinly disguised 
name of a former owner, Peter White. 
Perhaps MAJOR WILLCOCK'S maternal grand- 
father bore that name, or was a friend of 
Peter. Perhaps even he borrowed the box 
from Peter, and forgot to return it. Who 
knows ? JOHN HODGKIN. 

The inscription seems clearly to be 
intended for " Peter Hewit.'* W. G. B. 

[One other correspondent suggests Peter 
Hewit, but the majority favour Peter White.] 

SIR W. B. RUSH (11 S. ii. 49). Sir Wm. 
Beaumaris Rush was a knight, not baronet. 
The mistake in the ' D.N.B.* appears also 
in the obituary notice of Dr. Clarke in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1822, pt. i. p. 274. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, 1806 (i. 281), 
states that Angelica was second daughter 
of Sir Wm. Rush, not fifth. 

It may interest M. A. to know that in a 
diary of Capt. Matthew Holworthy of 
Elsworth, co. Camb., there are several 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY so, 1910. 

references to Dr. Clarke and Sir Wm. 
Bush, with both of whom he appears to have 
been on intimate terms. I should be pleased 
to send M. A. the references, should he care 
to have them. F. M. R. HOLWOBTHY. 

Elsworth, Tweedy Road, Bromley, Kent. 

William Beaumaris Rush was not a 
baronet : he was knighted 19 June, 1800, 
and died 8 July, 1833, aged 82. 



Probably Sir William Beaumaris Rush, 
of Wimbledon, Knight. Another daughter 
married her cousin George Rush, High 
Sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1813. See 
Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' 4th ed., * Rush 
of Farthinghoe Lodge, Northampton.' 


[G. F. B. B., DIEGO, and A. B. E. also thanked 
for replies.] 

AUCTION (11 S. i. 448, 477 ; ii. 16). Will MB. 
W. SCOTT kindly give some particulars of 
the list, of auction-sale catalogues, ranging 
from 1637 to 1841, to which he refers ? 
Where can such list and catalogues be seen ? 
I have been always under the impression that 
the sale of Dr. Seaman's library on 31 
October, 1676, was the earliest known 
auction sale of books in this country. See 
10 S. v. 43. EDWABD B. HABBIS. 

5, Sussex Place, Begent's Park, N.W. 

PABIS FAMILY (11 S. i. 508 ; ii. 53). 
If E. H. will write to me, I will put him into 
communication with members of the family 
of Mr. Thomas Clifton Paris, son of John 
Ayrton Paris. He died recently, aged 95. 


10, Trinity Street, Cambridge. 

(11 S. ii. 24, 73). The date of knighthood of 
this early civic worthy has been long a 
difficulty, owing to the seemingly sub- 
stantial authority for both the K.B. of 1465 
and the Knight Bachelor of 1471. It has 
been suggested that Philip was twice dubbed, 
but I know of no case in which the same man 
received the accolade twice, unless possibly 
upon the promotion of a Knight Bachelor 
to the higher dignity of a Knight Banneret, 
and even of this the evidence is by no means 
clear. Anyhow, this would not apply to 
Philip. Neither would the fact of the 
alleged earlier knighthood being that of a 
K.B. account for a possible second dubbing. 
Whether or not in the fifteenth century 
Knighthood of the Bath was of a distinct 

order from that of the military Knight is, 
I believe, problematical, but it certainly 
appears to have been looked upon as of a 
higher status. To suppose, therefore, that a 
man made a K.B. in 1465 should six years 
later be dubbed again to a simple knight- 
hood would be unreasonable. 

Which of the two dates is the correct one 
is a matter of credence and evidence, the 
balancing of one authority with another. 
And here I think the evidence in favour of 
1471 is conclusive. To the proofs quoted in 
his note by my friend MB. BEAVEN from 
Gregory's ' Chronicle * and the London City 
records may be added the monumental 
inscription to Philip's wife in Herne Church, 
Kent, given by Weever ('Fun. Mon:') as 
follows : ' ' Hie jacet Christiane dudum 
uxoris Mathei Philipi Aurifabri ac Maioris 
Londinensis que obijt. . . . 1470 pro cuius 
anime salute velitis Deum orare." It is 
clear, therefore, that the ex -Mayor was not a 
Knight when his wife died in 1470. 

My impression is that the origin of the 
error is in the statement of Fabyan, a writer, 
as said by the late John Bruce, who is " a 
most valuable authority upon all matters con- 
nected with transactions that took place with- 
in the City of London ; but often inaccurate 
on minor points respecting events which 
passed elsewhere " (' Restoration of Edward 
IV.,' Camden Soc. vol. ). I suggest that this 
is one of Fabyan's minor inaccuracies and 
the source of the whole difficulty. 

W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

(US. ii. 48). CANON ELLACOMBE has not, 
I think, hit off quite accurately the Coster 
song. Unless my mejmory is at fault, it 
should run : 

If I had a donkey wot wouldn't go, 
D'yer think I 'd wallop him ? Blow me, no 1 
I 'd give him some grass, and cry " Gee-wo, 
Gee up, Neddy." 


Junior Athenseum Club. 

CANON ELLACOMBE will find what he 
requires on p. 85 of Punch for 17 February, 
1844, under title of ' A Polished Poem ' : 
Had I an ass averse to speed, 
Deem'st thou I 'd strike him ? No, indeed! 


TENNYSON'S ' MABGABET s (11 S. i. 507). 
To a mind delighting in literal accuracy the 
idea embodied in Tennyson's two lines will 
no doubt sound like nonsense. A poet, 
however, or a person endowed with imagina- 


ii s. ii. JULY 30, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tion, will see in the lines little more than a 
variation of the common saying " After a 
storm comes a calm.' 5 By the poet's vision, 
the elemental forces of nature are beheld 
engaged in Titanic conflict, which continues 
until through sheer weariness the waves 
sink into the calm of exhaustion. Tenny- 
son's imagery is perhaps slightly different. 
It represents nature as assailed by malig- 
nant human agencies, until in the end it 
lapses into a condition of insensibility. 


In Capt. Marryat's ' Newton Foster ? an 
action is described as taking place between 
an Indiaman and a French privateer com- 
manded by Surcouf. The cannonade makes 
the wind lull so that the ships have to cease 
firing till the smoke clears away of itself. 
Marryat has seen a great dealpf hard service 
under Lord Cochrane, and his descriptions 
of sea-fights and shipwrecks are clear and 
accurate. Perhaps a cannonade would have 
little effect on a strong breeze, and the lull 
caused by it not be long. M. N. G. 

(11 S.i.389 ; ii. 35). I have in my possession 
a pencil sketch of a lady's head in profile by 
Jonathan Richardson whether the elder 
or the younger I am unable to say. The 
following inscription is written in the margin : 
; 'Mrs. Cath : Knapp, August 25, 1731." I 
have hitherto been unable to identify the 
original of the portrait. Perhaps MB. O. G. 
KNAPP of Maidenhead, who has informed 
OL. FYNMORE that he is engaged on a Knapp 
family history, may be able to help me. 


JULIET ' (11 S. ii. 47). I have a copy of the 
above work in an odd volume of old plays, 
the others being 'The Perjur'd Husband,' by 
Mrs. Centlivre, and * Constantine the Great ' 
and ' Theodosius,' by Nat. Lee. The title- 
page to Garrick's play reads : 

" Borneo and Juliet by Shakespear, with 
Alterations and an additional Scene : by D. 
Garrick. As it is Performed at the Theatre- 
Royal in Drury Lane. London : Printed for J. & 
B. Jonson and S. Draper MDCCLVI." 

There is an interesting, if acid, personal 
paragraph concluding the ' Advertisement ' 
on the next page : 

" The persons who from their great Good- 
nature and Love of Justice have endeavour'd 
to take away from the present Editor the little 
Merit of this Scene by ascribing it to Otway, have 
unwittingly, from the Nature of the Accusation 
paid mm a Compliment which he believes thev 
never intended him." * 

James Erskine Baker, writing about 1760 
in the 'Companion to the Play House,' 
speaks very highly of this, the third alteration 
of Shakespere's play. He says : "He 
has rendered the whole more uniform, and 
worked up the catastrophe to a greater 
degree of distress than it held in the original." 

My little volume is quite at the service of 
MR. CUTTER if he would care to borrow it. 


6, St. James' Place, Plumstead. 

i. 469). The finding of Moses by Pharaoh's 
daughter has been a favourite subject with 
artists both in ancient and modern times. 
Mrs. Jameson in her * History of our Lord,' 
vol. i. pp. 172-3, mentions Perugino, 
Raphael, Poussin, and Bonifazio as having 
been, among others, attracted by the theme. 
In public and private galleries in this country 
there are at least half-a-dozen paintings 
by different masters bearing the same title. 
Among them a ' Finding of Moses z by 
Titian was formerly in the collection at 
Burleigh House, the seat of the Marquis 
of Exeter. See Hazlitt's ' Picture Galleries 
of England.'- W. S. S. 

(11 S. ii. 49). As bearing on the custom 
of pigeon-houses, there is in the archives of 
the Dover Corporation a charter, dated 
7 March, 1467, by which " a berne, a gardein 
with a douffhous .... within the liberty of the 
Town and Port of Dover," was let for 80 
years. Twice in the charter the structure 
is called " a douffhous," and three times it is 
referred to as a culverhouse. That the struc- 
ture was a permanent one of some importance 
is shown by the fact that special provisions 
are made for its being kept in repair during 
the 80 years' lease. As to the connexion 
of pigeon-houses with rectories, it may be 
mentioned that this "berne gardein with 
douffhous " was near to St. James's 
Rectory, Dover, and there was an ancient 
barn standing there about a century ago. 

As to the right to erect pigeon-houses, 
a lord of the manor, according to cases cited 
by Burn, may build a dovecot on his 
own manor, but a tenant of a manor cannot 
without his lord's licence ; but any free- 
holder may build a dovecot on his own land. 
Pigeons kept in such dovecots were, at a very 
early period, protected by the game laws. 
It would seem that the right to have a 
pigeon-house at a rectory would arise from 
the tenure being in the nature of a freehold ; 
and by a similar rule the Dover Corporation 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY so, 1910. 

had their right to grant a charter including 
the privilege of keeping a culverhouse 
because they were lords of the fee, holding 
all lands in their liberty for services rendered 
to the Crown in connexion with the Cinque 


The following from Giles Jacob's ' Law 
Dictionary,' 1756, may help to put F. H. S. 
on the right track : 

" Pigeon-house, Is a Place for the safe Keeping 
of Pigeons. A Lord of a Manor may build a 
Pigeon-house or Dovecote upon his Land, Parcel 
of the Manor ; but a Tenant of a Manor cannot 
do it, without the Lord's Licence. 3 Salk. 248. 
Formerly none but the Lord of the Manor, 
or the Parson, might erect a Pigeon-house ; though 
it has been since held, that any Freeholder may 
build a Pigeon-house on his own Ground, 5 Rep. 104. 
Cro. Eliz. 548. Cro. Jac. 440, 382. A Person 
may have a Pigeon-house, or Dove-cote, by Pre- 
scription. Game Law, 2 Pa. 133." 

See also ' Jus Feudale Thomse Cragii de 
Riccartoun,' Lipsise, 1716, pp. 348-9, Feu- 
dorum Lib. II. Tit. VIII. XL, where some 
interesting facts are given, " apud nos eis 
tantum permittuntur [i.e. columbaria], qui 
sex acras terrse habent." Cragie also says 
that the " columbariorum jus " came from 
the Normans to England, and thence to 

J. A. S. Collin de Plancy in his c Diction- 
naire Feodal,' Paris, 1820, 2nd Ed., says, 
vol. i. p. 164 : 

" Les seigneurs hauts-justiciers et f^odaux 
avaient seuls le droit d'avoir un colombier. Les 
serfs ne pouvaient elever des pigeons." 


As a general rule, the privilege of setting 
up columbaria in mediaeval times was con- 
fined to lords of manors, monasteries, anc 
parish priests. The parson in some places 
had his cote in a stage of the church tower 
Thousands of hungry birds flew hither anc 
thither to nourish themselves on other grain 
than that provided by their owners, anc 
thus imposed a heavy tax on farmers ; this 
was one of the grievances which led to the 
great French Revolution. F. H. S. woulc 
read with interest a useful paper by Mrs 
Berkeley on * The Dovecotes of Worcester 
shire, l which was published in the Transac 
tions of the Worcester Diocesan Architectura 
and Archaeological Society in 1905. It i 
admirably illustrated. ST. SWITHIN. 

328). The legend referred to in Thoma 
Hardy's novel is the well-known one o 
Pygmalion, King of Cyprus, who fell in lov 

vith the ivory image of a maiden which he 
limself had made (Ov., ' Met.,' x. 243). See 
iir William Smith's ' Classical Dictionary,* 
ub Pygmalion. 

In Book I. chap. iv. of ' The Last Days of 
'ompeii ' Lord Lytton also refers to this 
tory in the following passage : "I have 
Liscovered the long-sought idol of my 
[reams ; and like the Cyprian sculptor, 
have breathed life into my own imaginings.'* 


Arnhem, the Netherlands. 

EDW. HATTON (US. ii. 9, 54). Edward 
Hatton, born in 1664, would appear to have 
Deen a teacher. Three engraved portraits 
f him are known to be in existence : one 
y Vertue after a painting by Phipps ; 
another by Whyte in 1696, when Hatton 
was 32 years of age ; and the third by Sher- 
win, as mentioned in the query. Of these 
Sherwin's engraving is said to be by far the 
Dest. Hatton wrote a number of books, 
such as ' The Merchant's Magazine,' ' Comes 
ommercii ; or, The Trader's Companion,' 
' Arithmetick Theoretical and Practical,' and 
several others, between 1699 and 1728, the 
titles of which are given in Watt's ' Biblio- 
theca Britannica.* W. S. S. ' 

9). Is it not fairly well established that folk 
meetings Shire Motes, Hundred Motes r 
Tithing Motes were often held around 
great stones ? See c Primitive Folk -Moots,* 
by G. L. Gomme, 1880, where is collected a 
mass of evidence on this subject title 
' stone ' in index. 

As to Standon, Walton-at-Stone, Stone- 
bury, Stanstead, and Stanborough, do they 
not all suggest Teutonic settlements (-tons, 
-burys, -steads, -boroughs) hard by ruins of 
Roman buildings, stations, or villas ? 


May croft, Fy field Road, Walthamstow. 

(11 S. ii. 8). This fictitious work was 
written by Miss Jane Porter, the daughter 
of an Irish officer, and sister of Sir Robert 
Ker Porter and of Miss Anna Maria Porter 
the novelist. It was first published in 1831, 
Miss Jane Porter's name being given merely 
as the editress. When pressed to disclose 
the author, Miss Porter used to say : "Sir 
Walter Scott [who, by the way, was a great 
friend of her family] had his great secret ; 
may be allowed to keep my little one." 

' Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative - has 
remarkable truthfulness of style and inc 

n s. ii. JULY 30, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


dent, and has been compared to Defoe's 
writing. A leading review wrote an article j 
on it, treating it as a narrative of facts. 
Miss Porter died at Bristol in 1850, aged 74. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

This ' Narrative ? is discussed by Mr. 
William Bates in ' The Maclise Portrait 
Gallery,' pp. 310-11. He is of opinion that 
the author was Dr. W. Ogilvie Porter, the 
elder brother of Miss Jane Porter. In the 
course of the discussion, Mr. Bates calls 
attention to references in * N. & Q.' (1 S. v. 
10, 185, 352), and also to The Quarterly 
Review, vol. xlviii. p. 480. W. S. S. 

The flag mentioned by Hamerton can 
hardly be called Garibaldi's " personal " 
flag. Garibaldi and HolyoaRe were great 
friends, and to show his friendship Gari- 
baldi, at the close of the war for the freedom 
of Italy, gave Holyoake his portrait, with a 
letter thanking him for all he had " gener- 
ously done for the Italian cause," and at the 
same time presented him with the flag 
carried throughout the campaign by the 
triumphant Garibaldians. This Holyoake 
hung up in his library, and at his funeral it 
was placed on his coffin. 

Holyoake' s youngest daughter, Mrs. Holy- 
oake Marsh, informs me that it is composed 
of three stripes about 12 inches wide, of 
red, white, and green, and, to quote her 
father's words, " was merely a tricolour of 
three pieces of cotton nailed to a stafiV* 
Mrs. Marsh adds : " It was not cotton, 
however, but a woollen material." She has 
generously presented this interesting memo- 
rial to Italy, and it now hangs in the Museum 

COWES FAMILY (11 S. i. 508; ii. 58). 
May I express my gratitude to B.U. L. L. and 
W. S. S. for their valuable information, 
and my regret that such comprehensive 
notes give no confirmation of the theory that 
a family gave its name to Cowes ? 

A search amongst naval papers that refer 
to the place has also been fruitless of results, 
save that it shows that West Cowe was an 
3arly way of writing of the Castle. 

A fresh question arises from the efforts to 
trace the name, and I should gratefully wel- 
come information upon it. There seems 
ground for doubting the received belief that 
King Henry VIII. built a second castle, 
on the eastern side of the Medina. In the 
days of his daughter Elizabeth, when very 

thorough repairs to all the Island forts are 
fully recorded, there is no mention of East 
Cowes Castle. It is not named on Speed's 
map, and though Old Castle Point exists, 
there is absolutely no record of any building 
there. Can any of your readers help to 
settle this point ? Y. T. 

Perhaps the following notes may be 
interesting on account of their connexion 
with Hampshire. 

Thomas Cowse, among others, bond to the 
king for 5001. 8 Sept., 2 Hen. VII. Ten 
seals to this document. 

Grant to John la Caus, lands in manor of 
Hordhulle. No date. Cat. Anc. Deeds at 

Anthony Cowce- and Agnes his wife, 
defendants in a suit respecting Charletts 
at Elstone in parish of Alverstoke, co. 
Southampton. Chancery Suits temp. Eliz. 

I once knew an Isle of Wight family 
named Caws. 

There was a Jacob Cowes^ described as a 
Dutchman, an alien in London in 1567. 


THE CIRCLE OF LODA (11 S. ii. 8). Perhaps 
DR. YOUNG may find the information he 
desires by consulting the poems of Ossian, 
especially those entitled ' Carric-Thura,' 
' Cath-Loda,' and ' Eina-Morul.' Loda is 
believed to have been synonymous with 
Odin, the Scandinavian deity. The circle of 
Loda, mentioned in ' Carric-Thura, l is 
supposed to be a place of worship among the 
Norsemen. Apparently it was situated on 
one of the islands of the Orcadian group, but 
it may be understood as applicable to any 
locality where the worshippers of Odin 
assembled. The hall of Loda perhaps stands 
for the Norse Valhalla, but is evidently 
located on some island off the Scandinavian 
or Norwegian coast. Brewer's ' Reader's 
Handbook ' draws an interesting parallel 
between the encounter of Fingal and Loda 
as related by Ossian, and the wounding of the 
war -god Mars by Diomed in the ' Iliad.' 


MARKET DAY (11 S. ii. 48). Was not the 
main consideration in fixing a day for a 
market the desire to avoid conflicting with a 
more important market in the neighbour- 
hood ? Markets were not principally (in 
their origin) intended for farmers who 
wished to sell the week's store of provisions 
(manna) to townsfolk, but, like the fairs, 
were for farmers to buy and to sell or to 
exchange their stock and their provender 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY so, mo. 

The most important markets, therefore, 
were not those in big towns, but those in 
convenient positions to serve a big district, 
and especially a district with very varied 
soils and culture-possibilities. In many 
cases probably most the fairs preceded the 
markets. Fairs were regulated by season 
and by saints' days. Thus, on a border 
between high land that affords ample sheep - 
pasture through the summer, and lower land 
where sheep may be root -fed and folded 
through the winter, there would be fairs at 
the most convenient time for changing the 
sheep. When a market was demanded by 
changed conditions, it would probably 
be on the same day of the week as the 
principal fair -day, unless that day was 
already in use for some neighbouring market. 
Many farmers attend two or more markets, 
in different places, regularly. 


In a given district it is plainly to the 
advantage of farmers and their customers to 
meet more frequently than once a week, and 
country carriers will be found going to two 
or three markets a week within their radius. 
The later-established markets would choose 
a different day from that fixed by their senior 
neighbour. H. P. L. 

[MR. TOM JONES also thanked for reply.] 

Goldsmith lodged in Canonbury in 1767 
as well as in 1762. The events attending his 
residence there have been carefully examined 
by Forster in his ' Life of Goldsmith,' and by 
Mr. Austin Dobson in ' Oliver Goldsmith ' 
in the " Great Writers M series. It is 
extremely probable that he visited Hack- 
ney while residing at Canonbury, but no 
evidence has yet been forthcoming to show 
that he did. When two such accomplished 
gleaners have thoroughly explored the field 
of inquiry, it is scarcely likely that many 
grains have been left ungathered to reward 
the efforts of future investigators. 

w. s. s. 

GEORGE I. STATUES (US. ii. 7, 50). There 
is another version of the first epigram 
quoted by MR. MAYCOCK (ante, p. 51), viz. : 
When Harry the Eighth left the Pope in the lurch, 
The people of England made him head of the 

church ; 

But much wiser still, the good- Bloomsbury people, 
'Stead of head of the church, made him head of 
the steeple. 

See * A Topographical Dictionary of London 
and its Environs,' by James Elmes, 1831, 
p. 204, s.v. ' St. George, Bloomsbury.' 

The following is from a manuscript com- 
monplace book dated on the back 1832 : 
On the late king's statue on the top of Blooms- 
bury spire. 

The King of Great Britain was reckon' d before 
The Head of the Church by all Christian People 
His Subjects of Bloomsbury have added one more 
To his Titles and made him the Head of the 


The words " late king " would presumably 
place the date of this epigram in the time 
of George II. This commonplace book 
(which I bought some years ago) appears to 
have been compiled by one E. W. Gwatkin. 

As to the statue, &c., Charles Knight's 
' London, l vol. v. (1843), p. 198, has the 
following : 

" Above this stage commences a series of steps* 
gradually narrowing, so as to assume a pyramidal 
appearance, the lowest of which are ornamented 
at the corners by lions and unicorns guarding the 
royal arms (the former with his tail and heels 
frisking in the air), and which support at the apex,, 
on a short column, a statue, in Roman costume, 
of George I." 

A picture of the church, including the 
statue and one of the (presumably) two pairs 
of supporters, is in William Maitland's ' His- 
tory and Survey of London,'- 1756, vol. ii., 
facing p. 1360. The supporters appear to 
be guarding a crown, not the royal arms. 
The crown exists now, but the supporters ai 
gone. It is possible that the royal arms 
were on the opposite side. 

According to the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' s.v. Nicholas Hawksmoor, the 
"lion and unicorn" (in the singular) were 
removed in 1871 by G. E. Street, R.A. If 
everything of grotesque appearance in 
London were removed, London w'ould be 
much less interesting than it is. 

For prints besides that in Maitland the 
' Dictionary ' refers to Clarke, ' Archit. 
Eccles.,' plate xlv., and Malton, ' London and 
Westminster,' pi. Ixxvi. 


Nicholas Hawksmoor was not a sculptor. 
He was an architect, a pupil of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren's. Amongst other churches, 
he designed St. George's, Bloomsbury, built 
at a cost of 9,793/., and consecrated in 1731. 
But what authority has W. A. H. for assert- 
ing that he was the actual carver of the 
statue of King George I. crowning the spire 
of that edifice ? Birch in his ' London 
Churches' (1896) describes the monarch as 
standing there "in solitary state, a lightning 
conductor decorating the top of his head."' 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

ii s. ii. JULY so, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MB. PIERPOINT (ante, p. 50), referring to 
statues in the Royal Exchange destroyed by 
the fire in 1838, says : " Apparently the only 
statue which escaped was that of Sir Thomas 
Gresham. It had also escaped in the Great 
Fire. 3i 

The statue of Charles II. that stood in the 
centre of the open area of the old Exchange 
was saved, and stands in the south-east 
angle of the ambulatory of the present build- 
ing. It is said to be the only stone portrait 
figure carving of Grinling Gibbons. It 
represents the merry monarch in Roman 
costume. It has recently been cleansed by 
the Gresham committee. 


Circa 1870, a relative of mine who was 
shown the statue at Hackwood was asked 
to point out any defect or imperfection in it. 
One of the stirrups was then seen to be 
missing, and it was stated that when the 
artist discovered this (his) omission, he com- 
mitted suicide. But the fact that the statue 
is of lead seems to make this a most im- 
probable " yarn." V. D. P. 

The following inscription and a print are 
found in vol. ix. p. 1 of the Archceologia of 
the Society of Antiquaries, and illustrate 
Dr. Tread way Nash's ' Observations on the 
Time of the Death and Place of Burial of 
Queen Katherine Parr l : 

He.e Lyethe quene 

Katheryne Wife to Kyng 
Henvy the VIII and 
the wife of Thomas 
Lord of Sudely high 
Admy .... of Englond 
And ynkle to kyng 

Edward the VI 
..I...y..M CCCCC 

Dr. Nash remarks : 

" A MS. in the Heralds' College, intitled ' A 
Book of Buryalls of trewe noble Persons,' N. 15, 
pp. 98, 99, contains a Breviate of the Interment 
of the Lady Katheryn Parr, Quene Dowager, &c., 
and goes on : ' Item on Wedysdaye the 5 Sep- 
tembre, between 2 and 3 of the clocke in the 
morning, died the aforesaid Ladye, late Queene 
Dowager, at the Castle of Sudley in Gloucester- 
shire, 1548, and lyeth buried in the chappell of the 
said Castle. Item she was ceared and chested 
in lead accordingly, and so remained,' &c. 

" This account, being published in Rudder's 
New History of Gloucestershire,' raised the 
curiosity of some ladies, who happened to 
be at the Castle in May, 1782, to examine the 
ruined chapel, and observing a large block of 
alabaster fixed in the north wall of the chapel, 
they imagined it might be the back of a monu- 

ment formerly placed there. Led by this hint 
they opened the ground not far from the wall, 
and not much more than a foot from the surface 
they found a leaden envelope, which they opened 
in two places, on the face and breast, and found it 
to contain a human body wrapped in cerecloth. 
Upon removing what covered the face, they 
discovered the features, and particularly the eyes, 
in perfect preservation. Alarmed at this sight 
and with the smell, which came principally from 
the cerecloth, they ordered the ground to be 
thrown in immediately, without judiciously 
closing up the cerecloth and lead which covered 
the face : only observing enough of the inscription 
to convince them that it was the body of Queen 

" In May, 1784, some persons, having curiosity 
again to open the grave, found that the air, rain, 
and dirt having come to the face, it was entirely 
destroyed, and nothing left but the bones. It 
was then immediately covered up, and no 
further search made. 

" Oct. 14, 1786, I went to Sudeley in company 
with the Hon. John Summers Cocks, and Mr. 
John Stripp of Ledbury, having previously 
obtained leave of Lord Rivers, the owner of the 
Castle, to examine the chapel. Upon opening 
the ground and heaving up the lead, we found 
the face totally decayed, the bones only remain- 
ing ; the teeth, which were sound, had fallen 
out of their sockets. The body, I believe, is 
perfect, as it has never been opened ; we thought 
it indecent to uncover it ; but observing the 
left hand to lie at a small distance from the body, 
we took off the cerecloth, and found the hand 
and nails perfect, but of a brownish colour : the 
cerecloth consisted of many folds of coarse linen, 
dipped in wax, tar, and perhaps some gum, &c. : 
over this was wrapt a sheet of lead, fitted exactly 
close to the body." 

On the part of the lead that covered the 
breast was the inscription. W. C. 

Perhaps the most detailed account of 
the close of Queen Katherine Parr's life will 
be found in the Rev. James Anderson's 
' Ladies of the Reformation,' vol. i. The 
book was published about fifty-five years ago, 
and enjoyed for a time considerable popu- 
larity. As an author Queen Katherine 
Parr acquired no small reputation in her 
day ; a full list of her writings is given in 
Walpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors,' vol. i. 

The fate of her daughter by Lord Seymour 
of Sudeley is involved in some obscurity. 
Trustworthy historians agree in representing 
her as dying in infancy, or, at least, while 
still of tender years, thus following the 
authority of Strype rather than that of Miss 
Strickland. W. SCOTT. 

DUCHESS OF PALATA (US. ii. 29). The 
title Duke of Palata was conferred in 1793 
on the noble Spanish family bearing the name 
Azlor, together with the signories of Tavenna 
and Santa Giusta. LEO C. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. JULY so, 1910. 


Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor, 1602. 
Edited by W. W. Greg, Litt.D. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

THIS is a recent edition to that " Tudor and 
Stuart Library " which is one of the most attract- 
ive, both in contents and appearance, of the many 
series with which the Oxford Press tempts the 

Dr. Greg is responsible for a Bibliographical 
and Critical Introduction, Appendixes, and 
notes. These are concerned, not with aesthetic 
considerations (such as the comparison of Falstaff's 
character here and elsewhere), but with the per- 
plexing texts of the play. We have two main 
authorities the Quarto of 1602, and the Folio 
of 1623. Here Dr. Greg reprints the Quarto, and 
compares both generally and in detail the readings 
given by each. He discusses the views of the 
late H. C. Hart and Mr. P. A. Daniel, and puts 
forward his own with great ability. He considers 
that we have to bear in mind (1) garbling by a 
reporter of the play as performed on the stage ; 
(2) cutting, and possibly rewriting, for acting 
purposes, by a stage adapter ; (3) working over 
by an authorized reviser of the original text 
'(underlying the Quarto), and the production of a 
new version (substantially that of the Folio text). 

As for the reporter, Dr. Greg shows that his 
task was not so difficult as might be imagined 
by his own experience of reporting and writing a 
tolerable text of a play of Mr. Shaw's. This 
reporter who was responsible for the Quarto 
text was, Dr. Greg suggests, the actor who played 
the part of Mine Host, for the speeches of that 
part are reported with very unusual accuracy. 
The notes after the text show a laudable reluc- 
tance to consent to conjectures, however specious, 
where the Quarto and Folio readings agree. 

When Slender says (1. 110 of the Quarto) of 
*'a Fencer" that "he hot my shin," he is using 
a past tense of " hit " which we have often heard 
in Shakespeare's country. 

There are notes on two well-known difficulties, 
" gongarian " and "garmombles," neither of 
which, we note, appears in the ' N.E.D.' As for 
the former, until Steevens's quotation from " one 
of the old bombast plays " which he " forgot to 
note " has been discovered, comment, as Dr. 
Greg sensibly remarks, is useless. As for the other 
odd word, Dr. Greg regards the passage in which 
it occurs as unoriginal, and a substitution for a 
more elaborate scene which had to be cut out. 
So if " garmombles " is not a wild blunder, 
it does not belong to the original text, but is " a 
sly allusion to the censored episode introduced 
by the actor (an Elizabethan Pelissier) for the 
benefit of an audience familiar with current 
dramatic scandal." This must certainly be the 
first appearance of the leader of " The Follies " 
in serious criticism. 

Neither the Folio nor the Quarto gives such 
an ending to the play in the last act as we might 
expect from Shakespeare. That is the view of 
Dr. Greg, and of other critics ; or, if the work is 
Shakespeare's, it '' has almost disappeared under 
a twofold revision by a greatly inferior play- 

Dr. Greg's recension of the play is so thorough 
and searching that it cannot be disregarded by any 
future editor. We congratulate him on a piece 
of work which must have cost him a large amount 
of time and labour. The modern and expert 
bibliographer " de minimis curat " with the best 

The Little Guides. Staffordshire. By Charles 
Masefield. With 32 Illustrations, 2 Plans, and 
2 Maps. The Channel Islands. By E. E. Bick- 
nell. With 32 Illustrations and 5 Maps. 
(Methuen & Co.) 

WISE reviewers always keep their copies of " The 
Little Guides," if they can, for this series is at 
once thorough, sound in information, and prac- 
tical. The alphabetical arrangement gives a 
ready means of access to the detail desired, when 
the facts will be found set out distinctly, and 
without the parade of verbiage which disfigures 
most guide-books. 

The present reviewer has used many volumes of 
the series with advantage, and always asks for 
them when he does not possess them. Details 
which concern the historian or archaeologist 
as opposed to the ordinary tourist are not lacking, 
and there are signs everywhere of that personal 
knowledge which is essential for real help to the 
traveller. The maps are thoroughly useful. A 
few trifles in names need amending. 

Both writers very sensibly ask for corrections, 
and in the case of the Channel Islands it would 
not be a bad scheme, we think, to put the little 
book on the boats which ply backwards and for- 
wards from England, and ask for criticism from 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Put 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chaucer 
Lane, E.C. 

To secure insertion of communications cor 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, .volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

CAPT. BEAUMONT (" Queen Henrietta Maria's 
Second Marriage"). The 'D.N.B.,' at the end of 
the account of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans 
says : " The scandal-mongers of his own day affirm* 
that he was secretly married to Henrietta M 
during the exile, but no proof of the story has yet 
come to light." References are given to Pepys, 
Keresby, and Burnet. 

ii s. IL AUG. 6, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Gulston Addison's Death at Madras, 101 
Tottel's Miscellany ' and Puttenham, 103 Eugene 
Aram, 105" Average "Toe Names Slovene Hymn, 106". 

QUERIES: Queen Elizabeth and Astrology Anatole 
France's ' Thai's 'Morganatic Marriages Father Peters 
and Queen Mary John Houseman Charles II. and his 
Fubbs Yacht, 107 'The English Freeholder,' 1791 Sudan 
Archaeology The Old Pretender The King's Butler 
Meredith and Moser Lord Mayors and their Counties of 
Origin Dean Alford's Poems Manor : Sac : Soke Mr. 
W. Graham and Jane Clermont, 108 -Bernard Wilson 
Gervase Warmestry Red Lion Square Obelisk Inscrip- 
tion in Hyeres Cathedral Spider's Web and Fever Arms 
of Women MS. Work on the Temple at Jerusalem, 109 
Irishman and Thunderstorm, 110. 

REPLIES :-Westminster Cathedral : Alphabet .Ceremony, 
110 " Denizen ".-^John Brooke, Fifteenth-Century Bar- 
rister-' Reverberations' : W. Davies, 111 T. L. Peacock's 
Plays St. Leodegarius and the St. Leger St. Agatha at 
Wimborne Provincial Booksellers Mock Coats of Arms, 
112 " Handyman "=Sailor Folly Thundering Dawn 
Bibliography of London, 113 Windsdr Stationmaster 
Egertxm Leigh Thomson, R.A. John Wilkes, 114 
Door-Knocker Etiquette Licence to Eat Flesh' Shaving 
Them ' Elephant and Castle in Heraldry, 115 " The 
Holy Crows," Lisbon 'Jane Shore' Royal Tombs at 
St. Denis, 116 Royal Manners temp. William IV. 
D'Eresby Printers of the Statutes : South Tawton 
Sir Henry Dudley, 117 Melmont Berries Prince Bishop 
of Basle, 118 Anglo-Spanish Author- Commonwealth 
Grants of Arms Bible Statistics Canopy-of-Heaven 
Blue Kemys Dr. John Hough, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Scottish Historical Clubs' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE fact that there have been recently in 
* N. & Q.' several notes upon Addison's 
maternal ancestry may seem to give some 
appropriateness to the insertion of the 
following letter, a copy of which was kindly 
given me some time ago by Sir Robert 
White -Thomson, who treasures the original 
among his family papers. The writer, 
Brudenell Baker, was a brother of Catharine 
Baker, who married Thomas Remington in 
1714, and had a son, the Rev. Daniel William 
Remington, who was Sir Robert's great- 
grandfather (see 10 S. ix. 302). 

The principal interest of the letter lies 
in the account it gives of the last days of 
Gulston Addison, and of his death. The 
elder . of the famous essayist's younger 
brothers, Gulston Addison had his mother's 
maiden name bestowed upon him in baptism. 
Born in 1673 ('D.N.B.' under Lancelot 
Addison), he was for many years in the 
'service of the East India Company at 
Port St. George, and in 1709, shortly before 

his death, was appointed Governor of the 

Elace in succession to Thomas Pitt, cele- 
rated through his descendants. 
Brudenell Baker, baptized at Lichfield 
Cathedral on 2 September, 1675, was the 
eldest son of the Rev. William Baker (a .Pre- 
bendary of the Cathedral, and for 51 years 
Vicar of St. Mary's Church) by his wife 
Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Brudenell 
(see Harwood's ' Lichfield,' p. 97). Nothing 
is known of his early life, but the letter which 
follows shows that he had been at least 
extravagant and had incurred his father's 
severest displeasure : 

India Fort S e George 14 Oct r 1709. 
Hon d S r 

Tho you were pleas'd to command me not to 
write to you in England I hope you will permit 
me to pay my Duty to you from this other part 
of y e World. I am very sensible y* you ever had 
the hardest opinion of me, but could have wished 
y* at my setting out upon so desperate a Voyage, 
never to see you more, You would have at least 
conceal'd your resentm ts & sent me your blessing. 
But no more of this I could not forbear just 
mentioning it, because my heart was full of it, 
& it has been a great trouble to me. But am 
resolved hereafter (if you will give me leave) 
to send you all y e Comfort I am able in your old 
age and never to omit one opportunity of shewing 
my Obedience to you. 

God knows how this Country may agree with 
my Constitution. If I live my Fortune is cer- 
tainly made in a few Years. But I ought to begin 
& state Occurrences in Order. We set sail on 
Saturday y e 9 th of April from Plymouth, & after 
a voyage attended with some Hardships & great 
danger (especially in a prodigious Storm y e 
beginning of July w ch lasted two nights & one day 
a perfect Hurricane) we came to an Anchour 
y e i7th O f September, just 23 Weeks in Our 
passage. Our ships arrived y e first of y e Fleet, 
and consequently brought y e news of Mr Addi- 
son's being made Gov r of this Place. His Knee 
is swell'd extremely, & Physicians here say 'tis y e 
Gout. I wish it is so, but 'tis what he never had 
before & I am sure wrong methods have been 
applyed such as Bathing & Poultices, Plaisters &c. 
He continues just in y e same condition as when 
first I saw Him, w ch is now near a Month. He 
has not much pain, but wants Spirits, w ch makes 
Him not relish his great Preferment, and is indeed 
far from being elated w th it. And here it will not 
be amiss to acquaint you w th my Reception. 
But will first let you know what must be kept to 
Your Self viz. : His Relations in England recom- 
mended me very heartily to the Governour 
but at y e same time sent Him a particular relation 
of all my foolish mistakes, such as being a little 
too exact in dressing, and advised Him to keep 
me at a decent distance for fear I might grow 
too free w th Him &c. ; so tender a regard they had 
to y e Honour of their Br: y' they left no Stone un- 
turned to secure it. Well, He at first observed 
y ir directions & has tryed me to y e Utmost. 
But I have had y e good fortune to gain His good 
Opinion, & to such a degree y He has entrusted 
me with all his private Affairs, & has me with 
Him continually. He shew'd me those Hints 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii B. n. AUG. e, 1910. 

w ch had been sent Him, said 'twas all needless, 
for He could not see any reason for those un- 
necessary cautions. In short He plainly tells me 
He'l provide for me and raise me in y e World. I 
have a large handsome Apartment assigned to me in 
y" Fort near Himself, have 3 Black slaves to 
attend me : one to carry an Umbrella over me in 
y e Sun, another to do all Servile Offices, and a 
third, a genteel Serv* to wait upon me in my 
Chamber. Y" Governour lives in mighty State, 
never stirs abroad but with Guards drawn out, 
Drums beating, & Colours flying, & He has 
placed me so near His Person y 1 I am courted by 
y e best in y e Place. He tells me I must be civil 
to All, but familiar w th None but Himself. All 
this is very great & Sure I can never do enough 
to deserve y e Honour He has done me. I pray 
God preserve His Life, and then I need not fear 
getting an Estate in a Short time. I have been 
here as particular as I can, but have not time to 
enlarge on this Subject any further. I am con- 
stantly employ'd by y e Gov r and we are in a very 
great Hurry to send off this Ship w ch carries over 
his Predecessour. He has order'd me to write 
to his Brother & Sister. The latter wrought [sic] 
to Him for a Chest of things, but He has not time 
now to send 'em, & will do it y e next Shipping 
w h will be in 2 or 3 Months, so that I shall have 
a good opportunity to put up a small quantity 
of Tea for you w ch I 'le not fail then to send. I 
will steal a little time to write a short Letter to 
my two Dear Sisters. My Bro" must excuse 
me 'till y e next Ship goes off. They must not 
take it ill, for what I say to my Sisters I say to 
them. I cannot omit writing to good Dr. Smal- 
dridge,* nor to kind cozen Lowndes, but all these 
will be very short, for I am straiten d in time, but 
was resolved to neglect no occasion w ch offered to 
shew myself Your most obedient son 


20 th Oct r 

O S r The Governour is dead, & in Him I 've 
lost all y e World. It has almost distracted me. 
His Gout ended in a- fever of w ch He dyed y e 
17 th Instant, & was buried yesterday. He has 
left me a Legacy y* will clear all my Debts, & 
be a beginning for me in y e World. 'Tis no less 
than 500Z. If my Debts could be compounded 
before this is known, I should raise myself by 
purchasing a good Employm 1 Do for me what 
you can. You shall not find me undutifull now 
I can live without You. I cannot tell how long 
y e Trustees will defer paying y 8 Legacy. I must 
shift as well as I can. There has been nothing 
but Confusion since His Death. I shall take 
y e best advice I can, and doubt not but to give you 
satisfactory reasons for what I shall resolve upon. 
The Ship is just going off. I have not time to 
write to any Body. I send this enclosed to Cozen 
Lowndes, open too, for I think He is to be trusted 
w th it, and I have not time to write to. any Relation 
I have, and must once again subscribe my self 
in y e greatest haste. 

Your dutiful Son 


My Kindest Love & Service attends Bro s & 

* George Smalridge (1663-1719), afterwards 
Bishop of Bristol. 

The sympathy which we feel for Brudenell 
Baker when reading the first part of his 
letter, where he pleads with his father 
for recognition in sentences simple and 
apparently heartfelt, is quite alienated by the 
extraordinary proposal which mars the post- 
script. The stern old cleric must indeed 
have been astonished at such a request being 
made to him, and we may well doubt if the 
letter effected a reconciliation between father 
and son. All we can plead for Brudeneli 
Baker is that he was the victim of a heavy 
and tragic disappointment, and that the 
postscript was penned just before the depar- 
ture of the ship, leaving no time for his 
better feelings to assert themselves. Yet, 
however we may deplore this lapse in his 
moral sense, it is clear that he was a young 
man of some parts, who very quickly won the 
confidence and affection of an able man, 
in spite of his qualified recommendations. 
It would be interesting to know if it was 
Joseph Addison who sent his brother "a 
particular relation of all n the young 
prodigal's " foolish mistakes." We probably 
should not err in attributing to him another 
inimitable essay upon youthful folly. 

We learn no more of Brudeneli Baker, and 
the time and the place of his death are alike 
unknown to us. Even the REV. FRANK 
PENNY, whose acquaintance with the history 
of Fort St. George is so intimate, cannot 
disinter his name from the records ; so that 
it is probable he did not remain there, and 
certain he attained no distinction. He i& 
not mentioned in the will of his father, 
who died at Lichfield in August, 1732 ; but 
this shows nothing, for the aged prebendary 
makes no allusion to any son at all, although 
it seems clear that one at least, Thomas 
Baker (baptized 7 December, 1689), sur- 
vived him. This Thomas graduated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1708 ; and there- 
is evidence to identify him with the Rev. 
Thomas Baker, a Minor Canon of St. Paul's 
and of Westminster, and priest of the Chapel 
Royal, who died 10 May, 1745 (see R. F. 
Scott's * Admissions to St. John's College,. 
Cambridge,' Part III. p. 456). 

I have obtained an abstract of Gulston 
Addison's will, which is dated 16 October,. 
1709, the day before his death. He is 
described therein as " Gulstone " Addison,. 
Esquire, Governor of Fort St. George in the 
East Indies. To his wife Mary Addison 
he bequeaths 14,000 pagodas ; to his sister 
Dorothy Addison 1,0001. sterling ; to his 
" good friend n Mr. Brudeneli Baker of Fort 
St. George, 1,000 pagodas ; to his friend Mr. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 6, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


George Lewis of Fort St. George, 500 pago- 
das ; to his servants, Oliver, Inggapa, and 
Xarran, 100, 50, and 60 pagodas respectively ; 
and to his friend Mrs. Ann Brabourne, 
100 pagodas. The residue of his estate he 
bequeaths to his loving brother Joseph 
Addison, Esq. ; and he appoints his 
friends Mr. Edmund Mountague, Mr. Robert 
Raworth, Mr. Edward Fleetwood, and Mr. 
Bernard Benyon to be trustees, giving them 
100 pagodas apiece for mourning, and 
directing that his burial shall be at their 
discretion. All his debts and legacies in 
India are to be paid, and afterwards his 
estate, as it shall come to the trustees' hands, 
invested in diamonds, which are to be 
remitted to his brother Joseph in England, 
on such ship as they shall think fit. The 
bequest to his sister Dorothy shall be 
remitted to Joseph in like manner. Sunca 
Rama, if living and upon the place, shall have 
the buying of the diamonds. To his wife's 
brother Mr. Henry Jolly he leaves 1,000 
pagodas ; and he appoints his wife and 
brother Joseph executors. His signature, 
" Guls. Addison," is witnessed by Edward 
Bulkley, Henry Davenport, William Warre, 
and Alexander Orme. By a codicil of the 
same date, signed " Gulston Addison,' 2 and 
witnessed by Edward Bulkley, Alexander 
Orme, and Antho. Suply, he bequeaths 
500 pagodas to Mr. Randall Fowke of Fort 
St. George. Three years after the testator's 
death, on 20 October, 1712, the will was 
proved by Joseph Addison, Esq., the sur- 
viving executor (P.C.C., Barnes, 179). 

In Leslie Stephen's account of Joseph 
Addison in the ' D.N.B. 1 it is stated that 
Gulston Addison died 10 October, 1709 
a slight error leaving Joseph an executor 
and residuary legatee. 

" The difficulty, however, of realising an 
estate left in great confusion a,nd in so distant a 
country, was very great. The trustees were 
neglectful, and Addison declares that one of them 
deserved the pillory, and that he longs to tell 
him so 'by word of mouth.' It was not till 
1716 that a final liquidation was reached ; and 
the sum due to Addison, afer deducting bad debts 
and legacies, was less than a tenth part of the 
whole estate, originally valued at 35,000 pagodas, 
or 14,OOOZ." 

In a letter dated 21 July, 1711, Addison 
alludes to the loss within the last twelve 
months of an estate in the Indies of 14,OOOZ. 
If the value of a " pagoda " was only about 
seven shillings (11 S. i. 328), Brudenell 
Baker considerably overstated the amount 
of his legacy. 

The 'D.N.B.' (under Lancelot Addison) 
says that the Dean's third son, Lancelot 

Addison, a Fellow of Magdalen, visited Fort 
St. George about the time of his brother 
Gulston's death, and died there in 1711. 
It seems clear from Brudenell Baker's letter 
that Lancelot must have gone out after 
Gulston's death ; and MB. PENNY tells me 
that Lancelot fell a victim to the climate in 
August, 1710. It is strange that Gulston 
did not remember him in his will. Perhaps 
Lancelot was sent out by Joseph Addison 
to protect his interests. Administration 
of the estate of Lancelot Addison of Fort 
St. George, bachelor, was granted to 
Joseph, the brother, on 9 January, 1711/12, 
in P.C.C. 

Gulston Addison was married to Mary 
Brook on 6 July, 1701 (Genealogist, N.S. r 
vol. xix. p. 288), at Fort St. George ; and 
MB. PENNY tells me that she died there in 
February, 1709/10. As Gulston's will alludes 
to her brother Mr. Henry Jolly, it is possible 
that she may have been previously married. 

Park Corner, Blundellsands, nr. Liverpool. 


(See ante, p. 1.) 

THEBE is something strange about Putten- 
ham's manner of introducing quotations 
from Turbervile that requires explanation, 
and it is well worthy of note. 

As I have said, Turbervile is only once 
named in ' The Arte of English Poesie, 5 " 
and then he comes in for praise with others- 
"who have written excellently well."' But 
when Puttenham quotes Turbervile the 
critic seems to wish to convey to his readers 
the impression that he is dealing with pas- 
sages not from the work of one man, but 
from the work of several men. He not only 
hides names, but also goes out of his way 
to blind us as to the sources from which he 
obtained his material. 

There are four passages from Turbervile 
cited in pp. 262-3, and the uninitiated reader 
is compelled to assume that the critic is 
lashing at four distinct writers. Two quota- 
tions are introduced with the remark 4 ' as 
he that said " ; the third one follows with 
the introduction, "another that praysing his 
mistresse for her bewtifull haire, said " ; 
and the last passage comes in with "as one 
that said," but separated from the other 
three by a quotation from Puttenham's 
own * Partheniades, 1 which the author, with 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. AUG. e, 1910. 

paternal pride, contrasts with Turbervile 
to illustrate in a most striking manner the 
difference between good and bad verse. 

Readers of his own day could hardly 
escape knowing the poet whom Puttenham 
aimed at, and they would have the help of 
Turbervile's special admirers and friends to 
help them if they were at fault. But men 
of a later generation would not be so for- 
tunate, and therefore it is no wonder that 
Puttenham's ambiguous style of reference 
has served the purpose, up to now, of 
hiding his concentrated onslaught on Turber- 
vile. And it is an ingenious mode of attack, 
too, because, to any charge of personal 
malice that might be brought against him, 
Puttenham could answer that he did not 
name the poet, that he pretended to be 
dealing with more persons than one, and he 
could triumphantly refer objectors to the 
passage in his book in which he commends 
Turbervile by name. 

I will deal with these four passages now. 

In two places (pp. 181 and 262) Puttenham 
treats of Histeron proteron, or the Pre- 
posterous, a manner of disordered speech 
when one misplaces words or clauses, and 
sets that before which should come behind, 
that is, setting the cart before the horse. 
He says : 

" This vice is sometime tollerable inough, but 
if the word carry away notable sence, it is a vice 
not tollerable, as he that said praising a woman for 
her red lippes, thus : 

A corrall lip of hew. 

Which is no good speech, because either he 
should have sayd no more but a corrall lip, which 
had bene inough to declare the rednesse, or els 
he should have said, a lip of corrall hew, and not a 
corrall lip of hew. Now if this disorder be in a 
whole clause which carieth more sentence then 
a word, it is then worst of all." 

Thus in Turbervile's ' Songs and Sonnets,' 
&c. : 

A little mouth with decent chin, 

a corrall lip of hue, 
With teeth as white as whale his bone, 
eche one in order due. 

' Praise of his Love,' p. 231. 
Again : 

" Ye have another vicious speech which the 
Greekes callAcyron, we call it the uncouthe, and is 
when we use an obscure and darke word, and 
utterly repugnant to that we would expresse, if 
it be not by vertue of the figures metaphore, 
allegoric, abusion, or such other laudable figure 
before remembred, as he that said by way of 

" A dongeon deepe, a dampe as darke as hell. 
Where it is evident that a dampe being but a 
breath or vapour, and not to be discerned by the 

eye, ought not to have this epithete (darke,) no 
more then another that praysing his mistresse for her 
bewtifull haire, said very improperly and with an 
uncouth terme. 

Her haire surmounts Apollos pride, 

In it such bewty raignes. 

Whereas this word raigne is ill applied to the 
bewtie of a womans haire, and might better 
have bene spoken of her whole person, in which 
bewtie, favour and good grace, may perhaps in 
some sort be said to raigne as our selves wrate, 
in a Partheniade praising her Majesties coun- 
tenance, thus : 

A cheare where love and Majestie do raigne, 

Both milde and sterne, &c. 

Because this word Majestie is a word expressing 
a certaine Soveraigne dignitie, as well as a 
quallitie of countenance, and therefore may 
properly be said to raigne, and requires no 
meaner word to set him foorth by. So it is not 
of the bewtie that remaines in a womans haire, 
or in her hand or in any other member : therefore 
when ye see all these improper or harde Epithets 
used, ye may put them in the number of [uncouths] 
as one that said, the flouds of graces : I have heard 
of the flouds of teares, and the flouds of eloquence, 
or of any thing that may resemble the nature of a 
water-course, and in that respect we say also, the 
sU-eames of teares, and the streames of utterance, 
but not the streames of graces, or of beautie." 

Now all this while the critic has been 
thrashing one man not several, as his 
references would imply and he has, appa- 
rently, laboured to throw us off the scent. 

The other three passages dealt with 
by Puttenham appear in Turbervile as 
follows : 

A laberinth, a loathsome lodge to dwell, 
A dungeon deepe, a dampe as darke as hell. 
' The Lover whose Lady dwelt fast by a Prison,' 
Collier, p. 215. 

Hir haire surmounts Apollos pride, 

in it such beautie raines ; 
Hir glistring eies the cristall farre 

and finest saphire staines. 

' Praise of his Love,' p. 231. 

As soone with might thou mayst remove 
the rock from whence it growes, 

As frame hir featurde forme in whome 
such flouds of graces flowes. 

' Praise of his Love,' 231. 

Elsewhere in Turbervile we find him 
using "dampe" as in the passage selected 
for censure : 

To shadie Acheron sometime he flings the same, 
And deepest damp of hollow hell those impes to 
tame. ' Of Ladie Venus,' &c., p. 188. 

And one may take it for granted that he did 
not coin the word, which is very suggestive, 
and not deserving of condemnation. It j 
reminds one of Shakespeare (' 2 Henry VI.,' 
I. iv. 19) : 

Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night ; 

n s. ii. AUG. 6, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


just as Puttenham's censure recalls the 
defence of Spenser in E. K.'s preface to 
' The Shepheards Calender J : 

" Other some not so well scene in the English 
tongue, as perhaps in other languages, if they 
happen to heare an'olde word, albeit very naturall 
and significant, cry out straightway, that we 
speake no English, but gibberish," &c. 

We may, without research, conclude that 
Turbervile snapped up his word from one 
of the poets whose work he imitates and 
copies so slavishly, just as he snapped up 
" surmounts Apollos pride ?? from Sir Thomas 
Wyatt : 
The crisped golde, that doth surmount Apollos 

pride. Tottel's ' Miscellany,' Arber, p. 75. 

(To be continued.) 


THE sale by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & 
Hodge, on the 6th of July, of documents 
relating to this remarkable trial made 
generally famous first by Hood's poem, which 
appeared in * The Gem * for 1829, followed by 
Bulwer's novel, published December 22nd, 
1831 will probably lead to fresh investiga- 
tions as to the innocence or guilt of this 
man of studious habits and gentle manners. 
The documents sold were thus described 
in the catalogue, and the price they fetched 
was thirty-one pounds : 

" 120 Aram (Eugene) A remarkable Collection 
of eleven original Documents relating to this 
extraordinary and historic case, including the 
Coroner's Inquisition upon the finding of a 
skeleton on Thistle Hill, Knaresborough,in August, 
1758, supposed to be that of Daniel Clark, who 
had disappeared 14 years previously, the exam- 
ination of various witnesses, including Eugene 
Aram's wife, as to the circumstances connected 
with Clark's disappearance, and the Coroner's 
Inquisition upon the finding of a second skeleton 
in St. Robert's Cave, in consequence of the con- 
fession of Richard Houseman, which led to the 
celebrated trial and execution of Eugene Aram 
as his accomplice. (11) 

' %* These Documents have come down to 
the present owner from his ancestor, John 
Theakston, the Coroner who held the Inquisi- 
tions and examined the witnesses." 

In 1840 Bulwer in his preface to a new 
edition of his novel wrote : 

" During Aram's residence at Lynn, his reputa- 
tion for learning had attracted the notice of my 

grandfather Aram frequently visited at 

Heydon, my grandfather's house, and gave 
lessons, probably in no very elevated branches 
of erudition, to the younger members of the 
family. This I chanced to hear when I was on 
;i visit in Norfolk, some two years before this 
novel was published, and it tended to increase 

the interest with which I had previously specu- 
lated on the phenomena of a trial which, take 
it altogether, is perhaps the most remarkable in 
the register of English crime." 

All the information collected by the novelist 
showed Aram to be "a man of the mildest 
character and the most unexceptionable 
morals n : 

" An invariable gentleness and patience in his 
mode of tuition qualities then very uncommon at 
schools had made him so beloved by his pupils at 
Lynn, that in after life there was scarcely one of 
them who did not persist in the belief in his 

He had 

" a singular eloquence in conversation an active 
tenderness and charity to the poor, with whom 
he was always ready to share his own scanty 
means an apparent disregard to money, except 
when employed in the purchase of books." 

Bulwer's investigations had at this time 
led him to the conclusion that the legal 
evidence was extremely deficient, and in the 
edition published by Messrs. Chapman & 
Hall in 1849 he states that he had con- 
vinced himself *' that, though an accom- 
plice in the robbery of Clarke, he [Aram] 
was free both from the premeditated design 
and the actual deed of murder.^ Bulwer 
altered his novel accordingly. 

In the Sixth Series of * N. & Q. 2 are several 
important references to Eugene Aram. On 
the 1st of January, 1881, MB. F. W. JOY 
supplies an unpublished letter of Eugene 
Aram's, dated from London, July 19th, 
1 754. In this Aram mentions that his situa- 
tions had been various, and that he was 

*' Tutor 3 years to the sons of a ffamily of 
distinction in Berks & in other Imployments of 
that kind 4 years. With the money arising thence 
I went over into ffrance a Tour partly of curiosity 
& partly of profit in which having visited Roan 
Paris &c. & even Blois & Orleans I acquired the 
Language which is now at once an extraordinary 
recom'endation & benefit to me." 

MB. JOY remarks that "in the narrative 
of his life, which he wrote after his con- 
demnation, he omitted all mention of his 
visit to France.'* 

On the 17th of November, 1883, G. 
WINTEB is informed that accounts of Eugene 
Aram may be found in the ' Biographia 
Britannica,' ed. Kippis ; ' Genuine Account 
of the Trial of Eugene Aram/ London, 1759 ; 
The Gentleman's Magazine, and The Annual 
Register for the same year, and various 
biographical dictionaries. 

On the 17th of January, 1885, FBANCESCA 
asks for information respecting Eugene 
Aram. Many replies appear on the 14th of 
February. MB. BBIEBLEY gives an extract 
from The Gentleman 1 8 Magazine of Septem- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 6, 1910. 

ber, 1837 ; ESTE supplies a list of books, 
pamphlets, and cuttings in his possession ; 
JULIAN MARSHALL states that Caulfield's 
' Remarkable Persons ' contains a memoir 
and portrait ; and W. C. B. mentions that 
"* ' among the subscribers to the ' History of 
Hull l written by the extraordinary printer 
Thomas Gent, and printed by him at York 
in 1735," appears the name of " Mr. Eugenius 
Aram." On the 28th of March CUTHBERT 
BEDE writes : " See also, for an excellent 
digest of this case, ' Historic Yorkshire,' by 
William Andrews, F.R.H.S. (London, Reeves 
.& Turner, 1883), chap, xxiii." He also 
states that " Lord Lytton intended to have 
treated the subject as a tragedy, and what he 
had thus prepared for the stage he published 
in The New Monthly Magazine during the 
period when he edited it (August, 1833, 
vol. xxxviii. No. 152). n 

In The Leeds Mercury of November llth, 
1899, appeared a defence of Eugene Aram 
-by Mr. J. M. Richardson of Huddersfield. 
This was referred to in our review of the life 
of Lytton by Mr. T. H. S. Escott (1 1 S. i. 280). 
He contends that, 

*' like Dreyfus, he was the victim of perjury and 
f orgery . . . . Dr. Paley, who was present at the 
"trial, always asserted that Aram was innocent. 
He said, ' Aram hung himself by his cleverness.' " 

" AVERAGE.'* It is generally agreed that 
this word is composed of the widely spread 
mercantile Mediterranean word avaria + 
.suffix -age (see * N.E.D.,' and Skeat's ' Etym. 
Diet.,' ed. 1910). In ' N.E.D.' we find that 
one of the technical senses of the English 
word " average " is " the expense or loss to 
owners, arising from damage at sea to the 
ship or cargo."- I think it can be shown that 
the original notion of the Mediterranean 
word avaria, with which modern etymologists 
connect our " average, 1 ' was damage or loss. 
This is certainly the principal meaning of 
avaria in the Romanic languages. In Portu- 
guese avaria means " damage to a vessel or 
cargo"; cp. Fr. avarie, " dommage arrive 
a un vaisseau, ou aux marchandises dont 
il est charge depuis le depart jusqu'au 
retour" ('Diet, de 1'Acad.,' 1786); also 
It. avaria, " a sea-phrase, viz., a consumption 
or distribution of the loss made, when goods 
are cast away on purpose in a storm to save 
'the vessel " (Florio). 

Now what is the etymology of this 

Mediterranean word avaria, which appears to 

have the general meaning of " dommage 

'arrive a un vaisseau, a des marchandises " ? 

Dozy, in his ' Glossaire,' p. 217, has no doubt 
whatever about the derivation of this word ; 
"II est tres-certainement d'origine arabe." 
As an Arabic etymology has been summarily 
dismissed by ' N.E.D.' and Skeat in their 
accounts of the word " average," I will copy 
out what Dozy has to say in its favour. He 
derives avaria from Arab. l awdr, loss, damage, 
and says : 

"II ne faut pas croire que 'awdr, pris en ce 
sens, est un neologisme ; il appartient au contraire 
a la langue arabe classique, dans laquelle on dit 
' une marchandise qui a un defaut ( i awdr).' > Les 
marchands italiens, par suite des relations fre- 
quentes qu'ils avaient avec les Arabes, ont adopts 
le mot 'awdr, qui etait fort en usage dans le 
commerce ; ce qui le prouve, c'est que les passages 
que Ducange donne sous avaria sont empruntes 
a des documents genois et pisans. C'est aussi 
par 1'entremise des Italiens que ce mot s'est 
introduit dans presque toutes les langues euro- 
p^ennes. La transcription avaria est bonne ; 
ia est la terminaison italienne. On trouve cette 
forme dans un document Catalan de 1258 (apud 
Capmany, ' Memorias sobre la marina de Barce- 
lona,' ii. 27)." 

I do not see any valid reason for rejecting 
the account of avaria given by this eminent 
scholar. All the uses of avaria and 
" average " may be easily deduced from the 
primary meaning of damage or loss. This 
radical meaning was also common Semitic, 
and may be traced in the Hebrew root 
'dwar, which is found in the special sense of 
loss of eyesight, blindness. 

It may be noted that the form of the 
English word ' ' average " with the suffix 
age is due to the analogy of "poundage," 
"tonnage," "pilotage,"" and other com- 
mercial terms. A. L. MAYHEW. 

21, Norham Road, Oxford. 

TOE NAMES. I have some remembrance of 
having seen years ago in ' N. & Q.'' mention 
of fanciful names given by children (or 
nurses) to their toes. The following may 
therefore interest some readers. The names 
were taught to my brother and myself in the 
sixties by our nurse, a young woman from 
Braintree, Essex : 

Great toe, Tom Barker. 

Second toe, Long Rachel. 

Third toe, Minnie Wilkin. 

Fourth toe, Milly Larkin. 

Fifth toe, Little Dick. 


SLOVENE HYMN. The words of the hymi 
sung by the Slovenes, " Naprej zastav 
slave " (" On high the glorious standard " 
were written by the poet S. Jenko in 1859. 
The melody, I read in a Bohemian Sokol 
journal, was composed by Davorin Jenko al 

ii s. ii. AUG. 6, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the age of 75, on 16 May, 1860, and has 
thus completed its half-century. (I 
attempted a verse rendering of this hymn 
in a musical journal a few months ago. ) The 
opening verses and tune are full of martial 
ardour, but the later are in a different vein 
the appeal of a weeping mother and the 
consolatory words of a warlike son. It is 
related that Davorin Jenko long sought to 
compose a suitable melody, but in vain. 
Hearing of some German aggression in a 
Vienna cafe frequented by Slovene students, 
he walked out, and during a stroll in the 
Prater the melody came into his mind. He 
returned to the cafe, sat down, and wrote it 

Not long before his death Mr. James 
Platt sent me a published translation of a 
Slovene poem which he had made. He 
seemed to take especial inlerest in this 
language, which is aside from the attention 
of most scholars. 

Streatham Common. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

shall be glad if some reader will kindly give 
me information about the work on astrology, 
an Elzevir, now in the British Museum, 
printed in Antwerp by Hemming Sixth. A 
copy of this book was retained by Shake - 
spere after it was ordered to be destroyed by 
Queen Elizabeth. I wish to know the 
personal history of the author, and any- 
thing genealogical to be found in the book. 

Keystone Hotel, San Diego, California. 

ANATOLE FRANCE'S ' THAIS.' Is there any 
earlier source of Anatole France's story of 

* Thais l than the Latin play ' Paphnutius ' 
('Die Bekehrung der Buhlerin Thais') by 
Roswitha, the nun of Gandersheim (950- 

'00 A.D.) ? Does Anatole France acknow- 
ledge his source ? Was this particular 
Thai's, a real character ? W. G. S. 


find a list of the most important morganatic 
marriages ? Is there any published account 
x? uc k marri ages ? T. W. WINSHIP. 

New York City. 

In a volume containing a collection of old 
tracts, and with an (apparently) autograph 
fly-leaf inscription, " D. Wyttenbach ex 
auctione Senteniana, ?? I find a single leaf 
(7J in. by 5 in.), having one side blank 
and the other with the following lines in 
print : 


Effrenis, pestilentisque Jesuitae, allatrantis pientis- 

simos Manes ; 

Dilapidantis lapidem sepulchralem 
Serenissimae, Potentissimaeque 


Magnae Britanuiae, Franciae, & Hibernise 


Incomparabilis, inimitabilisque Religionis, 
Vindicis, due. 

Auriaca occubuit Violati Numinis ira 

Addita portentis, Angelica terra, tuis. 
Dura Soror, sterilis conjux, nata impia, majus 

Ausa nefas, quod riec Tullia dira probet. 
Neu sceleris palmam credas cessisse marito, 
Hie socerum Regnis exuit, ilia patrem. 
Liberorum Censor 
Vidit, < approbavit, 
appositd SIM stigmatis 

Is the exact date of this print known ? 
University Library, Aberdeen. 

JOHN HOUSEMAN was elected a fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1644, 
having been "passed" by the Assembly of 
Divines along with six others, while seven 
of the existing Fellows were deprived ; vide 
' Sedbergh School Register.' Can any of 
your correspondents inform me as to the 
subsequent career of this man ? 

5, Linden Road, Bedford. 

There is a tavern called " Fubbs Yacht " in 
Brewhouse Lane, Greenwich, overlooking 
:he Thames, that when last I saw it was 
quaint and old-fashioned. This sign owes 
ts origin to the name of a yacht built for 
Charles II., about which a paragraph has 
ately been going the rounds of the news- 
Dapers. Fubbs is therein stated to have 
3een a familiar nickname applied by that 
dng to his favourite Louise de Keroualle, 
Duchess of Portsmouth. 

In a former paragraph, which appeared 
some years ago, the yacht was said to have 
n named after the Duchess of Cleveland, 
who was supplanted by her French rival, 
and there is in Hawkins's ' History of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. e, 1910. 

Music ' a story of its having been almost 
wrecked off the coast of Kent with the 
King and Duke of York on board, who had 
to work like common sailors. Doubtless 
among your readers there are some whose 
information about this vessel and the use of 
the word by Charles II. is fuller and more 
accurate than mine, and it would, I am 
sure, be worth while to have a permanent 
record in * N. & Q.' of the facts. 

Perhaps something of interest is also 
known about " Fubbs Yacht,'* the tavern. 

Who was the author of this political periodi- 
cal, published by John Stockdale of Picca- 
dilly ? I have the first seven numbers, 
dated respectively June 1, ^ 10, 18, 25, 
29, July 5, 1791'. \V. ROBERTS. 

SUDAN ARCHAEOLOGY. Sir Eldon Gorst, in 
his Annual Report on ' Egypt and the 
Soudan' for 1909 (Egypt, No. 1, 1910, 
p. 75), writes : 

" Dr. Maclver's excavations at Behen have pro- 
duced a variety of material of scientific and his- 
toric interest. 

" Prof. Sayce has published an interesting report 
of his last year's expedition to Merowe, and Mr. 
Garstang has recently commenced experimental 
diggings on the site of the ancient city of that 

Behen is the ancient name of Wadi Haifa, 
at the second cataract of the Nile, where, as 
announced in The Times of 25 March, 1909, 
p. 10, Mr. Maclver conducted excavations 
in the winter of 1908-9. 

An account of Prof. Sayce's discoveries was 
printed in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology, vol. xxxi., 1909, 
p. 189 sq. ; also, more briefly, in The Times 
of 25 March, 1909, p. 10. 

Where can I find further particulars of 
these and Mr. Gars tang's diggings ? 


39, Agate Road, Hammersmith, W. 

THE OLD PRETENDER. I should be much 
obliged if any one would tell me whether 
the Old Pretender was Knight of the Orders 
of the Golden Fleece and the Holy Ghost, 
and whether he is ever represented as wearing 
the collars of those orders. E. LAWS. 

Brython Place, Tenby. 

THE KING'S BUTLER. Can any of your 
readers inform me whether this " service " is 
common amongst lords of manors originally 
granted from the Crown ? According to 
Camden, the "Manor of Buckenham is 
held upon this condition, that the lords of it 

be butlers at the Coronation of the Kings of 
England." In former days doubtless the 
duties were light and the perquisites large ; 
and if there were several King's Butlers n 
at each Coronation, the seeds of many 
quarrels must have been sown on such 
occasions. L. C. R. 

Reform Club. 

that Meredith's ' Egoist l resembles one of 
the novels of the German Mcser. Can any of 
your readers tell me which ? J. M. 

ORIGIN. I understand that not long ago 
there appeared some account of the Lord 
Mayors of London and the counties of 
England they hailed from. I should be glad 
of a reference to the article. I have made 
out a list of seven Cornish Lord Mayors 
(Geffreys, Cheverton, Lawrence, Lawrence,. 
Truscott, Treloar, and Truscott), and should 
be glad to have the list extended if possible. 


DEAN ALFORD'S POEMS. Can any of your 
readers tell me who publishes a complete 
edition of Henry Alford's (Dean Alford's) 
poems ? That at the British Museum,, 
e.g., lacks the poem ' Be Just and Fear Not,* 
which I particularly want. 


Walden, Ditton Hill, Surbiton. 

MANOR : SAC : SOKE. In the Rev. J 
Eastwood's ' History of Ecclesfield, co. 
York, 1 it is stated (p. 15) that the word 
" manor " was introduced into this country 
by King Edward the Confessor, who brought 
it from Normandy to take the place of what 
was before called " sac " or " soke." Is this 
strictly accurate ? " Manor " is, I am aware,. 
a late word in Anglo-Saxon, but I think I 
have met with its use before the reign of the 
Confessor. I may also remark that " sac l * 
and *' soke " are not always equivalent to 
' manor." A. O. V. P. 

[The earliest quotation for "manor" in the 
' N.E.D.' is c. 1290.] 

In 1898 appeared a book entitled ' Last 
Links with Byron, Shelley, and Keats,* 
parts of which had previously been contri- 
buted to magazines. The author, Mr. 
William Graham, described several conversa- 
tions which he had had with Miss Jane 
Clermont at Florence, part of which she made 
him promise not to divulge till ten years after 

ii s. ii. AUG. e, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


J her death, and part not till thirty years after 
| This second portion could not, therefore 
I have been published till 1909, but Mr 
i' Graham in his preface says that the publica 
fition of the Hobhouse memoirs in 1901 
|j would release him from his promise, and that 
'he should then "be at liberty to deal with 
jClermont matters in full. 31 Has this in- 
tention ever been carried out ? I believe 
I that the Hobhouse memoirs were published 
'not long ago certainly later than 1901 
but I have not been able to discover that 
I Mr. Graham has given any further par- 
ticulars to the world. E. L. H. TEW. 
Upham. Rectory, Southampton. 

[Four volumes of the Hobhouse memoirs, 
edited by Lady Dorchester, have been published 
by Mr. Murray.] 

1772) was not " admitted at Westminster in 
1704," as the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' (Ix. 84) states, 
but was admitted on the foundation there 
in that year, and was elected thence to a 
scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1709. What was the name of his mother, 
|who "was descended from Sir William 
Sutton, Bart. " ? and when did he marry 
i" a lady named Bradford " ? G. F. R. B. 

GERVASE WARMESTRY (1604-41) was 
[elected a student of Christ Church, Oxford, 
ifrom Westminster in 1621. The ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog. J (lix. 388), which ignores the fact 
that he was a King's Scholar, and that he 
obtained his studentship from Westminster, 
states that he left a widow. When and 
whom did he marry ? G. F. R. B. 

in his reissue of Ralph's ' Critical Review 
of the Public Buildings, &c., of London,' 
1783, cites an " anonymous writer "- who 
observed of the enclosed area of Red Lion 

' ' that it is calculated to inspire funeral ideas. I 
am sure I never go into it without thinking of my 
latter end. The rough sod that heaves in many a 
mouldering heap, the dreary length of the sides 
with the four watch-houses like so many family- 
vaults at the corners, and the naked obelisk that 
springs from amidst the rank grass, like the sad 
monument of a widow for the loss of her first hus- 
band, form all together a memento more powerful 
to me than a death's head and cross marrow-bones 
and were but the parson's bull to be seen bellowing 
at the gate, the idea of a country church-yard would 
be compleat. 

What did the obelisk mark or record 
the head of the City conduit ? The square 
was not planned before 1690, so this pre- 
sumably would be superfluous. Was it a 

recognition of the story of the supposed 
interment of Cromwell, Ireton, &c., or was 
it simply decorative ? 


Can any one oblige me by translating into 
modern English the following inscription ? 
It is from the interior of Hyeres Cathedral, 
now used as the parish church, I believe : 


DOMNVS : G : D : 

: A : FOSis : DO 


INI : M : ci ci : mi : o [? 1204] 



W. H. S. 

know if this superstition has been men- 
tioned in * N. & Q., 1 but I recollect that many 
folks used to hold the opinion that in cases 
of fever the illness would linger if there 
was a cobweb or spider's nest in the room. 
Is it a present-day belief ? 



ARMS OF WOMEN. When a man marries 
he may properly impale his wife's arms with 
his own ; but when the wife leaves him a 
widower is it right to remove her arms so 
impaled, or do they remain ? If they remain, 
and he - marry a second wife, what occurs 
then ? Is the sinister side of the shield 
again divided into chief and base to allow 
the impalement of the two femmes arms, 
or how otherwise ? A. H. 

[See also 10 S. x. 429 ; xi. 296 ; xii. 97.] 

1839. In a periodical of 1839, to some 
extent dealing with archaeology, is an edi- 
torial note stating that 

' a curious MS. has just been completed after a 
abour of more than twenty years, a treatise on the 
Temple of Jerusalem, in four books, dealing with 
the successive Temples, their furniture and utensils, 
,nd giving the most minute details, some calcula- 
;kms descending to one-sixth of an inch." 

After describing the MS. as a condensation of 

:he labours of more than three hundred 

authors, the notice says : 

"The author has employed as translators the 

rincipal Rabbins, of whom he had frequently 

hree at a time, either travelling or domicilea with 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. -AUG. e, mo. 

him, and he estimates his outlay at 10,000/. He 
now seeks to find a purchaser, or aid in printing 
the work by subscription; the necessity for his 
return to Rome will induce him very thankfully to 
accept a very moderate remuneration." 

I can find no further allusion to the subject, 
and shall be glad if light can be thrown upon 
the identity of the author mentioned, and 
if the manuscript can be recognized as 
haying been published at any subsequent 
date to 1839. : W. B. H. 

read somewhere of an Irishman who mistook 
the buzzing in his own ears for, I think, 
a thunderstorm, and was angry because 
people did not fly at his call to shelter. 
Will some one oblige me by a reference to 
the author ? Lucis. 



(11 S. ii. 49.) 

THE 'York Pontifical,* Surtees Society, 
vol. Ixi., under ' Dedicatio Ecclesiae,' 
pp. 59-61, gives this ceremony of the 
alphabet. The bishop is to write, " cum 
baculo," the Greek alphabet in sand, or in 
ashes, on the pavement, from the left 
corner east to the right corner west. The 
names of the letters are set down, 26 in 
number, and the numbers 1 to 10, then 
by tens to 100, then by hundreds to 
1,000, and last, by thousands, to " ecato- 
stochile." The arrangement and spelling 
are peculiar. Next, from the right corner 
east to the left corner west was to be 
written the Latin alphabet. Here was left 
a blank for it in the manuscript, the bishop 
being presumed to know it. The accom- 
panying " Oratio " refers to Moses on Sinai 
receiving the two tables of stone written by 
the finger of God, and the bishop beseeches 
the acceptance of the prayers of those who 
pray upon this pavement "in quo ad instru- 
mentum fidei illarum divinarum caracteres 
literarum a duobus angulis hujus domus 
usque in alios duos depinximus angulos. n 
It is to be concluded, therefore, that at an 
earlier time the letters were those of the 
Hebrew alphabet. 

Many instances of the alphabet on bells 
fonts, paving-tiles, &c., and extracts from 
ancient writers about its use at consecra 
tions, are to be found at 3 S. x. 351 (353 in th 

General Index is an error), 425, 486 ; xi. 
184, 449 ; 4 S. i. 349 ; 6 S. iv. 187 ; 7 S. 
i. 309, 411; iii. Ill; x. 346; xi. 134. 
Fo these I can add : Archceologia, xxv. 
243 ; Reliquary, 1871, xi. 129-32 ; ' Hand- 
book to the York Museum,' 1891, p. 156 ; and 
he books on bells by Lukis and Raven. 
There is an alphabet-tile in Holy Trinity 
Church, Hull. A testator in 1431 bequeaths 
' unum collok pece argenti cum scriptura in 
cooperculo ^. $. C." (' Test. Ebor.,' ii. 15). 

Another use of the Greek alphabet was 
as a precept in gentility : " that an angr^ 
man should not set hand or heart to an; 
thing til he had recited the Greek alphabet 
or by that time the heat of choller woul 
be alaide (Kinge, ' lonas,' 1597, p. 541] 
' This was Augustus his cure. Prescril 
oy the philosopher (Athenod.). If you 
angry, say over the alphabet before yoi 
speak or do anything' 4 (Brough, ' Manu 
of Devotions,' 1659, p. 237 ; Macleam 
1 Horace,' 1853, p. 108 n.). 

The Greeks had a pastime of framing 
sentence with the 24 letters of the alphabet 
ach used once only (Jebb, ' Bentley,' 188 
p. 15). W. C. B. 

Mgr. L. Duchesne in ' Origines du Cull 
chretien * refers to this alphabet ceremony 
(English translation, S. P. C. K., 190 
p. 417) : 

" Sig. de Rossi points out interesting relati< 
between this singular rite and certain Christian 
monuments on which the alphabet appears 
bo have a symbolical signification. He has 
removed all doubt as to the idea which suggested 
bhe ceremony. It corresponds with the taking 
possession of land and the laying down of its 
boundaries. The saltire, or St. Andrew's cross 
(crux decussata), upon which the bishop traces 
the letters of the alphabet, recalls the two trans- 
verse lines which the Roman surveyors traced in 
the first instance on the lands they wished to 
measure. The letters written on this cross are a 
reminiscence of the numerical signs which were 
combined with the transverse lines in order to, 
determine the perimeter. 

" The series formed by these letters moreover, 
that is, the entire alphabet, is only a sort of ex- 
pansion of the mysterious contraction A ft , just 
as the decussis, the Greek X, is the initial of the 
name of Christ. The alphabet traced on a cross 
on the pavement of the church is thus equivalent 
to the impression of a large signum Christi on the 
land which is henceforward dedicated to Christi~ 


Crofton Park, S.E. 

As to " the ceremony of the alphabet, 
see letters from Sir George Birdwood 
Miss Jane Ellen Harrison in The Times 

5, 11, 15 July. ROBEKT PlEBPOINT. 

ii B. ii. AUG. 6, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


' DENIZEN " : " FOREIGN " (11 S. i. 506 ; 
ii. 71). I am afraid I cannot accept the 
derivation of denizen from Provencal. There 
is no trace of such forms as desnisein or 
desnisien in that language, nor any reason 
why it should be of Southern French origin. 
And the sense "to turn out of a nest n is 
almost diametrically opposed to that of 
"native," or person who has never been 
turned out at all. " Native " is the oldest 
sense in English. On the other hand, 
Godefroy gives deinzein as the O.F. equiva- 
lent of the Latin indigena in Josh. viii. 33 ; 
and four examples of denzein or denezyn. 
One has to remember that the z is here 
the Norman z, pronounced as ts, and that is 
why the derivation is from the O.F. deinz, 
i.e. Lat. deint's, for deintus. The sense is 
precisely that which is required, viz., a 
person who comes " from* within." The 
word was fairly common in Anglo-French ; 
and as Sir James Murray does not very fully 
exemplify this, I give some quotations and 

In the first place it occurs as denzeyns, 
in the plural, in the * Statutes of the Realm,' 
vol. i. p. 137, under the date 1300 (not a 
time for Provenal influence in a word of this 

"Auxi bien de denzeins come de foreyns." 

* Liber Albus,' p. 295. 

" Auxibien des foreins come dez deinzeins." 

* Liber Albus,' p. 367, in an ordinance of Edw. III. 

" Auxi bien de denzeins come de foreios."- 
4 Liber Custumarum,' p. 303, 14 Edw. II. 

"Pur garder lassise entre les denzeins." Id., 
p. 305, 14 Edw. II. 

"Auxi bien as foreins come as denzeyns." Id.. 
p. 385, 14 Edw. II. 

. Npte the invariable spelling with z, a 
symbol rarely used. And we must really 
look to the dates. Thus, our " citizen " 
occurs in 1275, in the ' Statutes of the 
Realm,' vol. i. p. 34, in the form citein, but 
as citeseyn in the same, p. 381, in 1363. So 
that we know for certain that it was the 
word " citizen " that was modified in form 
rather than denizen. We meet with denzein 
already in 1300 ; but the verb to denize 
is not known till 1577. The latter derives 
its i from the form denizen, which was a 
mistaken form of deinzen, as we know 
from the more original form denzein. If 
denize (why with z ?) had been derived from 
Proven9al, the form -would have been 
desnise, as the prefix des~ is retained in such 
words to the present day. And if it had 
been derived from O.F. desnicker, it would 
have been deniche. I have no faith at all 
in the proposed correction. 


RISTER (US. ii. 69). John Brooke was one 
of the Serjeants called to the coif in Novem- 
ber, 1510, being the first call after the 
accession of Henry VIII. The list of 
Serjeants-at-law towards the close of the 
reign of Henry VII. and the early years of 
that of Henry VIII. is somewhat imperfect, 
so that it is possible that some of those 
included in the call of 1510 may have been 
originally appointed under Henry VII. 
John Brooke was never himself a judge, but 
was father to Sir David Brooke, Serjeant- 
at-law in 1547, and Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer from 1553 till his death in 

John Brooke was chief steward of Glaston- 
bury Monastery, resided at Canynge House, 
Redclyffe, Bristol, and married Joan, 
daughter and heir of Richard Amerike. He 
did 25 December, 1522, and was buried at 
St. Mary Redclyffe. It is not stated to which 
Inn of Court he belonged, but as it was to 
neither Gray's Inn nor Lincoln's Inn, nor, 
apparently, to the Inner Temple (his son 
David's Inn), it is all but certain that he 
would be identical with the barrister of that 
name who was a Bencher and Treasurer of 
the Middle Temple. 

Your correspondent in making this John 
Brooke a judge has, I think, confused him 
with Richard Brooke of the Middle Temple, 
who was called to the coif at the same time 
as his namesake John, was Recorder of 
London 1510-20, M.P. for London 1512 
and 1515, Justice of the Common Pleas 1520, 
and Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1526 
till his death in 1529. W. D. PINK. 

ii. 68). William Davies of Warrington, 
author of that charming book ' The Pil- 
grimage of the Tiber, 4 was an old friend of 
mine. I do not know any facts concerning 
his intimacy with the D. G. Rossetti circle, 
but he probably knew one member of it 
at least, viz., Stillman, the American, who 
was later a regular Times correspondent in 
Italy during, and alter, my seven years in 
Rome. Davies's fellow-townsman, Wood 
the sculptor (called Warrington Wood, to 
distinguish him from Shakespeare Wood, 
another Times correspondent in Italy), was 
our contemporary. Elihu Vedder( illustrator 
of Omar Khayyam) is still living in Rome, I 
fancy ; he was Davies's great friend in the 
seventies, and I now and then met the latter 
at Vedder's table, whereat he dined regularly 
every Sunday. WILLIAM MERCER. 

[Reply from MR. R. A. POTTS next week.] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. IL AUG. 6, 1910. 

T. L. PEACOCK'S PLAYS (11 S. ii. 27). 
Two plays translated by Peacock were 
published in one volume in 1862. Their 
titles were * Gl* Ingannati l (englished as 
' The Deceived : a comedy performed at 
Siena in 1531 *) and ' ^Elia Laelia Crispis.* A 
notice of these plays, according to Allibone, 
appeared in The Athenaeum, 1862, ii. 305. 
Copies of the volume may be found in the 
Dyce Collection of Books, South Kensington, 
and in the Advocates* Library, Edinburgh. 

w. s. s. 

STAKES (11 S. ii. 66). Except indirectly as a 
patronymic of a Norman family, the saint 
has nothing to do with horse -racing. The 
St. Leger Stakes were founded in 1776 by 
Anthony St. Leger, a* nephew of the first 
Viscount Doneraile ; he was a Major- 
General, Colonel of the 86th Foot, M.P. 
for Grimsby, and died in 1786 s.p. The 
St. Leger family is one of the oldest in the 
kingdom, a Seynt Leger being mentioned 
in Brompton's ' Chronicle * amongst the 
Normans who came over with the Con- 
queror ; in fact, it is traditionally reported 
that this warrior (i.e. St. Leger) had the 
distinguished honour of helping the Con- 
queror out of the boat when he landed in 
this country. JOHN HODGKIN. 

The famous contest at Doncaster was not 
instituted in pious memory of St. Leode- 
garius, but was named after Col. St. Leger. 
The patronymic is no doubt due, however 
indirectly, to the popularity of the martyr- 
bishop. ST. SWITHIN. 

Is there any connexion ? The race takes 
its name from Col. St. Leger. See a state- 
ment at 2 S. viii. 362 by C. J., i.e., Charles 
Jackson, a very competent Doncaster anti- 
quary. W. C. B. 

WAINEWBIGHT also thanked for replies.] 

Among the relics formerly preserved in 
Wimborne Church was part of the thigh of 
the blessed Virgin Agatha, who is apparently 
identical with St. Agatha, Virgin and 
Martyr, but who dwelt in the city of Catania 
in Sicily. No mention is made in Mrs. 
Jameson's * Sacred and Legendary Art * of 
her having been educated at Wimborne. 


The following sentence, quoted from ' The 
Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1 i. 204, seems 

eminently sensible : "If there is a kernel of 
historical truth in the narrative [relating to 
St. Agatha], it has not as yet been possible 
to sift it out from the later embellishments.'* 
It may also be pointed out that some five 
centuries intervened between St. Agatha 
and St. Lioba. SCOTUS. 

363 ; ii. 52). MB. WELFOBD and others have 
shown that my lists " are very incomplete. 11 
Let me say again that they are the. result 
of no research, but only a by-product of work 
which was directed to another object. Never- 
theless, they make a good beginning towards 
exhibiting the condition of provincial book- 
selling as distinct from printing. 

It was impossible for me to make notes of 
the vast number of title-pages, but for- 
tunately, I can serve MB. RHODES. I have 
a copy of 

" Divine Emblems : or, Natural Things Spirit- 
ualized By a Spectator. . . . London : Printed 

for and sold by George Keith, Gracechurch- 
Street. . . .Thomas Cole, Greenwich ; and 
Nathaniel Whitefield, King's Stairs, Rotherhithe. 

It is an 8vo of 19 leaves, and relates to 
Flamborough Head in 1766. The author's 
initials are J. P. W. C. B. 

MOCK COATS OF ABMS (11 S. i. 146, 313, 
497 ; ii. 59). In the early volumes of Punch 
there are some pictorial * Mock Coats of 
Arms,' and descriptions of others. In 1848 
(vol. xiv. p. 57) Douglas Jerrold contributed 
the following : 

The Arms of the See of Manchester. The 
College of Arms has done the handsome thing by 
the new Bishop of Manchester, and has fitted him 
up with a very significant article. As the arms 
have been altogether falsely described by our 
contemporaries, we are the more earnest that 
the error should be corrected. The Arms may 
be thus technically described : ' Or, on a pale of 
spikes ' (to show how difficult it sometimes may 
be to climb into a bishopric), ' three mitres of 
Brummagen proper ' (showing that episcopacy 
is altogether above gold) ; ' a cotton pod ' (to 
mark humility ; for, whereas all other Bishops 
wear lawn sleeves, the Bishop of Manchester will 
always appear in calico) ; and ' a square shield, 
charged with a factory chimney proper, with this 
motto Ex fumo dare gingham." 



'The Comic History of Heraldry, 1 by 
R. N. Edgar, gives many examples of ficti- 
tious armorial bearings, illustrated by 
William Vine, and published by Tegg in 
1878. J. BAGNALL. 

n s. ii. AUG. 6, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" HANDYMAN n = SAILOR (11 S. i. 448, 
498). May I add a sentence or two to the 
replies already given ? There can be no 
doubt, as has been clearly shown, that the 
word " handyman," meaning sailor, was in 
use long anterior to the siege of Ladysmith. 
Like MB. BURNETT in his query, however, 
I am inclined to believe that the events of the 
siege gave to the name its abiding popu- 
larity. My recollection is that among 
numerous telegrams thanking the Naval 
Brigade for their skill and bravery at Lady- 
smith in 1899, there was one from Queen 
Alexandra, then Princess of Wales, in 
which the term " handyman " occurred. 
Proceeding from so exalted a source, the 
name became fixed in popular esteem. 

w. s. s. 

In a letter from the Crimea, describing the 
fall of Sebastopol, Gordon wrote : " Most of 
their artillerymen, being sailors, were 
necessarily handy men, and had devised 
several ingenious modes of riveting.' 1 See 
4 Life of Gordon * by Demetrius C. Boulger, 
chap. ii. 

There was a song at the time of the South 
African War with the following chorus : 
O Jack, you are a handyman ; 
Whether in love or in war. 
Whether on land or on shore, 

You 're all right, 
Beat you no one can. 
That 's why they call you 
Jack the handyman. 

G. H. W. 

FOLLY (11 S. ii. 29, 78). The sham castles 
of the eighteenth century are known by this 
name. In two cases within my memory they 
have become dwelling-houses. At Park End, 
Gloucestershire, however, " The Folly " is a 
tract of oak forest. D. 

At Kildwick Hall, a few miles south of 
Skipton, West Riding of Yorks, a small 
wood in a narrow valley, with a very small 
stream running through it, has always been 
called " The Folly." J. A. GREENWOOD. 

In the 'N.E.D., 1 v. Folly, sense 5, there 
are some remarks which are worth consider- 
ing. Reference having been made to 
Hubert's Folly (Stultitia Huberti), the note 
concludes thus : 

" Probably the word used by Hubert was F. folie; 
;he original meaning seems to have been not 
stulhtia, but 'delight,' 'favourite abode.' Many 
houses in France still bear the name La Folie, and 
there is some evidence that ' the Folly ' was as late 

\ the present century [the nineteenth] used in some 

th rk " for a public P leasure -g arden r 

Pepys on 15 April, 1668, went to the 
"Folly," a house of entertainment on the 

Some reader may yet explain the origin 
of the following place-names : 

Follifoot or Follyfoot, Folly Hall, Folly 
Gill, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

Folly Bridge, Oxford. Surely this bridge 
was never reputed to be a costly structure on 
an ill-chosen site. And it has no leafy 

Folly, Old and New. Two hamlets in 

Folly Island (Channel), Charleston, U.S. 

Folly Lake, Nova Scotia. 

Folly Mountain, Nova Scotia. 

Folly Mills, Va., U.S. TOM JONES. 

FRANCIS THOMPSON (II S. i. 467). May one 
not suppose that both poets are referring to 
the old classical fable of the chariot and 
horses of the sun ? They are drawing their 
imagery from a common source. It is un- 
necessary to imagine any oblivious " taking 
over u by the one from the other. In 
harmony with the legend, one naturally 
expects to hear the sound of hoof-beats 
before the chariot actually appears, which, 
being interpreted, may perhaps mean that 
as day breaks and the shadows of darkness 
flee away, the world bestirs itself and begins 
to prepare for strenuous toil. The clanging 
or thundering sound may be taken to refer 
to the awakening of nature to noisy activity 
after the hush and stillness of the night. 

W. S. S. 

The idea that the sun's movements are 
accompanied by a shock or sound is not 
peculiar to any one country. According to 
Tacitus, the Germans believed that the sun 
made sounds in setting. The Pythagorean 
idea of the " music of the spheres " seems 
also to come under this heading. Goethe 
refers to solar music twice in his ' Faust * : in 
the ' Prolog im Himmel * and in the first 
scene of Act I. of the Second Part. 



495 ; ii. 53). I have never seen the biblio- 
graphy of London issued by the British 
Museum authorities. It forms part of the 
General Catalogue of the Library, but was 
also issued separately. See Sonnenschein's 
' The Best Books,' 2nd ed., 1891, p. 703. 

A bibliography of London might be com- 
piled in either of two ways. In my reply 
at the second reference I followed what may 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. e, 1910. 

be called the topographical method, including 
only such publications, or parts of publica- 
tions, as dealt with London exclusively. The 
other and more complete method, appa- 
rently approved by MR. ABRAHAMS, would 
include every book, pamphlet, or single sheet 
published, printed, or written in London, 
no matter what its theme everything, in 
short, that bore the word " London " any- 
where on its title-page-^-from the days of 
Oaxton down to the present hour. This 
wider bibliographical outlook is, I think, 
quite legitimate, and would cover what 
might be considered a complete bibliography 
of London, comprising not only every book 
dealing with the capital, but every species 
of printed matter, historical, topographical, 
antiquarian, theological, scientific, and artist- 
tic, published, printed, or written within its 
bounds. In my 'own case, in attempting the 
compilation of a bibliography of a Scottish 
county according to this wider method, I 
found that a very large section of Scottish 
literature was embraced within the scope of 
the work. On the same plan, which I 
believe with Mr. ABRAHAMS to be the right 
one, the vast majority of English printed 
books, metropolitan and provincial, as well 
as a huge mass of foreign literature, would 
fall to be included in a bibliography of 
London. To this wider plan, however, the 
objection is that human life is too short 
for any single person to achieve a task so 
stupendous. W. S. S. 

Perhaps L. L. K. is thinking of a man who 
wrote his experiences under the pseudonym of 
" Ernest Struggles." I remember the book, 
and how, when going to visit one of the 
servants at Windsor Castle, he took a wrong 
turn, and found himself in Queen Victoria's 
dining-room. The preface was dated from 
aversham. I forget the precise title of the 

The book referred to by L. L. K. is, I 
think, ' Life of a Stationmaster,' by Ernest 
Struggles, published in 1879. A second 
part, entitled ' Ernest Struggles, * was, I 
believe, published in 1880. It is many years 
since I saw the books, and I forget the real 
name of the writer, but recollect that the 
G. W. R. felt displeasure at their publication. 

Gloucester Public Library. 

EGERTON LEIGH (11 S. ii. 68). Egerton 
Leigh of West Hall was eldest son of the 
Rev. Peter Leigh, Rector of Lymme, and 

Mary, daughter and heir of Henry Doughty of 
Broadwell, Glos., and grandson of the Rev. 
Egerton Leigh of West Hall, Archdeacon of 
Salop. The Rev. Peter Leigh died two years 
before his father. 

Egerton Leigh, Esq., baptized at Lymme, 
married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of 
Francis Jodrell of Yeardsley and Twemlow, 
on 21 September, 1778. He died 22 June, 
1833. See ' Landed Gentry,' 1853. 


Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

THOMSON, R.A. (11 S. ii. 69). MR. 
STILWELL will find a brief account of Henry 
Thomson, R.A., in Bryan's ' Dictionary. 7 
He was born in 1773, was a pupil of John 
Opie, and died in 1843. A much fuller 
notice of him will perhaps be found in The 
Art Union of the period. He exhibited at 
the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1826, 
chiefly historical and poetical subjects ; he 
occasionally sent a portrait his earliest was 
one of Home Tooke and portrait groups, 
but one of the Sykes family does not appear 
to be among them. He was a good deal 
patronized by Sir John Leicester (Lord De 
Tabley), and was a frequent visitor at Sir 
John's country seat, Tabley Hall, where 
there are still several of his works. 


18, King's Avenue, Clapham Park, S.W. 

This must be Henry Thomson, who was 
born at Port sea 31 July, 1773, and died 
there 6 April, 1843. He was elected an 
Associate 1801, and R.A. 1804, and was 
Keeper 1825-7. See Hodgson and Eaton's 

* Royal Academy and its Members ' (1905), 
pp. 238-9 ; Bryan's ' Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers l (1905), v. 174 ; and the ' Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.,' Ivi. 244. The last authority 
gives 1802 as the year in which Thomson 
became an R.A., but Hodgson and Eaton, 
who are more likely to be correct on this 
point, say 1804. G. F. R. B. 

See Sandby's ' History of the Royal 
Academy of Arts, 1 vol. i. pp. 326-7 (Long- 
mans, 1862). W. H. PEET. 

JOHN WILKES (11 S. ii. 27). MB. BLEACK- 
LEY is probably acquainted with the MS. 

* Autobiography * of John Wilkes in 2 vols. 
preserved in the British Museum. It is not 
strictly an unpublished MS., as a privately 
printed edition was issued in 1888, with the 
title ' John Wilkes, Patriot : an Unfinished 
Autobiography 2 (Harrow, William F. Tay- 
lor), sq. 24mo, pp. xxiv. and 70, price 
10s. 6d. See Mr. Bertram Dobell's ' Cata- 

n s. ii. AUG. 6, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


logue of Books printed for Private Circula- 
tion J (London, 1906), p. 193. Mr. Dobell 
calls it " a curious production," and regrets 
that Wilkes did not proceed further in his 
design. W. S. S. 

ii. 17). In continuation of my reply, I 
have found the following reference in ' The 
Servants' Guide and Family Manual, with 
new and improved Receipts, arranged and 
adapted to the Duties of all Classes of 
Servants '- (London, printed for John Lim 
bird, 143, Strand, 1830), p. 253 : 

" Unnecessarily loud knocking at a street-door is 
thought by some to give an air of style and conse- 
quence to an arrival ; but the practice has been so 
often complained of, and carried to such extent, that 
the custom is somewhat abated." 

Kew Green. 


(11 S. ii. 68). The 5 Elizabeth, chap. v. 
section 37, is as follows : 

"And also such persons as have, or hereafter 
-shall have, upon good and just consideration, any 
lawful licence to eat flesh upon any fish day (except 
such persons as for sickness shall for the time be 
licensed by the bishop of the diocese, or by their 
curates, or shall be licensed by reason of age, or 
other impediment, allowed heretofore by the eccle- 
siastical laws of this realm), shall be bound, by 
force of this statute, to have for every one dish of 
flesh served to be eaten at their table, one usual 
dish of sea fish, fresh or salt, to be likewise served 
at the same table, and to be eaten or spent without 
iraud or covin, as the like kind is or shall be usually 
eaten or spent on Saturdays." 

W. McB. and F. MARCHAM. 

The statute asked for is 5 Eliz. c. 5, "An 
Act touching Politick Constitutions for the 
Maintenance of the Navy." Sections 14 to 
3 and 35 to 39 deal with "fish days'' 
and their observance, together with penalties 
and licences. Section 39 declares that the 

"is purposely intended and meant politically for 
the Increase of Fishermen and Mariners, and 
Repairing ot Port Towns and Navigation, and not 
onSelts perstition to be maintained in the Choice 

- In ,?i bs n ' s ' Codex > ? 1761 edition, pp. 255- 
A T I -,. Und the esse ntial portions of the 
Acts 5 Eliz., cap. 5, 27 Eliz., cap. 11, and 
T? cap. 7, which refer to the eating of 
ish. By the first of these Acts Wednesdav 
was made a fish day in the same way as 
Saturday In the case of a person in ill- 
health the bishop or the parish parson 
could grant a licence, which was toTe n 

writing, and was not to endure longer than 
the time of the sickness ; and if the sickness 
continued above the space of eight days after 
the granting of the licence, then the licence 
was to be registered in the church book, 
with the knowledge of one of the church- 
wardens. The other particulars of the Act 
are too long to quote. DIEGO. 

A. L. F. may be interested in the following 
extract from the parish registers of Mack- 
worth, co. Derby : 

" Whereas the right worp le Francis Munday of 
Markeaton in the parish of Mach worth and countie 
of Derbie, Esq., for the avoiding of the penalties 
and dangers of the laws and statutes made for 
restrainte of eating flesh in Lent, and in considera- 
tion that he hath in his house at diett or table the 
right worp le Mrs. Dorothy Poole, gentlewoman, 
about the age of three-score years, who is very weak 
and sickly, not able to go or stand without help, 
hath desired me to grant license to and for the said 
Dorothy Poole to eat flesh for and during the time 
of her sickness, which I have thought fitting, and 
in regard I know the considerations aforesaid to be 
most true, I do hereby grant license unto the said 
Dorothy Poole to eat flesh for and during the time 
of her sickness according to the laws and statutes 
of this realm in that case made and provided, and 
hereunto I have putt my hand the ninth day of 
February in the reign of King James of England the 
sixteenth and of Scotland the fifty-second, A.D. 
1618- Byrne, 

Edward Hincheliffe, clerk." 


(11 S. ii. 27). A later edition or reprint of 
* Shaving Them,'- undated, but about 1875, 
was issued by Messrs. Ward, Lock & Tyler, 
Warwick House, Paternoster Row. It was in 
illustrated wrappers, and contained a frontis- 
piece and 230 pp. Titus A. Brick, evidently 
a pseudonym, is mentioned in a list of Ward, 
Lock & Tyler's publications as being also the 
author of ' Awful Crammers.'- 

I recollect reading in some literary journal 
about twenty years ago an account of the 
origin of ' Shaving Them. 1 This stated that 
the three adventurers were Londoners, and 
not citizens of the great Republic. So far 
as recollection serves, John Camden Hotten 
and S. O. Beeton were mentioned as having 
something to do with the writing of the book. 


(11 S. i. 508 ; ii. 36). Miss Emma Phipson 
n her ' Choir Stalls and their Carvings * 
1896), p. 36, says of the stalls formerly be- 
onging to the chapel of the Royal Hospital 
of St. Katherine by the Tower, mentioned 
by MR. MACMICHAEL and myself in our 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. A, e, mo. 

replies, that "they were begun by William 
de Enderby, Master in 1340, and completed 
by John de Hemensthorpe in 1369. Queen 
Philippa, wife to Edward III., was a great 
patroness of the church.'* 


" THE HOLY CROWS, ?S LISBON (US. ii. 67). 
Beckford's statements, where capable of 
being tested, are found to be wholly in- 

St. Vincent was not " martyrized near the 
Cape which bears his name," but at Valentia. 

His mangled body was not, though the 
major portion of his relics were, " conveyed 
to Lisbon in a boat, attended by crows." 
This was in 1139, and -St. Vincent suffered 
in 304. It is therefore impossible that 
"these disinterested birds. .. .pursued his 
murderers with dreadful screams and tore 
their eyes out.'' 

The probability is that Beckford's com- 
mand of Portuguese was insufficient to 
enable him to follow what the sacristan told 

The two crows kept near the Cathedral 
of Lisbon in 1787 have a parallel in the 
bears kept at Bern at the present day. 


.The 'descendants of "The Holy Crows'' 
are still kept in the cloisters of the Cathedral 
at Lisbon, and I saw them there when visiting 
the Cathedral in March last. The legend, 
as told to us, is that St. Vincent was first 
buried at the cape which bears his name, 
where the crows watched continually over 
his grave. When his bones were removed 
.to the Cathedral at Lisbon, the crows are 
said to have followed them. 

Killadoon Celbridere. 

Two crows are still maintained in honour- 
able, if not happy captivity in a court con- 
nected with Lisbon Cathedral. On the 
walls of the church the attentions paid 
to St. Vincent by them or their progenitors 
are attractively commemorated in blue and 
white tiles. 

Geese are kept in the cloisters of Barcelona 
Cathedral. Augustus Hare says this has 
been done 

" from time immemorial to guard the treasures of 
the cathedral, according to the old Catalonian 
custom which makes the geese serve, and more 
efficaciously too, the place of watchdogs at the 
country houses."' Wanderings in Spain,' p. 41. 

Everybody remembers the valuable help 
rendered by the geese of the Capitol. 


'JANE SHORE ? (US. ii. 66). There is a 
copy of this book here, undated, but seem- 
ingly published within the last twenty years. 
The publishers are W. Nicholson & Sons 
of 26, Paternoster Square, E.G., and also of 
the Albion Works, Wakefield, and the book 
with others is stated to be " printed by 
special arrangement with the authoress, 
Mrs. Bennett." The title-page describes 
the book (382 pp.) as follows : 

Jane Shore ; or, the Goldsmith's Wife, an His- 
torical Tale. By Mrs. Bennett, author of ' The 
Cottage Girl,' ' The Jew's Daughter,' &c. 

At the end of the book is the following, 
advertisement : 

Mrs. Bennett's Works. 2s. each. Complete Editions. 
Jane Shore ; or, the Goldsmith's Wife. 
The Cottage Girl ; or, the Marriage Day. 
The Jew's Daughter ; or, the Witch of the Water- 

The Broken Heart ; or, the Village Bridal. 
The Gipsy Bride; or, the Miser's Daughter. 
The Gipsy Queen ; or, the Maori's Daughter. 
The Canadian Girl ; or, the Pirate of the Lakes. 

I have no further information, buk 

no doubt Mr. H. T. FOLKARD, if he wrote to 

Messrs. W. Nicholson & Sons, could obtain 

other details if that firm is still in business. 


46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

MB. ALECK ABRAHAMS may be interested to 
know that in 1681 M. Combes wrote a little 
handbook which was translated into English, 
and published in 1684, with the following 
title-page : 

" An Historical Explanation I of | What there is 
most remarkable in that | Wonder of the World, | 
The French King's | Royal House | at | Versailles, 
| And in that of Monsieur, at | St. Cloud. | Written, 
in the French Tongue by the Sieur Combes, | And 
now faithfully done into English. I Together with | 
A Compendious Inventory | of the | Treasury of 
S. Denis. | London : | Printed for Matthew Turner,, 
near Turn- | stile in Holborri. 1684." 12mo, pp. xxiv, 
140, and leaf with list of books published by 
M. Turner. 

This little guide, a copy of which is in my 
possession, gives a very interesting account 
of all the marvellous relics John Evelyn 
enumerates, and -of the various presses in 
which they are contained. The " Gundola 
of Chrysolite" is here described as "A 
Vessel inclining to the fashion of a great 
Drinking-cup, made of a Chrysolite, and 
enchast in Gold by St. Eloy. Given by tl 
same Abbot Suger." Solomon's cup is al 
there, as well as another used in the Temple 
The little book is quite entertaining, and 
dedicated " To Madam the Dolphiness. n 

ii s. IL AUG. 6, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(11 S. i. 85). These are further illustrated in 
the case of Prince Ernest Augustus, son of 
George III., Duke of Cumberland, after- 
wards king of Hanover, as amusingly 
recorded by the Rev. C. A. Wilkinson, 
domestic resident chaplain to King Ernest 
at Hanover. The King of Hanover was a 
younger brother of William IV., who used 
to say of him : ' ' Ernest is not a bad fellow, 
but if any one has a corn, he is sure to tread 
on it." 

See ' Reminiscences of the Court and 
Times of King Ernest of Hanover,' 1886, 
vol. i. pp. 16, 18, 123, 128, 134, 145, 149. 

L. M. R. 

D'EBESBY OB DE EBESBY ? (11 S. i. 469.) 
It might be thought at first sight that less of 
learning than of ordinary intelligence was 
required to pronounce " D'Eresby, n not 
*' De Eresby," the correct form of the title. 
The leading newspapers, however, and most, 
it not all, peerage and genealogical writers 
agree in writing " De Eresby. " The ex- 
planation, I fancy, is that De Eresby is not 
a surname, but a territorial designation. It 
refers to the barony of Eresby, bestowed 
upon Walter de Bee by William the Con- 
queror, and acquired in marriage by the 
Willoughby family in the reign of Henry III. 
Presumably the rule permitting the elision of 
a vowel when two came together does not 
apply in the case of titles. Hence we have 
" Lord Willoughby de Eresby."- SCOTUS. 

DEVON (11 S. i. 106, 238). I was interested 
in learning of the grant to Nicholas Yet- 
sweirt in 1577 of a monopoly for printing 
the common law books ; and I think that 
the contributors on this subject may be 
equally interested in the fact that on the 
Patent Roll of 9 Eliz., 1566-7 (pt. 5, m. 3), 
there is recorded a grant to one Nicholas 
Yetswirt (not improbably the same man) 
and to Bartholomew Brokesby of a number 
of rents in Devon, Somerset, and other 
counties, mostly arising from ancient 
bequests, chantries, and gilds, which by the 
Act of 1547 were vested in the Crown. 
These included a tenement in the parish of 
South Tawton, Devon, which in 1530 had 
been given by John Frende of South Tawton, 
weaver, towards the maintenance of a priest 
for the Brotherhood of the Store of Jesus 
in the parish church, as appears from 
collation of this roll with another Record 
Office document (Court of Augmentations, 

Misc. Book, vol. cxxiii. pp. 245-6) and with 
an entry of 1535-6 in the old churchwardens' 
accounts of South Tawton (fol. 9 ID). 

The surname Yetsweirt has a Dutch 
sound, and at the same time it is curiously 
like that of " De Yadeworth, n which I find 
in lists of residents of South Tawton on the 
Lay Subsidy Rolls of 1337 and " 1340 ?" 

I should be glad if the descent of Frende' s 
little property could be traced. 


(11 S. i. 87, 171). The question asked by 
MB. EGEBTON GABDINEB and the answers 
to it illustrate the many pitfalls into which 
writers on genealogical subjects are apt to 
fall. " Sir Henry Audley, n as pointed out 
by MB. A. R. BAYLEY, should be Henry 
Dudley whether ' ' Sir " Henry Dudley 
or not is questionable. At any rate, this 
Henry Dudley is not to be confounded with 
Sir Henry Dudley the conspirator, about 
whom two other correspondents write at 
the second reference, and who, according 
to the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
was " apparently " third son of John Sutton 
de Dudley, seventh Baron Dudley. 

The Henry Dudley asked about appears 
to have been a son of John Dudley, Viscount 
Lisle, Earl of Warwick, and Duke of North- 
umberland, and grandson of the infamous 
Edmund Dudley, one of the " horse-leeches " 
of King Henry VII. Apparently the 
' D.N.B.' is wrong in giving the Duke of 
Northumberland only five sons and two 
daughters. According to Burke, * Dormant 
Peerages,' 1866, p. 180, he had by his wife 
Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Guilford (sic), 
Kt., seven sons and two daughters, viz. : 

1. Henry, who died at the siege of 

2. John, Earl of Warwick, who d.v.p. s.p. 

3. Ambrose, created Earl of Warwick. 

4. Lord Guilford (sic), who married Lady 
Jane Grey. 

5. Robert, K.G., created Baron of Den- 
bigh and Earl of Leicester. 

6. Henry, slain at St. Quintin (sic). 

7. Charles, who died young. 

1. Mary, who married Sir Henry Sidney, 

2. Catherine, who married Sir Henry 
Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon. 

The ' D.N.B.' agrees with Burke in making 
Lord Guildford the fourth son ; but, by a 
curious, though evident double error, it also 
designates Ambrose and Lord Henry (who 
died at St. Quintin) each as the fourth son 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tii s. n. A, e, 1910. 

of John, Duke of Northumberland. Two 
of the sons were evidently lost sight of 
owing to their early deaths. Were there 
yet other children ? MB. EGERTON GAR- 
DINER in his query says that John had 
thirteen children, of whom two were named 
Henry (this agrees with Burke, u.s.) and two 
Katherine. What is his authority for this 
statement ? These Henries and Katherines 
are but further instances of the puzzling 
custom of giving the same name to two 
brothers or to two sisters which has recently 
been discussed in ' N. & Q.' 

Let us come back to the eldest son, the 
elder Henry, who is stated to have been 
killed at the siege of Boulogne. This must 
have been on 14 September, 1544, when 
Boulogne was taken by King Henry VIII. 
(Haydn's 'Index of Dates'). As his father 
is believed to have been born about 1502 
only 42 years before Henry must have 
been young, and probably unmarried, at the 
time of his death. He died nine years 
before the marriage of his brother Guildford 
with Lady Jane Grey (1553) and the con- 
spiracy to place her on the throne, and 
could not therefore have been involved, as 
were his father and brothers, in the con- 
spiracy. Is MR. GARDINER right in calling 
him " Sir Henry ? " Burke and the 
' D.N.B.' do not give him this title. 

As to his younger brother Henry there is 
some confusion. G. H. W. in his reply calls 
him the " youngest " son (he was no doubt 
the youngest then living), and adds that 
"he was killed at St. Quentin in 1558." 
The * D.N.B.' in the life of his father (xvi. Ill) 
makes him the fifth son, and states that he 
was slain at the battle of St. Quentin in 
1555. In the Supplement to the 'D.N.B.' 
(ii. 160) he is designated the fourth son, and 
the date of his death is given as 10 August, 
1557. This last date is evidently the correct 
one, for St. Quentin, Aisne, France, was 
captured by the Spaniards on the day of 
St. Lawrence, 1557 (' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' 9th ed., xxi. 197 ; Supplement, 
xxxii. 376). FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

(11 S. ii. 29). The same entry about Mel- 
mont berries is given in the ' E. D. D.,' 
apparently taken from Jamieson. No ex- 
planation of the meaning is offered . So far 
as is known, Melmont as a place-name does 
not occur in Morayshire. There is, how- 
ever, a hill in Galston parish, Ayrshire, which 
bears the name Molmont, sometimes called 
Melmont. In Gaelic the name would be 
derived from maol, bare, and monadh, hill = 

the bare or bleak hill. If Jamieson is 
correct in saying that Melmont is a word 
used in Morayshire, it has there, presumably,, 
the Gaelic signification. Hence Melmont 
berries will mean literally bare -hill berries or 
berries, such as the juniper, growing wild 
on a hillside. W. S. S. 

Jamieson probably uses a local name for 
this fruit, as it is not mentioned by botanists- 
The only book, so far as I am aware, in 
which it appears (and then with a slight 
change in the spelling) is A. B. Lyons's 
(Detroit) 'Plant Names,' which has "Juni- 
per berries, Melmot berries." 


68). This, the last Prince -Bishop, was John 
Sigmund von Roggenbach, who, like all his 
predecessors, was a Catholic. His territory 
was turned into the Rauracian Republic, 
which after four months was incorporated 
(1793) in the French Republic. In 1815 
the Congress of Vienna gave the territory of 
the diocese to the cantons of Bern and 
Basle, with the exception of the portion 
already belonging to Germany. 

The last Prince -Bishop to reside in Basle, 
was Christopher of Utenham (1502-27). 
See the interesting article on ' Basle-Lugano, 
Diocese of,' in the ' Catholic Encyclopaedia.' 
After the Reformation the capital of the 
bishopric was Porrentruy, where was the chief 
episcopal residence. The bishop also owned 
Schloss Buseck above Arlesheim, and after 
the beginning of the eighteenth century a 
summer residence at Delemont. 

It is surprising in a book published in 
1816 to find the Prince-Bishopric treated as 
still subsisting. In ' The Swiss Tourist,' 
published by Samuel Leigh, 18, Strand,. 
London, in that year, the writer, speaking 
of Bienne, says at p. 55 : 

" The place is a sort of republic in itself, and in 
this capacity sends a deputy to the general diets of 
the Confederation. It is, at the same time, in some 
degree subjected to the Bishop of Basle. His 
privileges consist in appointing the mayor, who 
presides at the councils without having a delibera- 
tive voice, and in having his name, conjointly with 
that of the town, at the head of public deeds, over 
the contents of which he has no influence. When- 
ever a bishop is elected, he is bound to come 
hither, for the purpose of receiving an oath of sub' 
mission on the part of the inhabitants ; but the 
legislative power, the administration of justice, and 
the right of making alliances belong to the town 
itself. The inhabitants are of the reformed religion : 
they can go through their studies at Berne, which 
canton is the established protector of all Protestant 
subjects of the Bishop of Bale." 


us. ii. AUG. 6, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


With deference I venture to put forward 
a theory on this subject. The man whom 
Borrow heard of was not the same as the man 
he saw at Madrid. There is considerable 
reason to believe that the secretary who 
' ' had acquired a name both in English and 
Spanish literature " was Don Telesforo de 
Trueba y Cosio. He, at all events, wrote a 
large number of novels and plays both in 
English and Spanish, all of them doubtless by 
this time completely forgotten. In this 
country he may still be remembered as the 
author of two volumes in "Constable's 
Miscellany " (a ' Life of Cortes ? and a 
'History of Peru'). He also wrote 'The 
Romance of History : Spain,'- 1830, 3 vols. 
Educated, and residing most of his life, in 
England, where he was extremely popular 
in fashionable society, he returned to his 
native country in 1834, was elected a mem- 
ber of the Cortes, and appointed by that body 
one of its secretaries. While residing in 
England he was one of the Fraser group of 
writers, and his portrait finds a place in the 
' Maclise Portrait Gallery.* The likeness is 
something of a caricature, showing him 
admiring his own dancing shadow, while the 
letterpress accompanying it is distinctly 

Don Telesforo de Trueba y Cosio, however, 
cannot have been the secretary whom 
Borrow saw at Madrid. He was dead in 
1835, at the early age of 30, before Borrow had 
set foot in the Peninsula. Borrow, I take it, 
has made a mistake. He saw a secretary, 
"a fine, intellectual-looking man, n whose 
name apparently he did not know, but was 
"subsequently informed " of his literary 
attainments. It is easy to understand how 
in talking over the matter at a considerably 
later period some Spanish friend may have 
mentioned Don Telesforo de Trueba y 
Cosio as a distinguished author and one of 
the secretaries to the Cortes. Borrow 
probably leaped to the conclusion that Don 
Telesforo was the secretary be had seen in 
attendance on the Spanish Finance Minister, 
but the "fine, intellectual-looking'' person 
he saw was not Don Telesforo, and possibly 
not an author at all. W. SCOTT. 

ii. 8). The statement made by L. S. M. 
that ' ' none of the republican grants now 
remain in the Herald's College " is incorrect. 
The arms borne by my family were granted 
to my ancestor Robert Abbott, scrivener, on 
9 August, 1654, and the grant is recorded 
at the Heralds' College in extenso. Nor is 

that an exceptional case. I am informed 
by the Registrar, Mr. H. Farnham Burke, 
that dockets, and very often full records, 
of the republican grants are duly registered 
in the College. G. F. ABBOTT. 

Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, W. 

276). If readers of ' N. & Q. 2 who are 
interested in Bible statistics will consult 
the excellent Indexes of the several Series of 
* N. & Q.* they will find such statistics in 
3 S. xii. 412, 510 ; 4 S. i. 88 ; 7 S. xi. 207, 
364, 452. 

The statistics quoted at 11 S. i. 276 were 
compiled by George Home, Bishop of 
Norwich (born 1730, died 1792), and are said 
to have occupied three years of his life 
(see 7 S. xi. 364). PATRICK. 


HEAVEN BLUE (11 S. i. 488 ; ii. 33). The 
name " Canopy-of -heaven blue " is derived, 
I should think, from the Chinese name for 
certain blue silk known as fien ch'ing> 
cerulean blue. J. DYER BALL. 

Hadley Wood, Middlesex. 

KEMPESFELD : KEMYS (11 S. i. 409, 478 ; 
ii. 13). Is not Kemys, properly Kemeys 
(Monmouthshire), the English corruption 
of the Welsh word " cemaes 
no k in the Welsh language. 

" ? There is 

DR. JOHN HOUGH (US. ii. 48). See his 
' Life ' by John Wilmot, published in 1812, in 
4to. His will is there printed in full. 



Scottish Historical Clubs, 1780-1908, with a 
Subject-Index. By Charles Sanford Terry. 
(Glasgow, MacLehose & Sons.) 

PROF. TERRY has in this work laid all students 
of Scottish history under a heavy obligation. 
He gives us first a Catalogue of the publications of 
Scottish historical and kindred clubs and societies, 
including the Scottish publications of His Majesty's 
Stationery Office ; and secondly a Subject Index 
to " the materials revealed by the Catalogue as 
bearing especially, though not exclusively, on 
Scottish institutions, events, reigns, characters, 
and historical periods, civil and ecclesiastical." 

The Scotch have always been great believers 
in and promoters of education, and their clubs 
and societies concerned with history and anti- 
quities are a remarkable feature of this activity. 
Recent examples of new clubs are the St. Andrews 
Society, founded in 1906, and the Old Edinburgh 
Club in 1908. 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. e, 1910. 

Of the wealth of matter preserved, and, as the 
Professor says, " not infrequently concealed," 
in such publications all genuine students are 
aware. The difficulty has been to put one's 
hand on the piece of information or the special 
subject required. This is solved by the fine 
Subject Index provided, a piece of laborious 
work which has been admirably performed. Thus 
we find almost two pages on portraits, near half 
a page each on Gordons, and Mary, Queen of Scots, 
and several references to Mr. P. J. Anderson, to 
whom the book is dedicated. The first part of the 
book is very full in its details, with various 
notes added by the editor, whose standing as an 
expert renders such information particularly 

THE current issue'of The Quarterly Review, which 
appeared late in July, has a specially interesting 
article on ' The Character of King Edward VII.,' 
in which private papers in the royal archives of 
Windsor Castle have been used. The young prince 
was confronted with a scheme of education which 
was most careful and praiseworthy, and also 
singularly oppressive, one thinks, to the human boy 
and young man. A striking letter from Sir Henry 
Bulwer supplies hints as to the late King's gifts in 
early days. Dr. A W. Verrall's article on ' The 
Prose of Walter Scott ' is brilliant and attractive, 
like all his writing, and it fortifies the view long 
held by the writer of these notes that Scott was at 
his best a great, if unconscious, artist in style. Dr. 
Verrall analyzes the charm of that incomparable 
short story in * Redgauntlet,' ' Wandering Willie's 
Tale,' which Stevenson could not rival. Mr. F. G. 
Aflalo's article on * The Genius of the River ' is 
commonplace. Mr. H. A. L. Fisher writes very well 
on ' The Beginning and End of the Second Empire ' ; 
and Dr. Hans Gadow is lucid on the disputed sub- 
ject of 'Birds and their Colours,' i.e., trie reasons 
which have been alleged for special coloration. 
Mr. Edwyn Bevan has an excellent subject in ' The 
First Contact of Christianity and Paganism,' but 
his field of inquiry is more restricted than his title 
suggests. A second article on * Socialism ' is impor- 
tant ; and there is also a capital study of * John 
Stuart Mill' by Mr. Wilfrid Ward. He has a sound 
judgment of the "saint of rationalism," but hardly 
indicates Mill's perplexing changes of view during 
various periods or his life, which make it possible 
to quote his authority for opposed schools of 

The Cornhill opens with a facsimile of a translation 
by Thackeray of Beranger's poem Ma Vocation.' 
It is not so much a translation as another poem on 
the same subject, with touches of Thackeray's neat 
versification. Mrs. Woods's * Pastel under the 
Southern Cross' is this month devoted to Cecil 
Rhodes and his tomb on the Matoppos, and is an 
excellent piece of writing. ' The Lost Voice,' by 
Sir George Scott, is an amusing story of the effect 
on savages of a phonograph. The Master of Peter- 
house has an account of 'The Oberammergau 
Passion Play in 1871,' which should be very useful 
to-day, not only from its knowledge, but also 
because it is. likely to reduce the hysteria of 
sentimentalists concerning the actors. Mr. Guy 
Kendall's verse, ' The Whole Design,' is thoughtful 
and effective, though a little slack in form and 
phrasing. Miss Edith Sellers has an indictment 
against 'The Latter-Day Swiss,' in which she 
proves an effective advocatus diaboli. We find no 

difficulty in believing much that she says. Mr. 
Kenneth Bell writes with candour on 'Goldwin 
Smith as a Canadian,' revealing well the paradox 
of the former Oxford Professor's position. The 
number is good reading throughout. 

Miss ROSE BRADLEY, like Mrs. Woods, is an 
admirable writer ot notes of travel, and her account 
in The Nineteenth Century of ' A Day in Provence,' 
dealing mostly with the dead glories of the City of 
Les Baux, is easily the most interesting article in 
a number which contains little of literary interest, 
though the personal side of history is well repre- 
sented by Lady Paget's account of ' A Royal Mar- 
riage,' i.e., that of King Edward, and Mr. W. S. 
Lilly's of ' Cardinal Vaughan,' mainly a summary of 
Mr. Snead-Cox's notable biography. The Cardinal 
was a wonderful worker for his Church, though he 
lacked the faculties which made Manning and 
Newman eminent above their fellows. The Rev. 
D. W. -Duthie deals with: familiar matter in 'The 
Women of the Paston Letters,' and adds little to 
our pleasure by his sentimental rhetoric on the 
subject of love. Besides political articles on 
Ireland, the Third French Republic, Protection in 
Germany, and the American Negro, there is one by 
Sir Edward Clayton on 'The Working of the 
Prevention of Crime Act,' which is well worth 
attention. Mr. W. G. Burn-Murdoch has some 
enthusiastic notes on * Modern Whaling ' ; and 
Mr. G. Clarke Nuttall should interest students of 
science with his remarks on ' The Eyes of Plants.' 

to (E0msp0nfottts. 

We must call special attention to the following 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we dp not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer arid 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

GALLOWAY FRASER (" Barabbas a Publisher").- 
The authority quoted by you was evidently in error. 
See MR. JOHN MURRAY'S reply, ante, p. 92. 

n s. ii. AUO. is, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 33. 

Is' OTES : Richard Gem, 121 King's ' Classical Quotations,' 
123 -Horses' Names, 124 George II. to George V. New- 
castle - under - Lyme Charter Restored Verulamium 
Snails as Food, 125 Motorists as Fairies St. Swithin's 
Tribute Peter Gordon, Explorer " Chemineau " Vestris 
Family Early Printing in Europe, 126. 

QUERIES : Col. Condon: Capt. Mellish Vestments at 
Soissons Cathedral Sark Bibliography, 127 Viscount 
Courtenay Speaker's Chair of the Old House of Commons 
Carter Family Archdeacons of Hereford" Staple " in 
Place-Names, 128 ' Oliver Twist' on the Stage H. A. 
Major Smollett's ' History of England 'Rev. T. Clarke 
of Chesham Bois Horses stabled in Churches in 1745-6 
Magazine Story of a Deserter Authors Wanted Royal 
Shield of Scotland Hawkes Family, 129 Minster : 
Verger v. Sacristan "King" in Place-Names H. M.S. 
Avenger Moke Family of Flanders, 130. 

KEPLIES : Parish Armour, 130" Storm in a teacup " 
Myddelton: "Dref": "Plas," 131 American Words 
" Tilleul " Ben Jonson-Sir W. Godbold, 132 Names 
terrible to Children Ansgar, Master of the Horse 
Yon " J. Faber Sir M. Philip, 13 9' Reverberations ' 
Christopher Moore S. Joseph, Sculptor E. I. C.'s 
Marine Service, 134 Licence to Eat Flesh Sleepless 
Arch Authors Wanted Col. Skelton George I. Statues, 
135 Pitt's Statue Francis Peck Windsor Station- 
master Clergy at the Dinner Table, 136 Door-Knocker 
Etiquette -Boys in Petticoats Priors of Holy Trinity, 
Aldgate Fourth Estate R. Sare, 137 Thames Water 
Company" Portygne" South African Slang Tennyson's 
'Margaret' "Seersucker," 133. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-' F. W. Maitland 'Reviews and 
Magazines Book sellers' Catalogues. 



RICHABD GEM, the only son of Richard Gem, 
gentleman of Worcestershire, was born at 
Barnsley Hall in the parish of Bromsgrove, 
but there is no entry of his baptism in the 
parish register. Nash in his ' History of 
Worcestershire* (i. 154) says that "Mr. 
Gem of Birmingham is now lord of the Manor 
of Dodford [in Bromsgrove], where he has 
an estate of 160Z. per ann." The son was bred 
in the house of William Philips, clerk, in the 
city of Worcester. Philips took the degree of 
B.A. of Oriel College, Oxford, in 1704 ; 
was Rector of All Saints, 1 Worcester, from 
1710 to 1715 ; Vicar of St. Peter's, Worcester, 
from the latter year until 1741 ; and 
Rector of Bromsgrove from 1741 to 1754. 

A contributor to The Monthly Magazine 
for 1821 (vol. li. pp. 138-9) supplies some 
interesting reminiscences of Gem under the 
title of Dr. Gpm, but in the index the name 
is correctly given. He was not fond of the 
ordinary system of education, but sought the 
instruction " of a neighbouring gentleman 
characterized as a freethinker, who had in 
fact been obliged to leave the University of 
Cambridge (where he had graduated) for his 

' openly-avowed penchant to Unitarianism." 
This preceptor put translations of the 
works of Helvetius and Rousseau into the 
youth's hands, which inspired him with 
the desire of reading them in their original 
language, and he learnt French. This intro- 
duction to the philosophical literature of 
France coloured the rest of his life. 

On 12 June, 1735, when aged 19, Gem was 
admitted pensioner at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, when Dr. Williams became 
his tutor and surety (' Admissions to St. 
John's, 1 Pt. III., 1903, ed. Scott, p. 80); 
but he seems to have left without taking his 
degree. We shall probably not err in 
drawing the inference that he was not in 
sympathy with the system of instruction 
which was then imposed on youth at the 
University. His " fond parent " had 
pointed out the study of the law as the most 
profitable for him, but he put the suggestion 
on one side, and studied French and physic 

In 1741 there was published in London 
a little tract of 54 pages bearing the title of 
" An Account of the Remedy for the Stone 
lately published in England .... extracted 
from the examinations of this remedy, given 
into the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, 
by M. Morand and M. Geoffrey. By Richard 
Gem of the University of Cambridge.'* This 
description shows that he was not at that 
time, when he was 25 years old, possessed of 
any medical degree, and I am not acquainted 
with the nature of his subsequent qualifica- 
tion. Probably it was from a foreign, if any, 
university. His name does not appear in Dr. 
Munk's volumes on the members of the 
London College of Physicians, nor does 
it occur, says Mr. Victor G. Plarr, librarian of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, "in our 
college books between the years 1745-83." 
Mr. Plarr therefore concludes that he was not 
a member of the old Corporation of Surgeons. 

It is stated in The Monthly Magazine that 
Gem was known to and noticed by the Earl of 
Hertford, who gave him permission to visit 
Paris and to enjoy the advantages of con- 
nexion with the embassy. Unless this were a 
temporary visit only the statement con- 
flicts with that recorded by the first Earl of 
Malmesbury in his diary (November, 1796), 
after a call from Gem, that ' ' he came to 
Paris in 1751 with Lord Albemarle." The 
Monthly Magazine anecdotist chronicles that 
Gem obtained through the favour of Lord 
Stormont the practice of the sick English at 
Paris. His professional income was large, 
his prescriptions were simple. The patient 
could even tell from them the nature of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. AUG. 13, 1910. 

disease from which he was suffering. Gem 
became physician to the embassy at Paris in 
1762 on the appointment of the Duke of 
Bedford as ambassador to France. 

For the rest of his days Gem was domiciled 
in that country. His was a striking per- 
sonality, for he was six feet and two or three 
inches in height, of an athletic build, and 
when over 70 as upright as a dart. When 
he was 82 he was very stout. He was 
admitted into the most brilliant society 
of Paris, becoming very intimate with the 
Encyclopaedists and with many of the 
leading Englishmen who were admitted to 
its salons. Benjamin Franklin and Thomas 
Jefferson were his intimate friends. A 
letter from the latter dated New York, 
4 April, 1790, is in [J. Wright's] ' Biog. 
Memoir of Huskisson,* pp. 8-9, and a second 
letter to him is in ' Jefferson's Memoir and 
Correspondence ' (ed. T. J. Randolph), iii. 32. 
Sterne in 1766 wrote to Dr. Jemm of 
Paris introducing [John] Symonds to him, 
and giving details of his winter in Italy. 
Mr. W. L. Cross in his ' Life of Sterne ' hesi- 
tatingly suggests this to be Dr. A. A. 
Jamme of Toulouse, who sometimes resided 
at Paris. I am inclined to think that it was 
Dr. Gem. Horace Walpole refers to him 
in the letters which he wrote from Paris 
in 1765 and 1766, and George Selwyn 
received a letter from him in the former 
year in which he intimated that he was 
coming with Baron D'Olbach to dine with 
Selwyn, and looked forward with pride 
to " the honour of meeting Lord March." 
He was devoted to Selwyn, and figures 
constantly in Dr. Warner's letters to his 
patron, being playfully dubbed by him as 
" Roger.' 1 Warner sometimes expresses his 
anxiety lest he should be suspected by Gem 
of a desire to supplant him in Selwyn' s 
good graces. 

The allusions to Gem by Warner show 
that he took things seriously. In fact, 
he said to Walpole in 1765: "Sir, I am 
serious, I am of a very serious turn."' He 
was a rigid disciplinarian and parsimonious, 
and it was noted as a trait in his character 
that he allowed no eating between breakfast 
and dinner in the evening. His parsimony, 
however, did not restrain him from acts of 
kindness and generosity. Walpole, when 
writing to him in April, 1776, describes him as 
" no less esteemed for his professional know- 
ledge than for his kind attention to the poor 
who applied to him for medical assistance." 
Ten years later (1786) Gem was exerting 
himself in getting books for Walpole. 
The mother of William Huskisson the 

statesman was Gem's favourite niece. She 
died in 1774 (when William was in his 
fifth year) leaving four sons. The father 
married again, when Gem expressed the 
desire that the two elder sons, one of whom 
was William, should be assigned to his 
keeping, and in 1783 they were allowed to 
return to Paris with him ; but their acquain- 
tance with England was maintained by an 
annual visit which he and the two boys paid 
to their native land. To his watchful 
care and constant encouragement in study 
were due the successful training of Huskis- 
son's abilities and the strain of enlightened 
thought which was conspicuous in his political 
career. It is generally said that the future 
politician was intended for the medical pro- 
fession, and that he actually began the study 
of medicine. But through the influence of 
Warner, then chaplain to the English 
embassy, he was introduced to Lord Gower, 
and thus secured an opening into the highest 
circles of political life, which resulted in a 
lasting alliance with Canning, and a leading 
place in that statesman's Cabinet. (See my 
' Eight Friends of the Great,' where the name 
is incorrectly printed Robert Gem.) 

Gem was a staunch republican, and was 
in complete sympathy with the French 
Revolution. Even the brilliant victories of 
Bonaparte did not shake his faith in repub- 
lican principles. He was doubtless the 
" Ghym anglais' 1 who in 1792 presented 
1,000 francs to the Patriotic Fund ; but 
this did not prevent his arrest in 1793 as a 
hostage for Toulon, when his name appears 
in the police records as " Gesme.'* For nine 
days he was detained at the Luxembourg 
and was then transferred to the ScotcJ 
College. After a short release, probabb 
under the decree of 3 November, 179J 
exempting, on account of the scarcity of 
doctors, foreign practitioners from imprison- 
ment, he was rearrested by the authority 
of Versailles and imprisoned in the Recollets. 
Here he found himself in the same rooi 
with Grace Dalrymple Elliott ("Dolly the 
tall"), who says that he was conscious 
" that he ran no risk of being murdered, for 
he was a philosopher, and I am sorry to say 
an atheist." Still, the restraint repressed 
his spirits, and Mrs. Elliott in November, 
1796, repeated to Harris that "he cried 
the whole time, was terrified to death." 
This clever woman, however, was incon- 
sistent in her recollections. She told Loi 
Malmesbury that "no candles were allow* 
them, or fire, after it was dark " ; but h6 
journal records that Gem used to get up at 
four o'clock and *' uncover the wood fire and 

ii s. ii. AUG. 13, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


light a candle, and read Locke and Helvetius 
till seven o'clock.'* She did many kind 
offices for the doctor, endeavouring to drive 
away his gloom, and by her representations 

i to the deputy that her fellow-prisoner was a 
sincere republican obtained his release after a 

! detention of three or four months. They 
wept at parting in the expectation that they 

I w r ould never see one another again ; but her 
freedom came also in time. Gem had rooms 
for years in the Rue St. Sepulcre at Paris, 
even down to 1796 ; but his home seems 
to have been at Meudon, and when Grace 
Elliott came out of prison he used every day 
to walk a mile to see her. She was in his 
company the day before he died. 

When James Harris, the first Earl of 
Malmesbury, went to Paris in October, 
1796, to negotiate terms of peace, he called on 
Gem, and next day (9 November) the doctor 
repaid the call, when Harris summed up 
somewhat harshly his character : " Atheist, 
systeme de la nature, economist, &c. the 
cold apathetic scoundrel described by 
Burke.' 1 Gem breakfasted with him on 
15 November, and when one of the secretaries, 
Leveson, afterwards Earl Granville, four days 
later became ill, his assistance was called for. 
For his services on this occasion he refused 
to take any fees. He breakfasted with the 
ambassador on 2 December, "always harp- 
ing on his philosophy n ; and on 20 December 
dined there with Henry Swinburne, who 
swells the chorus of his praise as "a very 
good physician n (Swinburne, ' Courts of 
Europe, 1 1841, ii. 132, 158, 184, 209). 

It is said in The Monthly Magazine that 
Gem was so upset by Huskisson's change of 
political opinions as to disinherit him, but 
that under Malmesbury's influence he 
altered his will and restored his nephew to his 
favour. . Certain it is that his will was made 
at this date, and under Malmesbury's 
cognizance, for it is dated 9 October, 1796, 
and witnessed by Malmesbury, Granville 
Leveson Gower (Lord Granville), and George 
Ellis of ' The Rolliad * and other works. He 
appointed William Huskisson "son of my 
niece Elizabeth Huskisson, deceased," his 
executor, giving him and his heirs " all my 
real estate in Bromsgrove, 11 and making him 
the residuary legatee (which included a 
mortgage on Hayley's estate of Eartham in 
Sussex), but subject to the following 
legacies : 

1. "To Marie Cleine, now in my service at 
Paris, 501. a year for life." 

2. To Samuel Huskisson, brother of the 
aforesaid William, 1,500/. 

3. To Sarah, Elizabeth, Jane, Marie, and 

Richard Rotton "children of my nephew 
Samuel Rotton, deceased, n 1,OOOZ. each. 

Gem died suddenly in Paris early in the 
spring of 1800, at the age of 83, "undis- 
turbed by any of the infirmities which so 
generally embitter the last years of pro- 
tracted life. 11 His will was proved on 6 May, 
1800, and the estate was sworn at 10,000^. 


(See 10 S. ii. 231, 351 ; iii. 447 ; vii. 24 ; 
ix. 107, 284, 333 ; x. 126, 507 ; xi. 247 ; 
xii. 127; 11 S. i. 463.) 

No. 361, " Conticuisse nocet nunquam,. 
nocet esse locutum." King takes this from 
Joseph Lang's (or Lange's) ' Polyanthea 
Nova, 1 1612, p. 673, where it is the first of 
eight lines quoted from the ' Anthologia 
Sacra l of Jacobus Billius (Jacques Billy de 
Prunay). It is evidently modelled on a line 
in Cato's ' Disticha,* I. xii. 2, 

Nam nulli tacuisse nocet, nocet esse locutum. 

No. 796, "Fiat justitia, ruat cselum." 
King, after giving Bartlett's statement 
('Familiar Quotations 1 ) that these word& 
are to be found in [Nathaniel] Ward's. 
' Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America * 
(1647), published under the pseudonym of 
Theodore de la Guard, adds the variations, 
(2) " Ruat caelum, fiat Voluntas Tua," 
quoted by Sir T. Browne, ' Religio Medici, *' 
Pt. II. sect 11, and (3), from Biichmann, the 
saying attributed to the Emperor Fer- 
dinand I. (1556-64), "Fiat justitia, et 
pereat mundus " (Joh. Manlius, * Loci 
Communes, 1 1563, vol. ii. p. 290). 

This article can be improved in more than 
one respect. With regard to (3), the * Stan- 
ford Dictionary 1 quotes ' ' Fiat justicia ruat 
mundus 51 from the ' Egerton Papers ' (1550),. 
p. 27, Camd. Soc. ; while with regard to 
(1), "Fiat justitia, ruat cselum," the same 
dictionary gives frcm W. Watson's * Quod- 
libets of Religion and State 1 (1602), p. 338, 
"You goe against that Generall maxime- 
in the lawes, which is that fiat iustitia & 
ruant cceli. 11 I have noted a still closer 
approximation to (1) in Manningham's 
'Diary* (Camd. Soc.), p. 169, under the 
date 11 April, 1603: "When I was men- 
tioning howe dangerous and difficult a 
thing it would be to restore appropriacions,. 
he [ = "Mr. Thomas Overbury J1 : he was 
not knighted till 1608] said Fiat justicia et 
ccelum ruat. 1 * 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. u. AUG. 13, mo. 

No. 866, " Habemus confitentem reum." 
It is curious that King should have contentec 
himself with styling this a law maxim. A refer 
ence ought to have been added to Cicero 
' Pro Q. Ligario ' 1, 2. The words are quoted 
from Cicero by Quintilian, ix. 2, 51 . Petronius, 
130, has "Habes confitentem reum." 

No. 1175, "Je dirais volontiers des 
metaphysiciens ce que Scaliger disait des 
Basques : ' on dit qu'ils s'entendent ; mais 
je n'en crois rien,' n S. B. N. Chamfort 
(1741-1794), ' Maximes et Pensees,' chap. vii. 
(' (Euvres Choisies, 3 1890, vol. ii. p. 84). The 
jest would certainly seem to be more after 
the style of Mark Twain, but an eighteenth 
century French wit is one of the last persons 
from whom to expect an intelligent appre- 
ciation of either Scaliger. The remark of 
which the above is a ludicrously perverted 
version was made by J. J. Scaliger. What 
he disbelieved was the statement that the 
inhabitants of Wales and Brittany could 
understand one another's speech. See 
* Scaligerana ' [Secunda], p. 135, ed. altera, 
Cologne, 1667, s.v. ' Langues * : " II y a 
encore au pays de Galles, le langage vieux 
-d'Angleterre semblable au Breton breton- 
nant ; on dit qu'ils s'entendent, je n'en crois 
rien.'* The Basque language and people 
are mentioned in the same section. 

No. 1447, " Lupus in fabula." King refers 
to Cic., 'Ep. ad Att.,' xiii. 33, 4. A much 
earlier example might have been given- 
Terence, ' Adelphi, 1 537. 

No. 1992, " O tempora, O mores ! "The 
source stated is Cicero's ' Pro Rege Deiotaro ' 
(B.C. 45), 11, 31, but Cicero had said this 
in B.C. 63. See ' Cat.,' i. 1, 2. 

No. 3023 (among the ' Adespota '), 

Bonis nocet quisquis pepercerit malis. 
This inelegant iambic line has been included 
in some editions of Publius Syrus, e.g. J. C. 
Orelli's, 1822, but is now rejected. It is 
obviously a translation of the Greek proverb 
AoiKt TOVS ayaOovs 6 (/^iSojuefo? TOJV KaKtov. 
See Leutsch and Schneidewin's 'Corpus 
Parcemiographorum Graecorum,* vol. ii. 
(1851) p. 247. A similar apophthegm is 
attributed to Pythagoras by Stobseus, 
* Florilegium,* xlvi. 112: Oi /*r) KoA " 
TOV? Ka/covs J3ov\ovrai aSiKcio-flai 



THE following names have been collected 
from a few places in Berkshire, Worcester- 
shire, and Yorkshire (East Riding), indicated 
in the list by B, W, and Y. They are those 

of working farm-horses. Most of them 
have been in use for many generations. 
The names common to the three counties 
are Bob, Captain, Dick, Duke, Flower, 
Jolly, and Violet. Berks has the most 
military names. Turpin is appropriately 
found in Yorkshire, but perhaps Dick may 
also represent him. Something has been 
noted about this subject at 8 S. i. 492 ; ii. 73, 

I propose to add, later, a list of ancient 

Admiral, Y. 
Ball, Y. 
Banjo, B. 
Banker, Y. 
Bellringer, W. 
Blackbird, B, W. 
Blossom, B, Y. 
BluebeD, W. 
Bob, B, W, Y. 
Bonny, W, Y. 
Bounce, W. 
Bouncer, Y. 
Bowler, B, W. 
Boxer, B, Y. 
Bute, Y. 
Butler, Y. 
Captain, B, W, Y. 
Champion, B. 
Charger, B. 
Charlie, Y. 
Cobby, Y. 
Colonel, B. 
Conjurer, B. 
Corporal. 3. 
Daisy, B, Y. 
Damsel, B. 
Dapple, W. 
Darling, B, Y. 
Delver, Y. 
Depper, W, Y. 
Derby, Y. 
Diamond, B, Y. 
Dick, B, W, Y. 
Dinah, B. 
Dobbin, B, Y. 
Dolly, B, Y. 
Donald, W. 
Dora, Y. 
Dorington, W. 
Dragon, B, Y. 
Duke, B, W, Y. 
Dumpling, B, W. 
Dunstan Boy, W. 
Dutch, Y. 
Farmer, Y. 
Flora, Y. 
Flower, B, W, Y. 
Forest King, W. 
Frolic, W. 
Gilbert, B. 
inger, B. 
Gypsy, W, Y. 
liawatha, W. 
Jack, B, Y. 
Tacko, W. 
Jennie, W. 

Jessie, W, Y. 

Jet, W, Y. 

Jewel, Y. 

Jim, W. 

Jolly, B, W, Y. 

Judy, Y. 

Kit, W. 

Kitty, B. 

Kruger, B. 

Lion, B. 

Lively, W. 

Major, B. 

Masterpiece, W. 

Merryman, W. 

Mettle, Y. 

More ton Lass, B. 

Nell, Y. 

Nellie, W. 

Oliver, B. 

Paddy, W. 

Pansy, B. 

Pedlar, B, Y. 

Prince, B, Y. 

Punch, Y. 

Battler, Y. 

Robin, W. 

Roderick, W. 

Roger, Y. 

Rose, B, Y. 

Royal, Y. 

Sandy, B. 

Sergeant, B. 

Shanker, Y. 
Short, W. 
Shot, Y. 
Smart, W. Y. 
Smiler, W, Y. 
Snip, W. 
Squirrel, B. 
Star, W, Y. 
Starlight, W. 
Starling, W. 
Thunderer, B. 
Tidy, Y. 
Tinker, B. 
Toby, W. 
Tom, B, Y. 
Tommy, W. 
Topper, Y. 
Topsy, B. 
Trooper, B. 
Turpin, W, Y. 
Venture, B. 
Violet, B, W, Y. 
Whitefoot, B, W. 
Yeoman, B. 

W. C. B. 

ii s. ii. AUG. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


special reason that I myself was born in 
1817, and my father in 1767, for asking 
you to include for permanent reference in 
' N. & Q." 4 the following extract from a letter 
in The Times of 18 July : 

My father was born in 1750, and I was born in 
1819 (when he was 69). I attained my 91st birthday 
on the 3rd of last month (June). That is to say, 
our joint lives have extended 160 years. 

Normanhurst, Compton -street, Eastbourne, 
July 3. 

In this regard I should wish to append the 
following paragraph from The Westminster 
Gazette of 25 June, which especially refers to 
a very old friend of mine : 

*' Graham stown's claim to possess among its in- 
habitants 'an old lady who enjoys the distinguished 
record of having lived under the reign of the last 
six British Sovereigns, having been born in 
George II. 's reign,' may at once be consigned to the 
region of myth, for there can be no possible proof of 
such a birth in or before 1760. But the new reign 
has already afforded one most remarkable and well- 
attested instance of great longevity ; and it would 
be interesting to know whether, with full proof, it 
can be exceeded. There has been taken in open 
court the oath of allegiance to George V., both as 
a county and a borough magistrate, by Mr. Richard 
Peter, of Launceston, Cornwall, who was born 
not merely in the reign of George III., but even 
before the Prince of Wales, who was afterwards 
George IV., was appointed Regent. From October, 
1809, to now not far from October, 1910, is, indeed, 
a wonderful stretch of time ; and that one who was 
born even before Mr. Gladstone, so long known as 
' the Grand Old Man,' should to-day be taking an 
alert part in magisterial work is sufficiently striking 
to deserve special note." 

It would be very interesting to know 
whether there is another magistrate who, 
born before the Regency, has sworn 
allegiance on the bench to George V. ; and I 
should like also to hear of others than 
myself who can recall the popular celebration 
of the coronation in 1821 of George IV., 

" own memories of which were given at 


9 S. x. 3. 


STORED. The following appeared in The 
Daily Telegraph of Monday, the 25th of 
July : 

" LONG-LOST CHARTER. After being lost between 
six and seven hundred years the mutilated charter 
of Edward III., dated 1328, to the burgesses of 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, will this week be restored 
to that Corporation by the Corporation of Preston. 
According to the opinion of British Museum ex- 
ierts, the evidence showed that Preston borrowed 
the charter for its guidance between 1342 and 1372, 
and forgot to restore it, thus forcing Newcastle- 
under-Lyme to apply for another copy. The charter 

has been in the possession of the Preston Corpora- 
tion for many years, but expert evidence shows that 
it was not a charter to Preston. There was no- 
doubt a charter to Preston of that date, but it was- 
now missing." 

A. N. Q. 

VERULAMIUM. Some months ago it was 
announced that excavations were to be 
undertaken to disclose the ancient Roman 
city by St. Albans, and I hope the rumour 
that the project may be abandoned is not 
true. In connexion with this subject two 
quotations may prove interesting. One is 
from Spenser's * Ruines of Time ' (1591), 
"I" representing the genius of Ver'lam: 
I was that citie, which the garland wore 
Of Britaine's pride, delivered unto me 
By Romane victors, which it wonne of yore ; 
Though nought at all but ruines now I be, 
And lye in mine owne ashes, as ye see : 
Ver'lame I was ; what bootes it that I was, 
Sith now I am but weedes and wastefull gras ? 

The other is from Michael Drayton's ' Poly- 

Olbion s (1612): 

Thou saw'st when Ver'lam once ahead aloft did 


(Which in her cinders now lies sadly buried here) 
With alabaster, tuch, and porphyry adorned 
When (well-near) in her pride great Troynovant she 

Thou saw'st great burden'd ships through these 

thy vallies pass, 
Where now the sharp-edg'd scythe shears up the 

spiring grass : 

That where the ugly seal and porpoise us'd to play, 
The grass-hopper and ant now lord it all the day : 
Where now St. Alban's stands was called Holmhurst 

Whose sumptuous fane we see neglected now again. 

J. S. S. 

SNAILS AS FOOD. Mr. Baring-Gould and 
Mr. Harry Hems have been writing in 
The Guardian on the excellence of cooked 
snails. I have come on the following note 
about them in ' Table -Talk, or Selections 
from the Ana (1827), at pp. 292-3. It is due 
to the memorandum -making pen of Robert 
Southey : 

" That Maecenas of Cookery, Sir Kenelm Digby, 
who is remembered for so many odd things, was one 
of the persons who introduced the great shell snail 
(Helix Pomaria) into this country as a delicacy. 
He dispersed the breed about Gpthurst, his seat near 
Newport Pagnel ; but the merit of first importing 
it is due to Charles Howard, of the Arundel family. 
The fashion seems to have taken, for that grateful 
and great master cook Robert May has left several 
receipts for dressing snails among the secrets of his 
fifty years' experience. Snails are still sold in 
Covent-Garden as a remedy for consumptive people. 
I remember, when a child, having seen them 
pricked through the shell to obtain a liquor for this 
purpose, but the liquor was as inefficacious as the 
means to obtain it were cruel. They were at that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. 11. AUG. 13, 1910. 

time, I know, eaten by the men who worked at the 
glass-houses, probably from some notion of their 
restorative virtue. 

" Snail shells of every kind are rarely found in 
^Cumberland ; the large brown species I have never 
seen there. The snail is so slow a traveller that it 
will probably require manv centuries before he 
makes the tour of the island. 5 ' 

I cannot say that snails strike me as being 
a very delightful item of a menu. I ventured 
on them when travelling in Burgundy, and 
was disappointed that, instead of being 
tender, glutinous morsels, they proved to be 
tough, tasteless, and uninteresting, Frogs 
are excellent one is led to wish that they 
had more flesh on their little bones but 
snails need deeper gustatory culture than 
is mine. ST. SWITHIN. 

is an extract from " La Vie et la Mort des 
Fees : Essai d'Histoire litteraire. Par Lucie 
J'elix-Faure-Goyau. Paris, Perrin & Cie., 
1910 " ; and seems to me sufficiently 
interesting, from a folk-lore point of view, 
to be put on record : 

"The peasants in certain districts of Brittany 
willingly state that the nineteenth century was an 
invisible century, but that the twentieth will be a 
visible century, that is to say a century wherein the 
fairies and sprites will again show themselves to 
mankind. The first motor-cars that they saw 
caused them to believe that the prophecy was ful- 
filled. They took the motorists for fairies revisiting 
their old domains." 


HUNTS. The following is taken from The 
Daily Telegraph of 19 July, and deserves, 
I think, a place also in ' N. & Q.' : 

"ST. SWITHIN'S TRIBUTE. A curious custom 
which has existed at Old Neston, Hunts, from time 
immemorial, has again been observed. The church 
is dedicated to St. Swithin, and on the Sunday 
nearest to St. Swithin's Day the edifice is strewn 
with new-mown hay. The tradition is that an old 
lady bequeathed a field for charitable purposes on 
condition that the tenant provided the hay to lessen 
the annoyance caused by the squeaking of the new 
boots sported by the villagers on Feast Sunday. 
Ihere are two other explanations : one that it is 
an offering of the first fruits of the hay harvest, and 
another that it is a survival of the custom of strew- 
ing the church when the floor was only beaten 
earth with rushes, these being renewed on the 
festival Sunday. The custom is also observed at 
Olenfield-cum-Branstone, Leicester." 


283, 324, I dealt with the curious explorer 
who sailed from Calcutta to Okhotsk in a 
little 65-ton schooner, travelled through 
Persia, and fought the Indian Government 

in the House of Lords. After many years of 
search I have just discovered that he was 
the son of Capt. Peter Gordon of the extra 
E.I.C. ship Wellesley, who was a brother of 
the Rev. William Gordon of Elgin, and a 
cadet of the Cairnfield Gordons. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

" CHEMINEAU."- This French slang word 
is mentioned at 11 S. i. 494, s.v. " Cheminots." 
There is a good example of its meaning in 
a short story, 'Le Chemineau,* by Jean 
Florae, in the paper called Fin de Siecle of 
29 Mai, 1904 : 

"J'aime trop mon ind^pendance pour rester 

longtemps dans le meme endroit Je suis un 

chemineau ; ca dit tout, n'est-ce pas ? Je dois avoir 

dans les veines du sang bohemien il faut que je 

marche que je marche toujours que je marche 



VESTRIS FAMILY. A good history of the 
Vestris family, so far as their English careers 
are concerned, would make an interesting 
and diverting book. I have transcribed the 
following three paragraphs from The Morning 
Post of 1781, which seem worth reprinting : 

" Madame de Polignac has obtained leave of the 
French King for the Vestris to remain not only one 
month longer in England, but for ever if they 
like it. It is added that when the French King 
was petitioned on this occasion he made the follow- 
ing sensible answer : ' 1 wish the King of Great 
Britain would rid my kingdom of the numberless 
capering drones that infest it.' "June 9. 

" Yesterday, about one o'clock in the morning, 
both the Vestris were admitted members of the 
Royal Society, when they presented three new 
capers as specimens of the sublimity of their new 
genius, and Signer Bartolozzi is engaged to engrave 
them for the next volume of the Philosophical 
Transactions" Ibid. 

" Mr. Lee Lewis of the Co vent Garden Theatre 
sets off for Paris on Wednesday in company with 
the two Vestris." J uly 3. 


WHERE. Information about the history of 
printing in an unexpected and unlikely 
publication may well be noted in * N. & Q.' 
for bibliographical purposes. In looking 
through some old volumes of Nouvelles 
Annales des Voyages, a French geographic* 
monthly magazine, I recently came across 
series of notes on the beginnings of printing 
in various countries, arranged alphabetically 
under towns. The notes on early printing ii 
European towns are in the volumes for 1 
tome iii. pp. 129-70 ; 1842, iv. 129 sq. ; 1843 
i. 129 sq. ; 1843, ii. 79-114. For printing ii 

n s. ii. A, is, 1910.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


towns outside of Europe see idem, 1842 
i. 5-53. I have not tested the value of these 
notes, though I saw that several English 
provincial towrjjs were included. 

The Nouvelles Annales are in the library 
of the Royal Geographical Society, 1, Savile 
Row, W., where, no doubt, inquirers would 
be allowed to consult them. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Who was the second wife of Col. Thomas 
Condon (b. 1692, d. 1759), of Willerby, Kiln- 
wick, and York, who was Sheriff of York in 
1733 ? When were they married ? The 
wife's first name was Elizabeth, and they had 
one son Thomas both named in Col. 
Condon's will made in 1749. His first wife 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Mellish, 
Esq., of Ragnal, Notts. There was one son of 
this marriage, Charles, who took the name 
of Mellish, and whose daughter Mary was 
married in 1787 to Hugh, 13th Lord Sempill. 
Col. Condon's son Thomas also took the name 
of Mellish, entered the Army as lieutenant 
in 1761, and was subsequently known as 
Capt. Mellish. When and where was he 
born, and when did he die ? He was, 
according to half -pay lists, alive in 1794. 

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 

MENTS AT EASTER. Signora Costantini, 
writing in the July number of The Reunion 
Magazine on the symbolism ana colours of 
church vestments, says : k ' It is curious to 

note that green is used instead of white 

on Easter at Soissons Cathedral." May I 
inquire of your readers the reason for this 


Society of the Divine Word, Techny, Illinois. 

SARK BIBLIOGRAPHY. I am endeavour- 
ing to compile a list of books, magazine 
articles, &c., dealing with Sark, and should 
welcome any corrections in, or additions to, 

my present list, which is as follows 

' Carette of Sark'' The Maid of the Silver Sea,' and 

nfr v^ KW J*i and ' 2 U o by John Ox enham and 
published by Hodder and Stoughton. 

' Dearlove,' by Frances Campbell (? publisher.) 

' Cavern of Laments,' by Catherine E. Mallardaine, 
published by John Long. 

'The Doctor's Dilemma' (? by Hesba Stretton ; 
? publisher.) 

' Legends of Normandy' (? author ; ? publisher.) 

' Saut Juan ' (? author ; ? publisher.) 

' Sark Girl' (? authoress ; ? publisher.) 

Another work by the same authoress. 

' The King's Dues ' (? author ; ? publisher. ) 

'The Island of Hoses,' by Capt. T. Preston 
Battersby, published by the Sunday School Union, 

' The Garden of Cymodoce,' the title under which 
' The Island of Roses ' was originally published. 

' To Pleasure Madam ' (? author ; ? publisher ; ?about 

' Toilers of the Sea,' by Victor Hugo, contains 
occasional references to Sark. 

Articles about Sark are said to have appeared in 
The Badminton Magazine (about 1896) and The 
Idler y Wanted exact dates. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, September, 1878, pp. 273- 
87, contains an article by the Hon. Roden Noel, 
entitled 'Sark, and its Caves.' 

The Strand Magazine, January, 1896, pp. 72-7, con- 
tains an illustrated article by F. Startin Pilleau, 
entitled ' How I visited the Gouliot Caves.' 

Good Words (? date ; probably about 1880), pp. 112-19, 
contains an illustrated article by Dr. Charles 
Grindrod, entitled 'The Caves and Rocks of 

An early number of The Yellow Book (? date) con- 
tains a short story relating the remorse suffered 
by a man who thought he had murdered a com- 
panion by pushing him over a cliff. I am told 
that the scene is laid in Little Sark, though it is 
not named (? author and title). 

The Guernsey Magazine for 1874, 1875, and 1876, con- 
tains numerous articles on Sark, its history, 
geology, customs, &c. These were written by the 
Rev. J. L. V. Cachemaille, then Vicar of Sark. 
Publisher, F. Clarke, States Arcade, Market- 
place, Guernsey. 

'A Guide to Sark, with Map,' by H. Noel Malan 
and Frank G. Hume, published by T. B. Banks 
& Co., Guernsey. 

'A Souvenir of Sark.' Printers and Publishers, 
Alexander Matthews & Co. for the Hotel Bel 
Air, Sark. 

'A Hobble through the Channel Islands in 1858,' 
by Edward T. Gastineau, published 1860 by 
Charles Westertou, London. Pp. 12, 13, 156-66. 

The following also contain historical 
references to Sark : 

'Le Cotentin et ses iles,' by Gustav Du Pont, 
Counsellor of the Court of Appeal, Caen, 1870-73. 
Souvenirs historiques de Guernsey,' by George 

Recherches sur les iles du Cotentin en general,' 
by C. de Gerville, 1846. 
History of Guernsey,' by F. B. Tupper. 
The Bulletins of the Socie"te Jersiaise. 
Please reply direct. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL AUG. is, 1910. 

of 'The Heraldry of Nature, 1 1785, the 
following appears : 

C , Viscount C . 
Arms. A set of bells. 
Supporters. The dexter, Juno Lucina ; the sinister, 

a mocking bird, both proper. 
Crest. A drum proper. 
Motto. Quantum, eheu ! sapere ! 

How rare a thing is wisdom. 

A contemporary hand has filled in the 
blanks with the narne of " Courtney. 11 At 
this date the holder of the title was William 
Courtenay, the 3rd Viscount, afterwards 
Earl of Devon. 

I should be much obliged for information 
on these satirical allusions. 


[For other mock coats of arms see 11 S. i. 146, 313, 
497 ; ii. 59, 112.] 

COMMONS. In reading the history of a local 
Masonic lodge I have found a remarkable 
record of the temporary use of the historic 
Speaker's chair of the old House of Commons, 
on the occasion of the visit of the Duke of 
Sussex to Sunderland in 1839. The descrip- 
tive account was taken from a London news- 
paper, and also from the pages of a Masonic 
publication, whose representative came 
North to report the Royal Duke's proceed- 
ings. In this report we have the story of 
the celebrated chair : 

" After having been led into the room by the Earl 
of Durham, His Royal Highness rested himself for 
a few moments in a commodious chair which had 
been provided for the occasion, and which, it is 
reported, was formerly the Speaker's chair in the 
old House of Commons, preserved from the fire 
which destroyed the two Houses of Parliament in 
1834. This curious relic was purchased by a pro- 
fessional man, a resident in Sunderland, and after- 
wards presented by him to the Corporation." 

This story is corroborated by the local 
newspaper in its report of the ceremony : 

*'The east end of the News Room of the Ex- 
change was used by a raised platform, in the centre 
of which was placed, for the use of the Royal Duke, 
' the awful seat' from which Sir Charles Manners 
Sutton called 'Order! Order!' to the noisy Com- 
moners of England in Parliament assembled." 

It will thus be seen that the story is given 
without any reserve or doubt as to the chair 
being the real seat of the Speaker of the old 
House of Commons ; yet I have been unable 
to secure any personal information or 
municipal record of such a chair in the 
borough. I shall be glad if any of the 
readers of ' N. & Q. s can give information 
as to the disposal of the Speaker's chair after 

the fire at the old Houses of Parliament in 
1834. On the occasion of the Duke of 
Sussex's visit to Sunderland on a Masonic 
mission, the well-known antiquary and 
historian, Sir Cuthbert Sharp, a resident in 
the town, was Worshipful Master ot the 
Palatine Lodge, and Deputy Provincial 
Grand Master of the Province of Durham 
Masonic Lodges. This fact gives weight to 
the story that this historic chair of the old 
Houses of Parliament wag used on the 
occasion. JOHN ROBINSON. 

Delaval House, Sunderland. 

CARTER FAMILY. Can any readers kindly 
furnish information concerning the descen- 
dants of John and William Carter, of 
Charlton Abbotts, co. Glos., and Brize 
Norton, Oxon, respectively ? They were 
the sons of John Carter, Esq., lord of the 
manors of Cold Aston, Charlton Abbotts^ 
and Nether (or Lower) Swell in 1608, and 
High Sheriff of Gloucestershire for 1612. 
A monument to their elder brother Giles 
(who married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Paul 
Tracy, and died without progeny in 1664) 
is in Cold Aston Church. According to 
Atkyns (* Present State of Gloucestershire,? 
1712), the family moved into Oxfordshire. 
The estates of the above Giles Carter were 
sequestered in the Great Rebellion for 968Z. 
The granddaughter of William Carter 
married, previous to 1727, Sir John 
D'Oyley, Bt. J. J. FOSTER. 

Offa House, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Ecclesiae Anglicanae,* Hardy, MDCCCLIV. vol.1, 
p. 481, under Hereford Archdeacons, occur 
the following entries : 

" Robert Crowley resigned in 1567." 

" Edward Cowper, collated 5th April, 

In Gloucester Diocesan Registry (Case 2] 
is a proxy made 20 July, 1566, in the 
presence of Edward Cooper, Archdeacon of 
the Archdeaconry oi Hereford, who affixed 
his official seal to the document. Can any 
correspondent supply the correct dates ? 


Highbury, Lydney. 

ford, Nottinghamshire, is preserved on a later 
base, in the village street, opposite the 
approach to the church, an elaborately 
sculptured pillar or cross, of Anglo -Saxon 
or Danish origin. High county authorities 
are of opinion, not only that it may ante- 
date the foundation of the church of Staple- 

n s. ii. AUG. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ford, but moreover that it even furnishec 
a name for the village, in its situation by th 
crossing of the river Erewash. " Stapol ' 
and its variants, as applied to a pillar o 
post, and as represented in the " steeple ' 
of a church, are sufficiently familiar. Wha 
it would be interesting to learn is whethe 
remains or evidences of pre-Norman pillar 
or crosses survive in others of the seven 
Staplefords and seven Stapletons said tc 
exist in England. A. STAPLE-TON. 

Under the management of John Braham, at 
the St. James's Theatre, on Tuesday 
27 March, 1838, ' Oliver Twist,* founded on 
"the popular tale by Boz," was produced 
Who was the adapter, and who played in it 
As Dickens's original burlettas were done ai 
the theatre the previous ye"ar, and as he 
always had an idea of dramatizing * Oliver 
Twist * himself, is it possible that he did so on 
this occasion ? S. J A. F. 

H. A. MAJOR. I have a drama in three 
acts by H. A. Major, called * The Nondescript 
or, Beauty in Ugliness.* Where can I find 
particulars of the author ? There is no date 
on the play, which was printed by Taylor 
& Co., 10, Little Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. Major was a *' property-maker and 
mask-moulder, 11 and he wrote over twenty 
plays, none of which I am able to trace as 
having been produced anywhere. 

S. J. A. F. 

Smollett's ' Continuation of Hume's History 
of England, 1 embracing the period from 1688 
to 1783, was published in eight volumes at 
Edinburgh in 1791. Smollett died in 1771 ; 
and in the " Advertisement " which follows 
the title-page it is stated that six of the 
volumes were by him the remaining two 
being by "other writers." Is it known 
who these other writers were ? 

I have always understood that a great- 
great-grand-uncle of mine, the Rev. William 
Bisset of Horncastle, a native of Banff, where 
he died in 1807, aged 78, assisted Smollett 
with his portion of the work, but in reality 
he may have been one of the "other 
writers." J OHN CHRISTIE. 


-Can any one give me particulars of the 
Rev. Thomas Clarke, who was Rector of 
Chesham Bois, Bucks, from 1766 to 1793, 
and who is buried in the churchyard of that 
parish ? The day and the month in which 

he died are not recorded on his tomb. I 
shall be glad to know, if possible, the names 
of his parents, his birthplace, the date of his 
ordination, and any other preferment he 
may have held ; also his wife's maiden name, 
and how many children they had. Two are 
buried in the vault with their father and 
mother : Thomas, who died 20 March, 
1785, aged 25 ; and Mary, the wife of the 
Rev. J. H. Swain, who died in July, 1786, 
aged 35. The widow's Christian name was 
Anne ; she died 12 January, 1810, aged 80. 


I have heard it stated that the churches 
of Hooton-Pagnall, near Doncaster, and one 
of those at Retford in Nottinghamshire, were 
used as stables when the army of the Duke of 
Cumberland was on its march northward 
in pursuit of the Jacobite forces. Has this 
been proved ? K. P. D. E. 

to learn in what magazine appeared a story 
of a deserter who returned to his village 
without knowing that the regiment had been 
ordered home from abroad. O. H. 

Whence come the following lines, quoted in 
hap. ix. Book II. of 'The Last Days of 
Pompeii * ? 

Their look, with the reach of past ages, was wise, 
A.nd the soul of eternity thought in their eyes. 

A. J. MITCHELL, Major. 
Murree, Punjab. 

In the Rev. J. W. Warter's posthumous 
work 'An Old Shropshire Oak* Sir John 
Stuart is styled " Hero of the plains of 
Vtaida," apparently a quotation from some 
3oem. I thought it might be from Sir 
Walter Scott, but have failed to trace it in any 
f his works. Will one of your readers 
dndly direct me to its source ? 

E. L. H. TEW. 
Uphara Rectory, Southampton. 

f your readers kindly say whether the lion 
ampant gules blazoned on the royal shield 
f Scotland was derived from the lion 
ampant gules depicted on the flags or 
>anners of some of the Kings and Earls of 
sTorthumbria ? SADI. 

e much obliged for the reference to any 
edigree or other information relating to 
lawkes of ' Kilcrea, &c., co. Cork. John 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. is, 1910. 

Hawkes settled in Ireland about 1630, 
if I am not mistaken. The family are said 
to be descended from Richard Nevill, 
Earl of Warwick. F. M. R. HOLWOBTHY. 
Elsworth, Tweedy Road, Bromley, Kent. 

shall be glad of information as to the 
derivation of the term "minster, 11 as it 
does not seem in some cases (for instance, 
York) to have the connexion with monastic 
buildings which is the suggestion generally 

I also desire an explanation of the term 
" verger " as distinct from the sacristan 
of Roman Catholic churches. M. L. D. 

[The 'New English Dictionary' gives "minster" 
as from the A.-S. mynster, and the earliest meaning 
as a monastery, the first quotation being from Bede. 
The second definition is "The church of a mon- 
astery also applied gen. to any church of con- 
siderable size or importance, esp. a collegiate or 
cathedral church." The last quotation under this 
section is from Leach's ' Beverley Church Act Book,' 
1898, Introd., p. 34 : " The word minster itself is 
peculiarly one used not of monasteries but oi 
secular churches York, Beverley, Ripon, South- 
well, Lincoln, Lichfield, Wimborne, these are the 

churches to which the title of minster has clung 

and they were one and all churches of secular 

"KiNG n IN PLACE-NAMES. Can any one 
inform me of the meaning of the word King 
in such names as Kingsford, Kingsmill 
Kingswood, Kingsley, &c. ? Does it ever 
imply royal ownership ? R. C. D. 

H.M.S. AVENGER was a steam frigate 
mounting six guns, with a crew of 250 men 
She sailed from Gibraltar under Capt 
G. E. Napier on 17 December, 1847, and 
on the 20th struck the Sorelle Rocks, where 
she foundered. Lieut. Rooke, six men 
and a boy managed to get free in a cutter 
but four of them were drowned. Lieut 
Rooke and the three others after mua 
suffering reached the island of Galita in 
safety. I should be glad to know the name 
of the lieutenants and midshipmen wh 
lost their lives in this disaster. F. K. P. 

was long settled at Thourout in Flanders, th 
earliest recorded member being Jan Moke 
who died at the beginning of the seventeent 
century. It is said the family cam 
originally from Wynendael, and I shall b 
glad if any one with a knowledge of Flemis 
families can tell me about the origin of th 
family and the derivation of its name. 

F. A. J. 


(10 S. xii. 422.) 

AMONG the collection of MS. papers temp. 

Elizabeth extant in the church of SS. Anne 

and Agnes, Aldersgate, are numbered three 

original documents relating to the provision 

of arms, which, as being contemporary 

ecords of the Armada period, may be of 

ufficient general interest to justify their 

nsertion in the columns of ' N. & Q.* 

1. By the first John Colleye, constable of 
the parish, acknowledges the receipt of 

.7s. Qd. from the upper churchwarden, " for 
ihat he layd out aboaut [sic] the soyldiers 
Jurny twice according to the presept from 
my lord mayor " : 

This is John Colly [*tc] the Constables bill : 
For prest moneye, iiij 8 
For iij girdles, ij 8 
For a leather for a muskett, iiij d 
For a Scottish Capp, xvj d 
For a sword, iiij 8 iiij d 
Paied to thre solders for ij dayes, viz. one day iiij, d 

& the other daye vj d a pece, ij 8 vj d 
For a pike w ch was cast in the feild by the Cap- 
tayne, iij 8 

Some is xvij 8 vj d 

2. By the second document William 
Hop ton, armourer, acknowledges a sum 
of 51. 6$. which he has received from the 
wardens " for armor, 11 his account running 
thus : 

This is William Hopton, Armorer, his bill : 
Bought ye Corslettes at the price of iij u 
For ij swordes & ij daggers, xiij 8 
For the lynning of ij hedpeeces, xij d 
For one picke [sic] armed, iiij 8 vj d > 
For a muskett & the furniture to it, xxvij 8 vj d 
Som'a is v u o 8 vj d 

3. The third record apparently consists 
of a transcript from the long-vanished vestry 
minute-book of the period : 

" Delivered to the Churchwardens for somqch [sic] 
collected of the p'ishioners towarde the furniture of 
Arms win saied w ch was com'anded to be had & 
provided in this p'ish by p'cept fro the Maior about 
the beginning of this moneth & the latter end of 
the moneth before, viz. Marche, And for as mud 
as the for said arms was p'vided and the soldie 
went not forth but were discharged, & that tl 
contributions of the p'ish collected amounted not 
the full discharge & paym 4 of the said Armorer 
was agreed this daie, that the Church warder 
shold disbursse the rest of the money w ch the sai 
Arms amounted to, & to take the same Arms 
to p'serve the same to the use of the p'ish, & the 

ii s. ii. AUG. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to be allowed the surplus laid out by them at their 

Agreed on by M r Harvey & M r Jarvis, Church 
Wardens ; M r Stevens, M r Gale, M r Johnson & M r 
Goodere. Tho. Bedford, scr[ivener]." 

The date of the last document is 20 April, 
1589, the two others (which are engrossed 
upon its reverse side as regards the specifica- 
tions, the actual receipts being on separate 
slips, whence the reference to " three docu- 
ments ") being dated the day previous. 


" STORM IN A TEACUP '* (11 S. ii. 86). 
I am sure that I have met with this phrase 
far earlier than 1872. I should be surprised 
it it did not occur as early as the time of 
Bolingbroke ; indeed, I think he used it, but 
cannot verify my opinion, asI have not a 
copy of his works near at hand. Whenever 
it was used for the first time, it is almost 
certain to have been a free translation of 
Cicero's " excitare fluctus in simpulo.'* 


Athenseus, the grammarian of Naucratis, 
A.D. 230, in his ' Deipnosophistfe ' represents 
the flute-player DorionridiculingTimotheos, 
a virtuoso on the zither, who wished to 
imitate a storm at sea on his instrument : 
" I have heard a greater storm in a boiling 
pot " (viii. 19). 


MYDDELTON : " DREF " : " PLAS " (11 S. 
i. 329). The present meaning of the Welsh 
" tref " (pr. trave) is the same as the present 
meaning of the English "town,"- and both 
are used alike in place-names. " Tre- 
forus," for instance, is the exact equivalent 
of " Morris-ton." In place-names and in 
ordinary speech the / is often dropped, as 
in "Tre-fach" (Little-ton), " Tre-fran " 
(Crow-ton), " Tre-herbert " (Herbert's Town), 
and " Tre-madoc " (Madoc's Town). The / 
is retained in " Tref-eglwys " (Church- 
town)," Tref -garn " (Cairn-ton)," Tref -nant " 
(the tun of the hollow), &c. 

In all these examples the adjective or 
possessive follows the noun, as it generally 
does. Numerals are an exception, " can- 
tref"- (not " cantre# ") being " cant-tref," 
a hundred (literally a hundred tuns). 

Some compound words also present 
exceptions. Thus "y tir canol Ft (the 
middle land) becomes in composition "y 
Canol-dir " (the Mediterranean). 

In full " the middle town " would be " y 
dref ganol," and " the middle of the town " 
would be " canol y dref." I know a village 

which has two farms, " Canol-dre " and 
" Pen-isha'r-dre " (the middle and the lower 
end of the village). 

" Plas " means a palace, mansion, hall, 
not a place. There is no connexion between 
it and "tref."- "Plas Canol" means the 
middle mansion. DAVID SALMON. 


The radical form is not "dref,' 1 but 
"tref,' J " dref " being merely the lenation 
of this. " Canoldref ri is a perfectly correct 
form, " tref " lenating to " dref " in accord- 
ance with the rule (adjective preceding the 
noun). There are several words of this form 
in Welsh, e.g., " canoldir," midland ; 
" canolfor," Mediterranean Sea. William 
Myddelton is called by Gweirydd ap Rhys in 
his ' Hanes Llenyddiaeth Cymreig ' ( ' His- 
tory of Welsh Literature '), p. 330, " Gwilym 
Ganoldref" (not " Canol-dref," the word 
being treated as an epithet, and lenated 
accordingly). Whether any place is actually 
called " canoldref " where in English it 
would be " Middleton," or whether William 
Myddelton's name is an invented bardic 
name only, I am unable to say. 

Where does " Cantref " occur as a place- 
name ? It seems a curious name. The 
word signifies, as MR. MYDDELTON says, 
a territorial division, " hundred." 

" Tref " and " Plas " are quite distinct 
in meaning. The former signifies a home- 
stead, and then a town, like tun ; the latter, 
a palace, hall. " Plas Canol " therefore 
could not be equivalent to " Canoldref." 
For other instances of "tref" as a suffix 
cf. "hendref " (old homestead, winter dwel- 
ling, as opposed to " hafotty," summer 
dwelling), &c. H. I. B. 

According to Owen Pughe's Welsh- 
English dictionary of 1832, " tref " means in 
Welsh a dwelling-place, homestead, town : 
' ' As the name of a single house, it answers 
to the English ham. The adage is quoted, 
f.i., ' Nid tref ond nef, 1 there is no dwelling- 
place but heaven." Al. Macbain, in his 
Gaelic etymological dictionary, identifies 
Cymric or Welsh " tref," a homestead, in its 
origin with Old Irish treb, a dwelling, and 
with Latin tribus, trebus, a tribe, connecting 
it also with Eng. thorp. 

" Plas " is defined by O. Pught>, I.e., as a 
large edifice or hall, and may be probably 
akin to Latin palatiu~n, regarded, primitively, 
as a place where cattle feed. During my 
stay at Llaneilian, near Amlwch, in Ynys 
Mon (or Anglesey), with a Cymric farmer 
at his newly built house, I remember his old 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL AUG. 13, 1910. 

farm-house with cattle-sheds, situated in 
the neighbourhood, used to be called by him 
" Plas." 

In answer to the question, "Is * Gwilym 
Canoldref ' good Welsh ? " I am told by a 
native Cymric friend that it correctly renders 
"William Middleton." In answer to the 
further question, "Is there a difference in 
signification between * tref " and * plas * ? " 
I learn from the same source that nowadays 
" tref " commonly denotes a number of 
houses, village, or town, and " plas " a 
single abode or mansion. Thus, for instance, 
the name given to a Welsh private residence 
is "Plas y Derwen," i.e., Oakham. But 
" tref," when used in the compound noun 
" Car -tref " (cara tribus), is also applied to 
denote a single dwelling-place, or home. 
This name is frequently met with as that of 
a Cymric house (cf. Owen Pughe, I.e.). 


" Canoldref " is an exact translation of 
"Middletun." William Middleton used the 
name " Gwilym Canoldref " himself, and it 
was the name generally used by his Welsh 
bardic contemporaries. As a general rule in 
Welsh, when an adjective, or a noun used 
as an adjective, is connected with another 
noun, the adjective follows the noun, thus 
"Tref Ganol, 11 the Middle Town; "Tref 
Newydd," New Town ; but when the words 
are formed into one compound the adjec- 
tive leads, as in " Hendref or Hendre,' 1 a 
very common place-name in Wales, meaning 
the Old Town or homestead. 

As to the difference between " tref n and 
" plas," the latter invariably means a 
palace, so Plas Canol means the Middle 
Palace, there being in the same neighbour- 
hood a Plas Uchaf (Higher or Upper Palace) 
and Plas Isaf (Lower Palace). D. M. R. 

The Plas Heaton mentioned in the query 
is the seat of the old family of that name ; 
so also Plas Clough and Plas Pigot are or 
were the residences of the ancient families 
of those names, all in or near Denbigh. 

[H. P. L. also thanked for reply.] 

67). MR. THORNTON mentions " pikery," 
and adds ' ' Something bitter ; but what ? " 
This is our old friend hiera picra, the name 
of which has had many corrupt variations. 
It was in the ' London Pharmacopoeia, 1 being 
composed of gum extracted from socotrine 
aloes, and Canella alba. In the ' Edin- 
burgh Pharmacopoeia, 1 instead of the Canella 

alba, ginger and Virginian snake-root were 
employed. It is about as nauseous a mixture 
as could be desired. JOHN HODGKIN. 

" Prickly -heat " is an expression I have 
often heard here. Is it an Americanism ? 

R. B R. 
South Shields. 

[' N.E.D.' quotes it in 1736 from Wesley.] 

"TILLEUL" (11 S, ii. 47, 93). They say 
in Vienne " La fille qui aime la tisane de 
tilleul aura un beau mari.'* I do not know 
whether faith in lime-tea be held on this side 
of the Channel, though my ' Family Herbal l 
mentions the utility of a decoction or in- 
fusion of the flowers for asthma and for 
coughs, while the powdered leaves, taken in 
treacle or in tea, are recommended in some 
cases of inflammation. ST. SWITHIN. 

" Un tilleul " is a common drink in some 
parts of France, e.g., at Lyons. The same 
" tea " is also well known in Germany under 
the name of " Lindenblume." It is some- 
what tasteless, but not at all unpleasant. 

H. K. 

BEN JONSON (11 S. ii. 67). 

'"Slight! fed with it, the whoreson strummel, 
patched, goggle-eyed grumbledories, would have 
gigantomachized." ' Every Man out of His 
Humour,' V. iv. 

Patched = long dishevelled -haired. 

Grumbledories = possibly compounded of 
"grumble" and "dor" (beetle), meaning 
cheat or fool. 

See ' Ben Jonson, 1 vol. i. p. 241 (ed. Dr. 
Brinsley Nicholson), "Mermaid Series.' 1 

ITALY IN 1654 (US. ii. 64). With reference 
to the earthquake, is it possible that the letter 
reads " 2 3 rd Instant at midnight," i.e., 
the midnight between the 2nd and 3rd of 
July, 1654, and not the 23rd, as Mr. H. J. 
GODBOLD prints it ? On the former date 
there was a terrible earthquake, which is 
mentioned by Marcello Bonito in his ' Terra 
Tremante, 1 Naples, 1691, lib. x. p. 781 : 

"'Nell' anno 1654, per un gagliardo Terremoto 
la gik detta Chiesa cadde, onde di nuovo nell' anno 
1682, si & dato principio a ristorarla.' [This is a 
quotation from 'Descrit d'Alvit,' par. i, pag. 26.] 

"A questo accidente allude Athan. Kircher, 
'Mund. Subterr.,' torn. i. lib. 4, cap. 10, 2, osser- 
vando che insorsero i spiriti a' 2. di Luglio di quell' 
anno nel Territorio della Cittk di Sora vicina ad 
Alvito con le cui scosse trem6 anche Roma. 

"Reliqua vero vicina Oppida tremorem quidem 
terrse sentire, at non nisi ex terrestrium partium 
consensu, ut in ingenti Terremotu in agro Sorano 

n s. ii. AUG. is, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


2. lulii anno 1654. exorto contigit, quo vel ipsam 
Roraam fere triduo distantem ex consensu contre- 
muisse sentimus." 

This is the only earthquake Marcello 
Bonito mentions for 1654. 


509; xi. 53, 218, 356, 454; xii. 53). 

"Paul Jones is known as a rebel and a pirate. 
Five-and-twenty years have not elapsed since the 
nurses of Scotland hushed their crying infants by 
the whisper of his name." Quoted from 'Life of 
Paul Jones,' London, 1825, at p. 170 of ' Nelson, and 
other Naval Studies,' by J. R. Thursfield, and 
ascribed to Benjamin Disraeli (see note p. 195). 

The following is not such a plain threat, 
though it has been referred to as such ; 
citing it here may lead to some better 
example to the same effect : 

" The earliest idea I had of Napoleon was that 
of a huge ogre or giant, with one large flaming red 
eye in the middle of his forehead, and 1 .ng teeth 
protruding from his mouth, with which he tore to 
pieces and devoured naughty little girls, especially 
those who did not know their lessons." P. 12 of 

"Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon by 

Mrs. Abell, late Miss Elizabeth Balcombe/' 
London, 1844. 


Boston, Mass. 

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (11 S. i. 369 ; ii. 73). 
In the twelfth century it was believed, 
whether rightly or wrongly, that Ansgar (or 
Esegar) had been preceded in his office of 
Staller by his father JSthelstan and his 
grandfather Tovi (or Ton), and that certain 
lands were attached to this office. This 
appears from a passage quoted in Round's 
' Geoffrey de Mandeville * (p. 37) from the 
Waltham Chronicle : 

"Cui [Tovi] successit films ejus Adelstanus pater 
Esegari qui stalra inventus est in Anglias conquisi- 

one a Normannis Successit quidem Adelstanus 

patri suo Tovi, non in totam quidem possessionem 
quam possederat pater, sed in earn tantum quse 
pertmobat ad Stallariam." 

This was written when William de Mande- 
ville was Earl of Essex, i.e., 1166-89. 


(11 S. i. 43, 131, 254, 498). The modern use 
of codesto or cotesto by Tuscan Italians is 
not to denote an object equally distant from 
both speakers, but to indicate one that is 
nearer to the person spoken to. Petrocchi 
thus defines it : " Pronome che indica 
persona o cosa vicina o relativa alia persona 
a cui si parla (' Dizionario italiano,' vol. i. 

p. 497). In Tuscany codesto is really used 
in this sense ; but it may not be so in all 
parts of Italy. Iste in Latin has surely the 
same meaning. M. HAULTMONT. 

J. FABER (11 S. ii. 69). There were two 
artists by the name of J. Faber, father and 
son, and each of them called John. 

John Faber the elder was born in Holland, 
where he acquired a knowledge of the art of 
mezzotinto engraving. Subsequently he 
came to England, and died at Bristol in 
May, 1721. 

The younger John obtained a high reputa- 
tion as an engraver in mezzotinto. He lived 
in London, where he is believed to have 
died in 1756. 

Both father and son are, however, too early 
for MR. ANSCOMBE'S date. 


SPROTT'S CHRONICLE (11 S. ii. 24, 73, 94). 
Sprott the chronicler lived in the thirteenth 
century, and certainly did not record events 
which happened nearly two centuries after 
he ceased to write. All we know of the docu- 
ment from which MR. JOHN HODGKIN quotes 
with the preface " Sprott writes " is that 
it is bound in the same volume with Sprott's 
Chronicle, and that its editor, Thomas 
Hearne, says (p. xl) that he received the 
document from which it is printed at the 
hands of a learned friend ("reperi in codice 
MS. vetusto mihi porrecto at amico per- 
erudito IJ ). MR. HODGKIN'S identification of 
the anonymous chronicler with Sprott is 
therefore manifestly out of court. 

Fabyan did not write that John Stone 
was Mayor in 1465. This is a misreading 
on the part of MR. HODGKIN. Stone was 
Sheriff in that year, but he was never either 
Mayor or Alderman. 

As to the value of MR. HODGKIN'S 
authorities, no competent scholar would 
accept Fabyan as infallible in matters of 
minute detail, and we have no data for 
estimating the value of the document which 
MR. HODGKIN erroneously attributes to 
Sprott. But Gregory not only was a con- 
temporary of Philip, but had also been his 
colleague as an alderman, and he expressly 
states that no other citizens than the five he 
names were made Knights of the Bath in 

We have material for testing the respective 
statements of Gregory and Fabyan. 

Gregory gives five names Wyche, Coke, 
Gosselyn, Plomer, Whafyr. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 13,1910. 

Fabyan gives four Cook, Philip, Jos- 
selyne, Wauyr. 

The anonymous chronicler agrees with 
JFabyan (even in the order) except for 
orthographic variations. 

It will be seen that Gregory omits Philip, 
and the others omit Plomer and Coke. 

I need not trouble *N. & Q. 5 with proofs in 
the case of the three names common to both 
lists, though I have them before me. With 
regard to Wyche, he is described as " miles," 
21 July, 1468 (Guildhall Records, Journal 7, 
fo. 175 b). So also Plomer is called " miles " 
4 February, 1468 (Husting Roll 197 (26) ), 
and 4 July, 1468 (Journal 7, fo. 175). 

On the other hand, Philip is not described 
as "miles"- in any record at Guildhall 
earlier than 1471, and moreover in Husting 
Roll 198 (20), under date 20 June, 1468, 
lie is described as " Aldermannus " simply, 
without the addition of " miles," which is 
invariably found, where it is applicable, in 
Husting Roll entries. 

The monumental inscription on Philip's 
wife (date 1470) which MB. PINK has quoted 
confirms my inference from the Guildhall 
records. ALFRED B. BEAVEN. 

See 'Memorials of Herne, Kent' (4th ed., 
1887), by the Rev. J. R. Buchanan, pp. 6, 
.33, 40-41, 61. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

In his reply at the last of the above 
references MB. W. D. PINK writes : "I 
know of no case in which the same man 
received the accolade twice.' 1 My ancestor, 
Sir John Dethick, Kt., Lord Mayor of 
London 1655-6, was knighted by Oliver 
Cromwell on 15 September, 1656, and again 
by Charles II. on 13 April, 1661. 


9, Broughton Road, Thornton Heath. 

ii. 68, 111). The author was Wathen Mark 
Wilks Call (1817-1890), B.A. 1842, M.A. 
1846 of Cambridge, entered Holy Orders in 
1843, but withdrew in 1856 from the service 
of the Church, on conscientious grounds. 
He wrote in The Leader under G. H. Lewes, 
and in the Westminster and Theological 
Reviews, and later in The Fortnightly. He 
seems to have published only three volumes 
of poems, one of which was ' Reverberations.' 
Unfortunately, in a reissue of this book he 
inserted a long prose introduction (explain- 
ing his reason for retiring from the ministry 
of the Church of England), which was quite 
out of keeping with the poems following it. 

Mr. W. Davies, mentioned by the querist, 
was undoubtedly a friend of D. G. Rossetti's, 
as may be proved on reference to ' D. G. 
Rossetti, Letters and Memoir,' edited by 
W. M. Rossetti, 1895. R. A. POTTS. 

The book was written by W. M. W. Call 
(1817-1890), of whom there is a notice in 
Boase's ' Modern English Biography,' iv. 580. 

C. W. S. 

Wathen Mark Wilks Call, the author, 
died on 20 August, 1890, aged 73. See 
Athenceum, 30 August, 1890, p. 288. 

C. D. 

HENBY VIII. (US. ii. 88). H. A. refers 
probably to Sir Christopher More, the founder 
of the Mores of Loseley in Surrey, a son of 
John More or Moore of Norton in Derby- 
shire. He held the office of King's Remem- 
brancer of the Exchequer to Henry VIII., 
and acquired by purchase the Manor of 
Loseley, where he and his descendants 
afterwards settled. He was Sheriff of Sussex 
and Surrey in 1532-3 and 1539-40 ; 
knighted after November, 1538, probably 
about 1540 ; M.P. for Surrey 1547 until his 
death 16 August, 1549. Will pr. in P.C.C. 
1550. He was twice married : first to 
Margaret, daughter and heir of Walter 
Mugge of Guildford ; secondly to Constance, 
daughter of Richard Sackville of Buck- 
hurst, who survived him. 

W. D. PINK. 

S. JOSEPH, SCULPTOB (11 S. ii. 81). MB. 
RALPH NEVILL'S acquaintance with the 
granddaughters of Samuel Joseph might 
help to confirm the following entry in an 
old notebook of mine, unfortunately without 
references : 

" Samuel Joseph the sculptor and George Francis 
Joseph, R.A., the painter, were the sons of two 
brothers who early in life abandoned Judaism. 
James Joseph Sylvester, the eminent mathema- 
tician, and a member of the Hebrew community, 
was a relative." 

I should be pleased to have a pedigree of 
the family, with .dates, &c. 


118, Sutherland Avenue, W. 

(11 S. ii. 68). I would recommend the 
perusal of the following works : 

Gomer Williams, ' History of the Liv< 
Privateers ' (London, 1906). 

Henri Malo, 'Les Corsaires' (Paris, 1908). 

E. P. Statham, * Privateers ' (London, 1910). 

L. L. K. 

ii B. ii. AUG. is, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


11 S. ii. 68, 115). Reference may also 
made to Staley, ' Hierurgia Anglicana, 1 
i. 248-9, iii. 106-10. 


In the extract I gave at the latter reference 
from the Derbyshire parish register the name 
of the recipient of the licence should have 
been spelt Francis Mundy, and the parish as 
Mackworth, not " Machworth." 


THE SLEEPLESS ARCH (11 S. ii. 88). 
The following quotation from J. Fergusson's 
' History of Indian and Eastern Architec- 
ture,' 1899, p. 210, will explain MR. RUS- 
SELL'S question : 

"As the Hindus quaintly "express it, 'an arch 
never sleeps ' ; and it is true that a radiating arch 
does contain in itself a vis viva which is always 
tending to thrust its haunches outwards, and goes 
far to ensure the ultimate destruction of every 
building where it is employed; while the hori- 
zontal forms employed by the Hindus are in stable 
equilibrium, and, unless disturbed by violence, 
might remain so for ever." 


That the arch never sleeps is an archi- 
tectural aphorism. Instead of being deeply 
dormant like the lintel in a trabeated style, 
it is ever on the qui vive to do its duty, as 
long as it is kept up to it, and to give way 
should opportunity occur. ST. SWITHIN. 

The idea is that, no single stone being in a 
position to stand without its fellows on each 
side, the equilibrium of the whole arch is 
very unstable. " The arch never sleeps " 
is the refrain of a delightful novel by Mr. J. 
Meade Falkner, ' The Nebuly Cloud/ which 
I strongly commend to all lovers of good 
fiction. NEL MEZZO. 

[MR. J. BAQNALL also thanked for reply.] 

ii. 88). The poem 'Art in the Market- 
Place,' which begins "Hear ye the sellers 
of lavender ? n was written by E. Urwick, 
the "Poster Poet. 11 M. S. O. 

l3 )- To th e information furnished at the 
latter reference the following details may be 
added. Only three allusions to Col. Skelton, 
or to his wife and family, occur in O'Meara's 
Napoleon in Exile,' 6th ed., 1827, 2 vols. 
From these it may be gathered that Mrs. 
bkelton and family had resided at Long- 
wood (afterwards Napoleon's residence) dur- 
ing a few months in each year for four or 

five years previous to the illustrious captive's 
arrival in the island. Mrs. Skelton is accused 
of having prejudiced the Emperor's mind 
against Longwood on the ground of its 
unhealthiness. Her husband, Col. Skelton, 
was in all likelihood in the service of the 
East India Company, St. Helena being at the 
time one of the Company's possessions. 
He was probably the same as the John 
Skelton who in June, 1814, was returned as 
Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the 6th 
Bengal Native Infantry, a regiment which 
had acquitted itself with distinction at the 
capture of Seringapatam. On 1 November, 
1817, he was gazetted Colonel of the same 
regiment, and on 19 July, 1821, was raised 
to the rank of Major -General. In 1832 
he was returned as being on furlough, but 
after that date, so far as I can ascertain, all 
trace of him disappears. He was probably 
descended from the Skeltons of Cumberland. 


(US. ii. 7, 50, 98). In Mark Noble's ' Bio- 
graphical History of England from the 
Revolution to the End of George I.'s Reign,' 
1806, vol. iii. p. 258, s.v. William Hucks, 
is another version of the second epigram 
which I gave at the last reference : 

The king of Great Britain was reckon'd before, 

The head of the church, by all good Christian 

people : 
But his brewer has added still one title more 

To the rest, and has made him the head of the 

According to Noble, William Hucks was 
" brewer to the household " ; M.P, for 
Abingdon in 1701 and 1714, and for Walling- 
ford in the three following Parliaments ; and 
died 4 November, 1740. 

Noble says : 

" I believe it was him [sic] who was taken notice 
of, when mounted on a beautiful hunter, by- 
Lewis XV. The monarch enquired who he was. A 
witty nobleman replied, 'Sire, un chevalier de 
malt': thus punning upon the French pronunciation 
of Malta, and malt used in brewing." 

William Hucks " was succeeded by his son, 
Robert Hucks, Esq., in several Parliaments, 
as representative for Abingdon." 


The story of the artist committing suicide 
because he had forgotten the stirrups, 
mentioned by V. D. P., is told in connexion 
with many statues. Such a one was current 
about the figure of William III., as an 
equestrian Roman, in the market-place at 
Hull, but it was wholly imaginary, and of 
no great age. W. C. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. n. AUG. 13, mo. 

A statue of George I. not hitherto referred 
to by any correspondent stands now in the 
south-west corner of the Museum of the 
Public Record Office. It is of marble, and 
represents him in Roman costume. For- 
merly it occupied a niche over the judicial 
bench of the Court in the old Rolls House, 
now demolished ; and on its present pedestal 
is a leaden tablet from the foundation stone 
of that building, bearing the royal arms, 
and inscribed " G. R. 1717." 


ii. 85). I should imagine that Pitt's statue 
is the property of the nation, and that the 
recently appointed Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments (Mr. Chas. R. Peers) would be 
the most likely person from whom to seek 
advice concerning its renovation. The statue 
has been described by more than one writer 
as in many respects the finest in London. 
It was engraved in The Penny Magazine of 
30 June, 1832, and in The Mirror of 21 July, 

The interesting reference to the statue 
by Peter Cunningham in his ' Handbook of 
London 8 may perhaps be recalled. He 
states : 

" I was present at its erection with Sir Francis 
Chantrey and my father, who was Chantrey's 
assistant. The statue was placed on its pedestal 
between 7 and 8 in the morning, and while the 
workmen were away at their breakfast, a rope was 
thrown round the neck of the figure, and a vigorous 
attempt made by several sturdy Reformers to pull 
it down. When word of what they were about 
was brought to my father, he exclaimed, with a 
smile upon his face, ' The cramps are leaded, and 
they may pull until doomsday.' The cramps are 
the iron bolts fastening the statue to the pedestal. 
The attempt was soon abandoned." 


FRANCIS PECK (US. ii. 68). Almost all 
biographical and bibliographical publica- 
tions confound the two Francis Pecks. With 
singular unanimity they describe the anti- 
quary as a student at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, but assign his graduation dates 
correctly 1715 and 1727. G. F. R. B.'s 
discovery of two students of the name will 
therefore help to correct many hoary mis- 
statements. Probably the Francis Peck 
about whom he seeks information was also a 
clergyman. In Halkett and Laing's ' Dic- 
tionary * a book entitled " To i^os ayiov 
or, an exercise upon the creation. Written in 
the express words of the sacred text, as an 
attempt to shew the beauty ana sublimity of 
Holy Scripture,' 1 is attributed to Francis 
Peck. It was published in 1717 (Watt says 

1716) rather an early and unlikely date 
for the antiquary to have written it. Again, 
in Halkett and Laing a poetical production, 
" Sighs upon the never enough lamented 
death of Queen Anne. In imitation of 
Milton/* is also assigned to Peck the anti- 
quary. The work is dated 1719, and purports 
on its title-page to be by " a clergyman of 
the Church of England.' 1 Was Peck the 
antiquary a clergyman in 1719 ? Should not 
both works be assigned to Francis Peck of 
Hythe, Kent, and not to his more famous 
namesake who came from Stamford, Lincoln- 
shire ? W. SCOTT. 

114). The railway employe about whom 
L. L. K. inquires was responsible for some 
interesting narratives in a work entitled 
' Ernest Struggles/ or " the Comic Incidents 
and Anxious Moments in connection with the 
Life of a Station Master, by one who endured 
it.'* It was published in 1879 by J. J. Bee- 
croft, Market - Place, Reading. "Ernest 
Struggles " was ot course a pseudonym, and 
it would probably not be of any particular 
interest to L. L. K. to disclose the identity 
of the writer, though doubtless many of the 
older employes on the line could enlighten 

TABLE (US. ii. 9, 69). The passage quoted 
by G. W. from Lord Mahon's ' History of 
England * accords exactly with what Steele 
says in The Guardian (No. 173, 17 Septem- 
ber, 1713). He there prints a letter, 
supposed to have been sent to him by a 
" Chaplain in a noble Family," complaining 
of the writer's being "suffered to retire" 
from table after the toast " Prosperity to the 
Church " because he was regarded as a 
" Censor Morum." 

In The Taller of 23 November, 1710 (No. 
255), Steele had previously brought this 
custom before his readers in a letter from 
another " Chaplain to an honourable Family,'* 
who says : " for not offering to rise at the 
Second Course, I found my Patron and his 
Lady very sullen and out of humour.' 1 In 
this case no reason is given, but it is clear 
from the other, and from what Eachard says 
on the subject of the clergy dining in great 
houses (see ' The Grounds and Occasions oi 
the Contempt of the Clergy and Religion l ), 
that it was not (as one of your correspondents 
alleges) "pure stinginess 3? merely thai 
gave rise to the custom. Eachard, how- 
ever, in the tract referred to says nothing oi 
the custom itself. C. C. B. 

n s. ii. AUG. is, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ii. 17, 115). ID 'Poems of Robert Lloyd/ 
vol. Ixviii. of "The Works of the English 
Poets, by Samuel Johnson," is an amusing 
account of the importance attached in the 
middle of the eighteenth century to door- 
knocker etiquette : 


Thomas perform'd his part with skill. 
Methinks I hear the reader cry, 
His part with skill ? why, You or I, 
Or anybody else, as well 
As Thomas, sure, could ring a bell, 
Nor did I ever hear before 
Of skill in knocking at a door. 
Poor low-liv'd creature ! I suppose, 
Nay, and am sure, you 're one of those 
Who, at what door soe'er they be, 
Will always knock in the same key, 
Thinking that Bell and Knocker too 
Were found out nothing else todo, 
But to inform the house, no doubt. 
That there was somebody without, 
Who, if they might such favour win, 
Would rather chuse to be within. 
But had our servants no more sense, 
Lord ! what must be the consequence ? 

For if there was not to be found 
8cme wholesome difference of sound, 
But the same rap foretold th' approach 
Of him who walk'd, or rode in coach, 
A poor relation now and then 
Might to my lord admittance gain, 
When his good lordship hop'd to see 
Some rascal of his own degree, 
And, what is more unhappy still. 
The stupid wretch who brings a bill 
Might pass through all the motley tribe 
As free as one who brings a bribe. 

Those evils wisely to prevent, 
And root out care and discontent, 
Ev'ry gay smart, who rides behind 
With rose and bag in taste refin'd, 
Must musick fully understand ; 
Have a nice ear and skilful hand ; 
At ev'ry turn be always found 
A perfect connoisseur in sound ; 
Through all the gamut skilful fly, 
Varying his notes, now low, now high, 
According as he shifts his place ; 
Now hoarsely grumbling in the base, 
Now turning tenor, and again 
To treble raising his shrill strain ; 
So to declare, where'er he be, 
His master's fortune and degree, 
By the distinguishing address 
Which he '11 upon the door express." 



COATS AND FAIRIES (11 S. ii. 65). Sixty 
years ago, when I was a child at Brighton, 
my elder brothers wore petticoats, as I did 
myself until we were seven or eight years 

old, at which age we were " breeched." 
I have still in my possession a silhouette of 
us as we appeared in those days (taken on 
the old Chain Pier) ; and other boys were 
attired in a similar manner. I remember 
one of our playmates in Sussex Square being 
kept in petticoats by his mamma until he 
was twelve years old, which caused him much 
chaff from boys ana girls of his own age. 

I daresay some of your readers can corro- 
borate my statement as to boys being 
dressed similarly to girls at that period. I 
never heard that it had anything to do with 
the fairies, but " knicker-bockers " were 
then unknown in England. D. K. T. 

MR. WHITE will . find several instances, 
from Achilles onwards, of the practice of 
putting boys in petticoats, in Clodd's 
4 Tom, Tit, Tot, J where the motive is fully 
explained. Evil spirits are easily deceived. 
I know a Cornishman who, having been 
frightened by one on his walk into the 
country, borrowed a friend's hat and coat 
and reached home again unmolested. 


ALDGATE (US. ii. 85). The succession of the 
Priors can be found from the Patent Rolls. 
The later ones are : 

Thomas Pomeray, died 1481. 

Thomas Percy, elected 1481, resigned 

Richard Charnok, elected 1495, died 1505. 

Thomas Newton, elected 1505, died 1506. 

Thomas Percy, died 1512. 

John Bradwell, elected 1512, died 1524. 

Nicholas Hancoke, elected 1524. 

R. C. F. 

THE FOURTH ESTATE (10 S. xii. 184). 
Another variant of the meaning attached to 
this familiar phrase has just come to my 
notice. In The Gazetteer and New Daily 
Advertiser for 30 January, 1789, was this 
paragraph : 

" Mr. Fox's Board of Commissioners, which Mr. 
Pulteney and Mr. Pitt clamoured against, as a 
Fourth .Estate, was to be responsible to Parliament. 
Mr. Pitt's Fourth Estate, of the Queen and her 
Council, is to have no responsibility." 


Some particulars concerning him, his 
wife and children, and one of his grandsons 
are given in Cansick's ' Epitaphs of Middle- 
sex,' 1869, i. 11, 15. He is mentioned 
several times in Hearne's ' Collectanea * 
(O.H.S.). W. C. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. n. AUG. 13, 1910. 

HOUSE (11 S. ii. 29, 89). In Sketch of 
7 October, 1896, reference is made to " some 
capital measured drawings of York Water- 
gate " which had appeared recently in 
The Builder. Two reproductions of old 
engravings showing the Water Tower are also 
given ' York Buildings in 1795 ' and ' The 
Stairs at York Buildings in 1795.'- The 
latter is similar to the one in ' Old and New 
London ? (iv. 103), which is there described 
as "From a print dated 1780." 


" PORTYGNE " (US. ii. 88). This word is 
not correctly transcribed : it should be with 
a u instead of the n. This gives " Portygue,'* 
and Cotgrave, 1650, has " Portugaise : f. 
A Portegue ; a golden coine worth about 
iij7. xs. sterl.,' v which makes things clear 

" Portingue " was a spelling of " Por- 
tague," a Portuguese gold coin, " often kept 
as an heirloom or keepsake " (' N.E.D.,' vii., 
which under portigue, portingue, 1144, refers 
to portague, 1139). See also Halliwell. 

W. C. B. 
[Several other correspondents thanked for replies.] 

SOUTH AFRICAN SLANG (11 S. ii. 63). 
With regard to "scoff " = eat, it is not in- 
apposite to draw attention to the notes 
at 9 S. x. 397, 456, where the late MR. JAS. 
PLATT suggested a very early precursor of 
the word in the Gothic fragment : ' ' skapei 
jah matjan jah drigkan." MR. PLATT also 
adduced a quotation of 1785 for skoft, a 
word too alien, probably, for notice in the 
' N.E.D.* H. P. L. 

TENNYSON'S ' MARGARET * (11 S. i. 507; 
ii. 94). Capt. Marryat, who, as M. N. G. 
remarks at the latter reference, was un- 
doubtedly an authority on sea-fights, was 
clearly of opinion that a long cannonade 
caused the wind to fall, and brought on a 
calm. In addition to the passage in ' Newton 
Forster,' he states that the same effect 
happened during a fight between two frigates, 
which he describes in the early chapters of 
' Settlers in Canada.' T. F. D. 

" SEERSUCKER " (11 S. ii. 69). If H. P. L. 
will consult the second edition of Yule's 
' Hobson-Jobson,* p. 708 b, he will find this 
word, with a suggested derivation. Further 
information about the nature of this cloth 
and the derivation of the word will be wel- 
come. EMERITUS. 


Frederick William Maitland : a Biographical Sketch. 
By H. A. L. Fisher. (Cambridge University 

As a biographer of Maitland, Mr. Fisher is ham- 
pered by some disabilities, as he frankly confesses 
in his Prefatory Note. The chief of these is that 
he is an Oxford man, and never came under the 
influence of Maitland as a student or colleague at 
Cambridge. The memoir has but 179 pages, and 
we only wish that the friends who have added to 
it letters and details could have been induced to 
write at greater length. A chapter from Dr. Verrall 
such as he contributed to the Life of Jebb would 
have been most enlightening. 

The memoir, however, is sufficient to show the 
alert intelligence and unwearied pursuit of scholar- 
ship for its own sake which made Maitland so 
remarkable as an example and an inspiration to a 
host of scholars of all sorts. His devotion to Year- 
Books lasted to the end, and those who had the 
privilege of receiving letters from him or talking 
with him will recall the delightful way in which he 
would bring forth gems he had abstracted from his 
quarrying of matter regarded by the ordinary man 
as hopelessly dull. Never was learning more lightly 
worn, or more modestly. Even those who have 
no interest in such labours as the foundation of the 
Selden Society, or the complicated subject of the 
early manor in England, will appreciate the flashes 
of humour and epigram recorded in these pages. 
Thus at the Cambridge Union Maitland exclaimed, 
" I would I were a vested nuisance ! Then I should 
be sure of being protected by the whole British 
Public. " To Henry Sidgwick and Prof. Vinogradoff 
Maitland clearly owed much, and his tributes to 
them are characteristic of him. His writing was 
admirably vivid and effective, though he disclaimed 
that "conscious theory or method of style" of 
which Mr. Fisher speaks, and which leads, we 
think, occasionally to over- elaboration in his pages. 

Mr. Fisher has certainly made the most of his 
material. Our chief wonder is that, as an accom- 
plished historian, he does not realize that a biographj 
requires an Index. At the end we find only a 
' Bibliographical Note ' of further sources of infor- 
mation concerning Maitland. This is much to the 
point, but the absence of an Index is regrettable. 
A few notes at the bottom of the page concerning 
various people and details mentioned would alsc 
we think, be desirable. If specialists would take 
little more trouble, they might reach the larger 
public which at present ignores their ministratk 

WE are glad to see, besides the political article 
in The Fortnightly, several interesting studies in 
history and biography. ' Talleyrand,' by Mr. W. S. 
Lilly ; ' Byron and Mary Cha worth,' by Mr. Andrew 
Lang ; * He;e'sippe Moreau,' by Mr. Orlo Williams ; 
'John Calvin and Calvinism,' by Prof. J. M. Sloan ; 
' The Phrenix of Spain,' which means Lope de 
Vega, by Helen H. Colvill ; and 'The Extrava- 
gances of the Emperor Elagabalus,' by J. Stuart 
Hay. Such papers as these are far preferable to 
the one-sided politics and the eternal statistics 
which flourish in the magazines like weeds. Mr. 
P. A. Vaile, in 'The Soul of Golf,' explains, as 
usual, that all the experts have no idea how their 
shots are secured. We have seen Mr. Vaile's views 

n s. ii. AUG. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


before in the press, so they lack novelty. Prof 
Marcus Hartog publishes an address 'On the 
Teaching of " Nature Study," ' which is lively, but 
does not always command our assent. The Pro- 
fessor has this foot-note : " Thanks to Prof. Arm- 
stron^'s enlightened counsels, botany has been 
recently introduced into some of the great English 
public schools for boys." " Recently introduced " ! 
Temple introduced botany at Rugby before Prof. 
Armstrong was heard of. 

The last article in the number is fascinating. 
Mr Basil Tozer has discovered on Exmoor an old 
man who has spent years in ' Tracking the Wild 
Red Deer,' not as an aid to hunters, but tor pure 
pleasure. Mr. Tozer stayed with him in his cottage, 
being the only man who has done so since Sir 
Samuel Baker, and he gives some idea of the 
expertness of. this Sherlock Holmes of the wild 

The National Review opens with its usual vigorous 
denunciations of the Government, including special 
reference to Germany and the question of the Navy, 
considered also in another article. JThe editor per- 
mits himself, or a contributor, to speak of "the 
blatant blatherskite at the Exchequer." Mr. St. Loe 
Strachey dwells on the success of a striking move 
in 4 How We raised the Surrey Veteran Reserve.' 
' Some Experiences of a British Officer in South 
Africa in the Early Fifties ' has sundry interesting 
details from a diary, combined with some history, 
which is dull. Capt. Parish, the writer of the 
diary, mentions "that most abominable of all 
liquors, Cape Smoke, a beverage none but a South 
African can possibly drink." What this liquor is 
we do not know. Mr. A. Wedderburu has a brief 
but well-written account of 'The Homes and 
Haunts of Ruskin ' ; and " An Old Etonian " imparts 
a good deal of human interest to ' In the Steerage,' 
mindful, perhaps, of Stevenson's similar experi- 
ences. Mrs. Huth Jackson has a very sensible 
plea for 'Menial Work,' suggesting that children 
really enjoy work about the house of various kinds, 
and should be taught to do it. "A Casual Ob- 
server" has 'Some Notes on India,' which are 
striking. A few more articles of this sort, giving 
information as to distant parts of the Empire, 
would be really, we think, more useful than the 
strongly partisan discussions of home politics which 
we meet everywhere. Miss Violet Markham is 
against Woman's Suffrage, and her article, ' A Pro- 
posed Woman's Council,' puts forward an alterna- 
tive means of getting women's views adequate 
consideration in Parliament. It is suggested that 
the resolutions of this Council " would inevitably 
mould and determine legislation when sent up to 
the House of Commons." The inevitability can- 
not, unfortunately, without the direct force gained 
by votes, be predicted ; but the futility of the 
scheme can be predicted by an examination of the 
practical results achieved by various Royal Com- 

The, Burlington Magazine opens with the an- 
nouncement that Dr. Bode has withdrawn his 
name from its consultative committee on account 
of the views expressed concerning the wax bust of 
Flora. Dr. Bode's own letter in German is given, 
and we think the editorial comments on the situation 
are perfectly just, representing, however, a view 
which, human nature oeing what it is, is not easily 
maintained. Mention is next made of the New 
Turner Gallery and of The Contemporary Art 

Society, which, we hope, will be able to do some- 
thing to counteract "the inadequacy of the Ad- 
ministration of the Chantrey Bequest." 

Mr. L. Binyon begins a study of 'Chinese Paint- 
ings in the British Museum,' with illustrations. 
Mr. Claude Phillips deals with ' Two Pictures at 
the Hermitage,' a Carpaccio (according to him) 
and a Palma Vecchio. His remarks on the latter 
painter are frank and illuminating. Mr. G. F. 
Laking concludes his searching study of the Noel 
Paton collection of armour, which is well illustrated ; 
and Mr. Sidney Colvin considers ' Drawings of the 
French School' in the Salting Collection, which, 
if they do not hold a leading place in it, are yet so 
admirable as to deserve the attention of every 
art-lover. Mr. Roger Fry begins a notice of ' The 
Munich Exhibition of Mohammedan Art,' the rela- 
tions of which to the West he sketches in his usual 
lucid and interesting style. ' Notes on Various 
Works of Art ' include an account of English medi- 
aeval alabaster work, - the chief quarry for the 
material having been, it appears, near Derby, at 

At the end of the number, under ' Art in- 
America,' pictures in the Robert Hoe Collection 
are noticed by a contributor whose views as to- 
two ascriptions do not, it is pointed out, coincide- 
with the editorial judgment. It is this strict 
standard of connoisseurship which makes The 
Burlington so valuable as a guide, and once again 
we congratulate the editors on the firmness with 
which they insist on expert judgment. 


MB. BERTRAM DOBELL'S Catalogue contains 
a good general collection. Under London is ani 
extra-illustrated copy of Thompson's ' London 
Bridge,' 1827, 21. 10s. There are early editions of 
Tennyson and Thackeray. Among rarities is a 
large-paper copy of Milton's ' Pro Populo Angli- 
cano Defensio,' folio, 1651, a presentation copy 
with inscription in Milton's handwriting, original 
calf, 90f. Mr. Dobell tells us that only one other 

S'esentation copy is known. Under Sir Thomas 
ore's Works is the first collected edition, fine 
copy, 1557, 40Z. Manuscripts from the collection 
of Sir Thomas Phillipps include Alabaster's 
' Elisaeus,' a Latin poem, folio, calf, sixteenth 
century, 10Z. 10s. This poem is mentioned by 
Spenser, but has never been printed. It contains a 
review of the principal events of the reign of 
Elizabeth as well as of earlier reigns. Johnson 
speaks of the author in high terms. 

Mr. Francis Edwards sends Part II. of his 
Catalogue of Topography of Great Britain and 
Ireland. This section is devoted to London. 
Under Ackermann is a handsome copy of the 
' Microcosm,' in full red morocco, 3 vols., 1811, 
30Z. ; and under Besant is 'Mediaeval London,' 
2 vols., 4to, 1906, 21. Boydell's ' Scenery of the 
Thames,' 2 vols., folio, full calf, 1794-6, is 12Z. 10s. 
Directories include ' Mogg's Omnibus Guide,' also 
the ' New Hackney Coach and Cabriolet Fares,' 
1845, 3s. ; and Robson's ' Street Key,' 1833, 
12s. Under Evans's Supper Rooms is an original 
programme containing the words of 126 songs 
sung there, 1865, 2s. There is a complete set of the 
Huguenot Society, 131. 10s. Other items include 
Jesse's ' London,' 4 vols., original cloth, 61. ; 
Lysons's ' Environs,' 45Z. ; Rowlandson's ' Volun- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. n. AUG. is, 1910. 

teers,' 1799, 34Z. ; the sixth and best edition of 
Stow's ' Survey,' 2 vols., large folio, 1754-5, 11. 15s. ; 
and Tallis's ' Views,' 79 parts, original wrappers, 
bound in 4 vols., with all the interesting advertise- 
ments, Tallis, 1838, 4Z. The rare treatise pub- 
lished in 1641 on the subject of bringing water to 
London is 4Z. 4s. ; and an extra-illustrated 
Wheatley's ' London,' extended to 6 vols., half 
green morocco, 1891, 161. There is an early and 
clean copy of Wilkinson's ' Londina Illustrata,' 
2 vols., 1819, 61. 5s. Among maps is that of Ralph 
Agas, 1874, Is. Qd. This reproduction contains 
a biography of Agas by Overall and an account 
of early maps, which will be helpful In settling 
the dates of them. Among the views is a fine 
copperplate of the Adelphi, by Pastorini, 1770, 
11. 10s. Chelsea includes the Botanic Gardens, 
the Hospital, the College, and the old church ; 
while under Clapham are six coloured views of the 
Common by Powell, 1825, 51. Under Garra way's 
Coffee-House is an original water-colour, mounted, 
10s. Garraway's is celebrated as the first house 
where tea was retailed in England, " from sixteen 
to fifty shillings the pound " (' Curiosities of 
Literature '). There are many views of Hackney. 
Under Horse Guards is a fine large coloured 
aquatint by Stadler after Shepperd, 1816, 4J. 
Under London Bridge is Martin s collection of 
rare prints, reproduced on India paper, in 1 vol., 
oblong folio, 21. 

The Addenda of Books include The Annual 
Register ' to 1908, 157 vols., full calf gilt, 301. ; 
Bentley's Miscellany, complete set, 64 vols., 
half -calf, 161. ; " Gentleman's Magazine Library," 
28 vols., 11. 10s. ; the Edition de Luxe of Ainger's 
' Lamb,' 12 vols., cloth, 51. 15s. ; and Lodge's 

* Portraits,' large paper, 12 vols., royal 4to, whole 
morocco, 1823, 14Z. Mr. Edwards has also fine 
collections of the publications of Learned Societies. 

Mr. William Glaisher's Catalogue 372 is a supple- 
mentary one of remainders at greatly reduced 
prices. We note a few : Budge's ' The Paradise or 
Garden of the Holy Fathers,' 2 vols., 4s. Qd. ; Clinch's 

* Bloomsbury,' 2s. Qd. ; Menpes's ' Brittany, 6s. Qd. ; 
Rimbault's ' Soho,' 2s. ; reprint of the First Folio 
text with Introduction byChurton Collins, 13 vols., 
20s. ; Herbert Spencer's ' Autobiography,' 5s. Qd. ; 

* Almond of Loretto,' 3s. Qd. ; Memoir of Lord 
Bramwell, 2s. ; and Sargeaunt's ' Westminster 
School Annals,' 2s. 

Mr. J. Jacobs's Catalogue 53 contains Stockdale's 

* Shakespeare,' with extra plates, 6 vols., large 4to, 
red morocco, 1807, 10Z. 10s. ; and Byron, first editions 
in one volume, 1813-16, 1QI. ' The Bride of Abydos ' 
has the errata-slip, only two other copies, Mr. 
Jacobs says, being known with this. There is a 
book from Joseph Knight's library: Bouchet's 

* Aquitaine,' bought by him, as he states in a note, 
at the Kenelm Digby Sale. Pickering's edition of 
Spenser, 5 vols., half-calf, is 21. 12s. Qd. ; and Jeremy 
Taylor's 'Dissuasive from Popery,' third edition, 
1664, 11. Is. Many copies of the latter were 
destroyed in the Great Fire. A set of ' The Jewish 
Encyclopaedia,' 12 vols., 4to, 1907, is 12/. There 
are gome purchases from the library of Marion 
Crawford, many of them containing his book-plate 
and autograph. 

Collectors of works relating to Burns will find 
much of interest in Mr. Alexander W. Macphail's 
Edinburgh Catalogue 104. There is also an oil 
painting of the poet's cottage, executed during his 

lifetime. Bewick items include the ' Fables,' 1792, 
9s. Qd. The first edition of 'The Poet at the 
Breakfast Table,' 1872, is II. 10s. ; and the first 
edition of Lytton's ' Lucile,' 1860, 10s. Scott items 
include a collection of a hundred engraved portraits 
and views to illustrate the life of Scott, II. 5.s. 
There are works under Economics, Highlands, and 
Jacobite, and reports of trials, &c. 

Mr. Russell Smith's Catalogue 74 contains 
Topographical Engravings and Old Maps relating 
to the English Counties. Most of the items are 
'cheap, so that for a few shillings collectors can be 
supplied with many of their wants. The list is 
alphabetically arranged under counties, so that 
reference is easy. Among old maps are Speed's, 

Messrs. Sotheran have sent Part II. of their 
Clearance Catalogue, consequent upon their removal 
from 37 to 43, Piccadilly. This ranges from G to P. 
The two parts concain nearly six thousand items. 
Under Handel is a fine set of his musical works, 
edited by Arnold, 41 vols., 1785-97, 181. 18s. Under 
Harleian Society are the Heralds' Visitations. 
There is a complete set of the Journal of the 
Hellenic Society. A large-paper copy of Hodgson's 
' History of Northumberland,' 6 vols., royal 4to, 
half-morocco, uncut, is 36/. ; a unique set of Mrs. 
Jameson's works on Christian Art, extra-illus- 
trated with 140 original drawings, 6 vols. , crushed 
blue levant, 1848-64, 521. 10s. ; an extra-illustrated 
copy of the 1882 edition of Jesse's ' Selwyn,' 221. 10s. ; 
and a set of Russell Smith's "Library of Old 
Authors," 53 vols., half-morocco, 121. 12s. There is 
a treasure for those interested in the environs of 
London, namely, Lysons's ' Historical Account,' the 
six volumes extended to fourteen by the insertion 
of nearly 2,000 additional illustrations, comprising 
maps, plans, original drawings, and engravings, 
130J. There is also a choice extra - illustrated 
set on large paper of ' Magna Britannia,' 6 vols. 
in 14, crimson morocco, 521. 10s. A beautiful copy, 
with the plates " de"couvertes," of Montesquieu's 
' Le Temple de Gnide,' proofs before letters, crushed 
levant, 1772, is 75/. The first complete English 
translation of Plato, by Sydenham and Taylor, 
4 vols., 1804, is 4J. 10s. This was printed at the 
expense of the Duke of Norfolk, who locked up 
nearly the whole edition in his house, where it 
remained until long after his decease. 

', [Notices of other Catalogues held over.] 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

J. W. JARVIS ("Leases of 99 and 999 Years ").- 
Much has appeared on this subject in 'N. & Q.' ; 
see, for instance, 9 S. xii. 25, 134, 193, 234, 449, 513 ; 
10 S. i. 32. 

W. M. ("St. Leodegarius"). Anticipated ante 
p. 112. 

CORRIGENDA Ante, p. 118, col. 2, 1. 28, fc 
"Utenham" read Utenheim; 1. 34, for "Schl 
Buseck " read Schloss Birseck. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 34. 

NOTES: Date of Saint- EVremond's Birth, 141 Earliest 
Pirated Edition of 'Hudibras,' 142 " Unecungga " : 
"Ynetunga," 143 Jacobite Garters The Warden of 
Wadham and Matrimony The Order of Merit" Sweet 
Lavender," 144 "Sorning" The Neglected Old Father, 
145 Robert Singleton " Ora " = " Noria " Burton's 
' Anatomy ' : Quotation in Reprints, 146. 

QUERIES :' Pride and Prejudice' 'Vertimmus' Sir 
John Ivory Buddha in Christian Art^' The Diaboliad ' 
Wendell Holmes and 'N. & Q.,' 147 Directory, c. 1660 

" Usona"=U.S.A. Trial in 1776 Obvention Bread 
'Arno Miscellany,' 1784 Adling Street, Bernard's 
Castle -Mazes, 148 Vicars of Dartmouth Apple Tree 
flowering in Autumn Cocker J. M. Crosby R. Delisle 
Seventeenth - Century Clergy " Collins "=Letter of 
Thanks Lardiner at the Coronation Vavasour Surname 
"High Days, Holidays, and Bonfire Nights," 149 T. 
Kingston Jacob Henriquez and his Seven Daughters 
"If you ask for salt, you ask for sorrow " Storrington 
" Blest He and She "Bath and Henrietta Maria, 150. 

BEPLIES : Inscription at Hyeres, 15J) Edward Hatton, 
151 Duchess of Palata Amaneuus as a Christian Name 
Sir S. Duncombe Moses and Pharaoh's Daughter, 152 

Chideock Denny and Windsor Families, 153 
'Drawing-Room Ditties' English Sepulchral Monu- 
ments " Leap in the Dark " "Denizen " : " Foreign " : 
-"Stranger," 154 "The Holy Crows," Lisbon, 155 The 
King's Butler Red Lion Square Obelisk Stone in 
Pentpnville Road John Brooke, Fifteenth - Century 
Barrister "Dispense Bar," 156 E.I.C.'s Marine Service 
Manor : Sac : Soke China and Japan General Haug, 
157 Folly, 158 French Church Registers Dean Alford's 
Poems Liardet>-Capt. R. J. Gordon, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:-' Hungary in the Eighteenth 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THERE is considerable uncertainty as to the 
xact date of Saint-^vremond's birth, and 
it may be doubted whether he knew that 
date himself. Thus, in a letter written by 
him in the name of Duchess Mazarin, in 
1696, he gives his age as 80 (date of birth 
1616, Giraud's Edition, iii. 317) ; in one 
letter to Ninon de Lenclos, of 1698, he 
gives his age as 100 (date of birth 1598, 
ibid., p. 394) ; and in another letter of the 
same year as 88 (date of birth 1610, ibid., 
p. 400) ; while in a letter of the same year 
to Barbier, the publisher, he says he is 85 
(date of birth 1613, ibid., p. 431). 

Silvestre, his physician, was in the same 
tate of uncertainty. In his preface to 
Saint-Evremond's works, dated 1 April, 1705 
(see London Edition of 1705), he says : 

" Saint-iTvremond died on the 8/20 Sept., 1703. 

...What was his exact age has never been as- 
certained, but according to the best calculations 
made, he cannot have been less than 92 years old," 
which would place the date in 1611. 

Desmaizeaux, Saint-Evremond's acquain- 
tance and biographer, is more specific. In 
the first edition of the Life, prefixed to the 
Amsterdam Edition of the works issued 
in 1706, he states definitely that Saint- 
Evremond was born on 1 April, 1614 ; but 
he must afterwards have seen reason to 
change his mind, as in the Edition of the Life 
prefixed to the London edition of the works 
of 1709, the date is altered to 1 April, 1613 ; 
and this date has since been accepted in 
most biographical notices. 

Unfortunately, I have not been able to 
discover on what grounds Desmaizeaux 
arrived at his conclusions. Though devoid 
of any particular gifts as a writer, he was a 
careful compiler, and had evidently taken 
great pains to obtain exact particulars as to 
Saint-Evremond's birth and parentage, 
placing himself, for that purpose, in com- 
munication with the Abbe Fraguier, editor, 
or one of the editors, of the Journal des 
Savants, a man of learning, and about to 
become a member of the French Academy. 
Fraguier, in turn, placed himself in com- 
munication with one of the professors at 
Caen, and after some months, on 14 August, 
1707, wrote to Desmaizeaux as follows : 

" Here is a memo, which one of my friends has 
sent me from Caen touching his [S.-12. s] family and 
the year of his birth ; and this is all that a man of 
great industry, who is in close touch with the 
people of M. de Saint-lSvremond's country, has 
been able to obtain for you. As to the certificate 
of baptism, it has not been discovered." Birch 
MSS. British Museum, vol. 283, letter signed 
"Denet," dated 11 June, 1706, and letters of 
Fraguier, dated 28 November, 1706, and 14 August, 

The memo, in question I have not been 
able to discover. It is not, so far as I can 
trace and I have looked carefully in the 
nine volumes which contain the Desmaizeaux 
MSS. in the Birch Collection ; nor has M. 
Daniels, who seems to have gone over the 
same ground, been able to discover it either 
(see Appendix A, p. 147 of ' Saint -Evremond 
en Angleterre,' 1907). The edition of 
Desmaizeaux's Life as published in 1709 
differs in certain particulars from that 
published in 1706, and though the Life in the 
edition of 1709 is dated 15 November, 1706, 
yet I have no doubt, from internal evidence, 
that Desmaizeaux had utilized the memo, 
of 1707 in making some at least of the 
changes in question. But whether the 
memo, had helped him to change 1 April, 
1614, to 1 April, 1613, it is impossible to say, 

If, then, w r e accept the latter date as the 
real date of birth, we do so on Desmaizeaux's 
ipse dixit alone. Nor did that satisfy 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. n. A. 20, 1919. 

Giraud, the most learned and elaborate of 
Saint-^vremond's biographers. He throws 
the birthday back to 1 April, 1610, assigning for 
reason the letter to Ninon of 1698, in which 
S.-]. says he was then 88 (' (Euvres melees 
de S.-^l.,' par Charles Giraud, 1865, tome i. 
p. xiii.). But, as already stated, S.-E.'s 
own letters give an uncertain sound ; and 
also it is pretty clear that he took an old 
man's pride in bearing his years so well. 

Giraud wrote in 1865. Three years later, 
Leopold Quenault or Quenault, the name 
is given either way a local antiquary and 
administrator, consulted what remained of 
the registers of the Commune of Saint - 
Denis-le-Gast, and discovered the following 
entry : 

" On 5 January, 1614, was baptized a son of the 
noble and puissant lord Charles de Saint-Denis de 
Hambye, chdtelain of Saint-Denis-le-Gast, and the 
said son was not named." 

On this Quenault judiciously observes that 
if S.-^.'s mother had brought him into the 
world on 1 April, 1613, she could not well 
have produced another child by the 5th of the 
following January ; so that the former date 
is rendered at least improbable. Proceeding 
further, Quenault found the following entry 
in the register : 

" On the 20th day of January, 1616, was baptized 
a son of the noble sire of Saint-Denis, lord and 
chdtelain of the place, and was named Charles by 
the noble and puissant lord, Charles of Matignon, 
Count of Thorigny, Governor of Normandy ; and 
the godmother was the lady wife of the Baron de 
Honmel, daughter of the lord of Carrisy the whole 
in the presence of several gentlemen and noble 

Now it seems just possible that S.-3iJ. was 
born in 1613 ; baptized, but without all the 
due formalities say for sudden sickness 
on 5 January, 1614 ; and the ceremony 
completed with fuller rites the presence of 
the Governor* of the province, &c. on 
20 January, 1616. But such long delays 
seem improbable. It appears to be more 
likely that the Charles christened in 1616 
was born at a later date than 1613, and 
a fortiori, at a later date than Giraud' s 1610. 
Then comes the question of the identity of 
the " Charles " of 1616 ; and with regard to 
this, it is to be observed that, so far as is 
known, the only son of the chdtelain of Saint- 
Denis named Charles was S.-6. Thus, be- 
yond the probability that it was he who was 

* The Count of Thorigny had been recently ap- 
pointed. He made his official entry into Caen in 
1614. See G. Vanel's 'Une grande Ville au dix- 
septieme Siecle ' (Paris, 1910), p. 44. The christen- 
ing may have been delayed to secure his presence. 

christened on 20 January, 1616, we are in 
the dark. 

Nor do subsequent dates help us much* 
The first precise date which we afterwards 
come across in Desmaizeaux's narrative is 
that of the siege of Landrecy, when S.-li). 
got his company. This was in 1637, a date 
when, according to Giraud, S.-fi. would be 
27 ; according to Desmaizeaux himself, 24 ; 
and, if we take 1616 as the date of birth, 
21 or 22 ; and all these ages are possible, 
for soldiers began young in those days. 

Sainte-Beuve, whom few things escaped, 
reviewing Giraud's book in 1868, refers to 
Quenault's investigations which will be 
found recorded in the Bulletin de la Societi 
des Antiquaires de Normandie, January, 
February, and March, 1868, tome v. p. 226, 
&c. but came to no conclusion (see article 
on S.-E. in * Nouveaux Lundis,* vol. xiii., 
edition of 1870, p. 428). And where Sainte- 
Beuve hesitated, we may, I think, hesitate 
too. Personally, I incline to think S.-E. 
was born somewhere between 1614 and 1616. 
As to the 1st of April, it seems to rest on no 
evidence that we can check. Even in 
Fraguier's time parochial records were known 
to be imperfect, and to have been badly kept, 
and I doubt if further light will be derived 
from them. FRANK T. MARZIALS. 

9, Ladbroke Square, W. 




IN the most up-to-date biographical account 
of Samuel Butler it is said : 

"On 11 Nov., 1662, was licensed, and early in 
1663 appeared, a small anonymous volume entitled 
* Hudibras : the first part written in the time of 
the late wars.' This is the first genuine edition, 
but the manuscript appears to have been pirated, 
for an advertisement says that ' a most false and 
imperfect copy' of the poem is being circulated 
without any printer's or publisher's name. Exactly 
a year later a second part appeared, also heralded 
by a piracy." ' D. N. B.,' vol. viii. p. 75. 

The concluding words indicate that, in 
the case of the first as well as of the second 
part, the pirated appeared before the 
authorized edition ; and the occurrence 
is so strange that fuller details should prove 
interesting. A little confusion on the point 
may be caused at the outset by the fact that 
the advertisement of the piracy of the first 
part appeared in The Kingdom^ s Intelligencer 
.... From Monday, Decem. 29. to Monday, 
January 5. 1662; but that is the old 
civil year, and the issue in reality was the 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


earliest of 1663. It appears upon inspection 
that The Kingdome's Intelligencer was num- 
bered weekly, and in 1661 the numbers ran 
from 1 to 53, the last being " from Monday, 
Decemb. 23. to Monday, Decemb. 30. 
1661."- No. 1 of 1662 is dated "From 
Monday, Decemb. 30. to Monday, lanuary 6. 
1661 " ; but in the British Museum Collec- 
tion (vol. 58) it is bound in the first volume 
for 1662, and immediately after the No. 1 for 
1663, which is "From Monday, Decem. 29, 
to Monday, January 5. 1662." It was on 
p. 9 of the latter (which, of course, is the 
earliest issue of 1663) that the following 
advertisement appeared : 

"There is stol'n abroad a most false imperfect 
Coppy of a Poem (called Hudibras] without name 
either of Printer or Bookseller, as fit for so lame 
and Spurious an Impression. The true and perfect 
Edition printed by the Authors Originall is sold by 
Richard Marriott under St. Dunstan's Church in 
Fleet-street ; that other nameless. Impression is a 
Cheat, and will but abuse the buyer as well as the 
Author, whose Poems deserves to have falri into 
better hands." 

Posterity decidedly has endorsed the 
compliment paid in these last words ; and 
that is not the only unusual feature of this 
very striking advertisement. 



IN the oldest copy of the ' Tribal Hidage,' 
that, namely, which was written in the 
Harley MS. No. 3271, about the year 1000, 
there appears the uncouth land-name 
unecungga. In the Cotton MS. Claudius 
D II., of the twelfth century, we find the 
more intelligible ynetunga. Another British 
Museum MS., Hargreave, No. 313, of the 
thirteenth century, yields wnetunga, in 
which the initial y is displaced by the runic 
letter for w. The MSS. are surprisingly 
corrupt, but they agree in assessing the 
district at 1,200 hides. 

Dr. Birch, to whom we are indebted for 
many details (cf. ' Cartularium Saxonicum,' 
iii. 672), suggested that "Unecungga" was 
either near the Onny, in Shropshire, or in the 
Hundred of Ongar, in Essex. Mr. Brown- 
bill, in ' N. & Q.' in 1901 (8 June and 3 Aug.) 
identified it with Wanating, i.e., Wantage. 
But none of these is suitable. The ending is 
clearly gd, " region," as in " Ohtna ga " and 
" Oxiia ga " ; and the u and c* of the earliest 

* The letters c and t have collided in MS. since 
the third century (De Vaines, * Dictionnaire 
raisonne de Diplomatique,' 1774, ii. 382). They 
have been confounded one with the other since the 
thirteenth (ibid., i. 216). 

manuscript form may be amended to y and 
respectively. Grammatical form is wanting, 
however ; and even if we inserted the a 
of the genitive plural (as if ynetunga ga)^ 
we could not assign a meaning to -unga* 
There are reasons for supposing that 
" ynetun " represents " yneta." In some 
tenth-century A.-S. MSS. the letter a was 
first formed like u, and then finished by a 
stroke set transversely across the two limbs 
of that letter ; vide B. Thorpe's facsmilei 
of the Corpus MS. of the ' Saxon Chronicle,* 
where half-a-dozen instances of this a may 
be found in the last eight lines of annal 922. 
This peculiarity led to mistakes in copying, 
the most frequent being ti and it for a.* 
Another possible result of the careless 
crossing of the limbs of the u would be the 
expansion of the supposed compendium 
1 u l as un. This, I believe, is the error that 
lies before us, and for ynetun ga I would 
substitute Yneta ga, provisionally. This- 
form, though grammatical, is obscure. 

We will now inquire what region of 
1,200 hides appears to have been omitted 
from the list. In his ' Historia Ecclesias- 
tica,' IV. xiv., Bede allots 1,200 hides to the 
Wight. But this does not seem probable. 
The Wight contains only 94,068 acres,, 
whereas Anglesey, which Bede reported to 
be assessed at 960 hides (II. ix.), has 
176,630 acres. In one case 78 acres go to 
the hide, in the other 184. Both islands are 
agricultural, and whatever may be said for 
the fruitfulness of the Wight, there can be 
no question of the fertility of Anglesey. It 
was anciently the granary of North Wales, 
and its name in Welsh is Mdn mam Gymru, 
"Mona the mother of Cambria." More- 
over, the list includes the Isle of Wight 
under the name of Wihtgara [land], and 
assesses it at 600 hides. I conclude, there- 
fore, that Bede fell into some error in this 

Speaking of the Jutes (I. xv.), Bede dis- 
criminates between " ea gens quse Uectam 
tenet insulam " and " ea, quse. . . .lutarum 
natio nominatur, posita contra ipsam in- 
sulam. .." We have here, I believe, the 
explanation of Bede's mistake : either the 
hidage is that of the whole lutna cyn ( ' Saxon 
Chron.,* a, scr. ca. 1100), and so includes the 
island ; or it excludes the island, and is the 
assessment of the Jutes of the mainland only. 
I assume the latter to be the case, and I 
would assign the 1,200 hides to the lutarum 

* See Archiv fiir cdtische Lexicographic, ii. 185, 
where I give the following instances with their 
documentation : tibir : abir ; tingle : angle ; giti : gai. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IT. AUG. 20, 1910. 

prouincia (' H.E.,' u.s.), the Eota land of the 
A.-S. version. Florence of Worcester uses 
Bede's phrase in one place (i. 276). In 
another (ii. 44) he says the New Forest 
" lingua Anglorum * Ytene * nuncupatur," 
and "Ytene" here equals the older Ytena 
{y}, which is the weak genitive plural. 

Our correction of Bede, then, taken 
together with Florence's report, gives us 
Ytena [gd or land], MCC. hidarum. Now this 
assessment ought to appear in the ' Tribal 
Hidage.' The Jutish name, as we have just 
now seen, maintained itself down to the 
twelfth century ; and Jutish autonomy 
survived until the end of the ninth, if we may 
believe John of Wallingford, who reports 
that JElbert, son of Aistulf, the last king 
of the Jutes of Wight, died in the reign of 
King Alfred. For these reasons I regard the 
corrupt words we are considering as a record 
of the Jutes of Hampshire, and instead of 
"yneta ga," the provisional emendation 
arrived at above, I read Ytena gd, i.e., the 
qa of the Jutes. There are many instances 
of metathesis like ytena : yneta,* and it is 
noteworthy (1) that " Ynetun ga " comes 
next before " Aro saetna [land]," i.e., Dorset- 
shire, in the list ; and (2) that the other 
land -names in gd therein are Jutish also. 

JACOBITE GARTERS. In the First Series 
of ' N. & Q.' (viii. 586) is a query relative 
to the origin of Jacobite garters, which I 
have never seen answered. 

Only two years after the revolt of Charles 
Edward in 1745-6 The Gentleman's Magazine 
(xviii. 461) published an anonymous ' Essay 
on the Garter,' at the close of which is 
suggested the origin of the Jacobite 
garter : 

" After having so lavishly spoken in praise of the 
garter, I cannot but disapprove of it, when it is 
made the distinguishing badge of a party. It ought 
to be like the caestus of Venus, so beautifully 
described in my motto, and not to be daubed with 
plaid, and crammed with treason. I am credibly 
informed, that garters of this sort were first intro- 
duced in the late rebellion by some female aid de 
camps ; and whether or not such ladies are to be 
imitated, is worth the serious consideration of the 
virtuous part of the fair sex." 


Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

* E.g., Argabafite : Arbogaste ('HistoriaBrittonum,' 
cap. xxix.) ; Bedenestedun : Benedestedun (' Domes- 
day Book,' ii. 54a, 85b) ; Goronilla : Gonorilla (' The 
Red Book of Hergest,' ed. Rhys and Evans, ii. 65) ; 
<amphilabi : amphibali (' Vita Scti. Columbse,' ed. 
Reeves, p. 113). 

MONY. A few days ago I received a letter 
from a friend in which he tells me that there 
is a Railway Act that contains a provision 
authorizing the Warden of Wadham to 
marry. My friend feels certain of the fact, 
as he remembers turning up the Act itself 
some years ago and copying the clause. He 
also tells me that this Railway Act with the 
matrimonial clause is mentioned in one of the 
books on railways. Unfortunately, this 
book has been mislaid in consequence of 
dusting, and no date of the Railway Act is 
mentioned by my friend. 

In the short history of Wadham written 
by Mr. J. Wells, p. 156, mention is made 
of a special Act of Parliament allowing 
the Warden of Wadham to marry, passed in 
1806. Mr. Wells says : "It need hardly be 
added there is no truth in the college 
tradition that the change was accom- 
plished by a clause ' tacked on * to a Canal 
Bill." "The Act for enabling a Married 
Person to hold and enjoy the Office of 
Warden of Wadham College in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford ?> is recorded in Private Acts, 
1806. It maybe found near the end of that 
year's second volume. I can give no more 
precise reference as the Private Acts are not 
numbered, are dated only by the session 
(46 George III.), and the volumes are un- 
paged. The Act of 1806 disposes of the 
matter as far as Wadham is concerned. 
Does the tradition refer to the head of some 
other college ? A. L. MAYHEW. 

Wadham College, Oxford. 

THE ORDER OF MERIT. In connexion 
with the institution of this Order and the 
recent appointment to it of new members, 
it may be interesting to qoute the following 
from Irving's ' Annals of our Time ' : 

1873. June 27. " Lord Stanhope's motion for an 
address to the Queen, praying her Majesty to take 
into consideration the institution of an Order of 
Merit to be bestowed by her Majesty as a sign of 
her royal approbation upon men who have deserved 
well of their country in science, literature, and art, 
negatived after a brief discussion." 

W. B. H. 

[The foundation of an Order of Civil Merit was 
suggested by ' N. & Q.' on 1 November, 1851. See 
1 S. iv. 337, and MR. A. F. ROBBINS'S note at 9 S. x. 

" SWEET LAVENDER." (See 10 S. x. 146 ; 
xii. 176.) Suburban London has received 
its annual July visit from the vendors of this 
fragrant herb. The melodious refrain " Buy 
my sweet la-ven-der " has been chant 
once more throughout streets and avenues, 
proclaiming the virtues of those purple 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


bunches so esteemed by the careful house- 
wife. Trade therein is, however, not what 
it was, as one dusky female almost tearfully 

I informed the writer in salubrious Hamp- 

1 stead. Her stock was the product of a 
" cut " from the fields at Mitcham, once noted 

< for a prolific supply, now unfortunately 
stated to be on the wane. > It is to be hoped 

j that fresh enterprise may be available for 
the continued cultivation of so pleasant and 
useful a plant in the few counties of England 
where it is still grown. Anyway, the song of 
"Sweet Lavender"- is always welcome. 
Let us hope it will be a long while before it 
ceases, as many another familiar old London 
cry has done. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

" SORNING." In an article in the current 
number of The Cornhill Magazine the 
following sentence occurs : 

" He remembered to have heard that Burma was 
a country of immense possibilities, if only the Indian 
Government would stop sorning on it, to use the 
Scottish term for extortion." 

I am not aware of any instance of, or 
authority for, the use of this well-known 
Scotch word in the sense of " extortion.'* 
The original meaning was to take up free 
quarters, or, as Jamieson has it, " to ob- 
trude one's self on another for board and 
lodging.' 1 See Jamieson's ' Scottish Dic- 
tionary, 1 Longmuir's edition, 1882. Nowa- 
days this objectionable custom is, I hope, 
seldom carried to such a length as to merit 
the punishment of death, to which sornaris 
were at one time liable under an old Act of 
James II., but is confined to sponging upon 
one's friends, and playing the unwelcome 
guest. The word, however, would never 
convoy to a Scotchman the idea of extor- 
tion. T. F. D. 

PARALLEL. A Gaelic story is quoted as 
follows from J. F. Campbell in Mr. Gomme's 
' Folk-lore as an Historical Science,* London, 
n.d., pp. 67-8 : 

"There was a man at some time or other who 
was well off, and had many children. When the 
family grew up the man gave a well-stocked farm to 
each of his children. When the man was old his 
wife died, and he divided all that he had amongst 
his children, and lived with them, turn about, 
in their houses. The sons got tired of him and 
ungrateful, and tried to get rid of him when he 
came to stay with them. At last an old friend 
found him sitting tearful by the wayside, and, 
learning the cause of his distress, took him home ; 
there he gave him a bowl of gold and a lesson 
which the old man learned and acted. When all 
ie ungrateful sons and daughters had gone to a 
preaching, the old man went to a green knoll where 

his grandchildren were at play, and, pretending to 
hide, he turned up a flat hearthstone in an old 
stance [ = standing-place], and went out of sight. 
He spread out his gold on a big stone in the sun- 
light, and he muttered, 'Ye are mouldy, ye are 
hoary, ye will be better for the sun.' The grand- 
children came sneaking over the knoll, and when. 
they had seen and heard all that they were 
intended to see and hear, they came running up 
with, 'Grandfather, what have you got there?' 
' That which concerns you not ; touch it not,' said 
the grandfather, and he swept his gold into a bag 
and took it home to his old friend. The grand- 
children told what they had seen, and henceforth 
the children strove who should be kindest to the 
old grandfather. Still acting on the counsel of his 
sagacious old chum, he got a stout little black chest 
made, and carried it always with him. When any 
one questioned him as to its contents his answer 
was, ' That will be known when the chest is 
opened.' When he died he was buried with great 
honour and ceremony, and the chest was opened by 
the expectant heirs. In it were founa broken ; 
potsherds and bits of slate, and a long-handled 
white wooden mallet with this legend on its 
head : 

Here is the fair mall 

To give a knock on the skull 

To the man who keeps no gear for himself, 

But gives all to his bairn." 

Whether or not it has one and the same 
origin with this Scottish tale, a Chinese 
anecdote of a similar stamp is related, with 
all his characteristic eagerness, by Sze-ma 
Tsien, the greatest historian China has ever 
produced. It occurs in the * Life of Lu Kia * 
in his * Shi-ki,* written c. B.C. 97. It tells 
us how in the year 196 B.C. the Emperor Hau- 
tsu sent Lu Kia, the great literate and 
diplomat, to Tchao To, the self-made 
monarch of Nang-yue, in order to subdue 
him without the use of arms (for the latter's 
life see Gamier, * Voyage d'Exploration en 
Indo-Chine,' Paris, 1873, torn. i. p. 469). The 
eloquent Lu Kia completely brought over 
Tchao To, so that the latter presented the 
former on his farewell with a bag containing 
valuables worth a thousand pieces of gold, 
to which he added another thousand for 

After the Emperor Hiao-hui succeeded his 
father Hau-tsu (B.C. 194), the Dowager -Em- 
press Lu was hankering to make kings of 
her own kindred, quite contrary to the will 
of her deceased husband. Well knowing 
his incompetence to stop this, Lu Kia 
pretended to be unwell, and retired to 
Hao-chi, there to live by keeping excellent 

" As he had five sons," the narrative continues, 
" he took out of the bag the valuables Tchao-To had 
given him, and sold them for one thousand pieces 
of gold. These he divided amongst his sons, telling 
each to thrive with the fund of two hundred pieces. 
Lu Kia procured for himself a comfortable carriage 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 20, 1910. 

drawn by four horses, ten attendants, all skilful in 
music and dancing, and a sword which cost him 
one hundred gold pieces. Then he spoke to his 
sons thus : * Now I covenant with you that when- 
ever I come to any one of you, you shall supply me. 
my attendants, and my horses, with enough of food 
and drink, and I will go off after enjoying them for 
ten consecutive days. Should I happen to die in 
the house of any one of you, my sword, my carriage 
with horses, and my attendants, will all fall into 
Ihis possession. But I will not visit any one of you 
more than twice or thrice a year, because to call on 
you more frequently would make you entertain me 
with less will, whilst a prolonged stay in one and 
the same house would inevitably be followed by 

your getting tired of me.' He died after enjoying 


Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

ROBEBT SINGLETON. The account in the 
* D.N.B. 1 is very unsatisfactory. Singleton 
was not a " Roman Catholic divine.'* It is 
true that Antonio Possevino, S.J., treats 
him as such in his * Apparatus Sacer * 
(Cologne, 1608), ii. 345-6, and adds "he is 
thought to have died a martyr in London," 
and that Wood and Dodd are doubtful ; but 
I feel sure that Dodd had never seen 
Bale's ' Scriptorum Illustrium .... Catalogus * 
(Basle, 1557-9), ii. 105, if Wood had (which 
I doubt), and that neither had seen Fox's 
' Actes and Monuments * on the subject. See 
Townsend's edition, iii. 367 and v. 600, 696, 
and the Appendix to the latter volume, No. 
XII. Singleton had got into difficulties 
together with Robert Wisdom and Thomas 
Becon, and ail three made their recantations 
on 14 May, 1543, which can be read in the 
Appendix to vol. v. 

Bale says he was executed on account of his 
work * On Certain Prophecies. 1 Fox says 
he was falsely accused of the murder of 
Robert Packington, a mercer of London, and 
also of stirring up sedition, but really suffered 
for his Protestant opinions. He had been 
chaplain to Anne Boleyn, and that was not 
improbably the real cause of his death, if he 
were guiltless of sedition. There is no 
doubt that his Christian name was Robert. 

"OBA ?? = " NORIA." In The Athenaeum 
of 16 July there is a review of ' Hinching- 
brooke, ? by the Earl of Sandwich. In it 
I read : 


new waterwor 
not explain what this word really meant, but the 
best explanation is that it is the Spanish noria, a 
water-wheel worked by a mule. There is no 
difficulty as to the loss of the n, as the confusion of 
the article an with substantives having an initial 
vowel is common in English, and a noria naturally 

[Pepys] refers on June 15th, 1664, to the 
ater works and the Or a. The author does 

becomes an oria, the dropping of the easily fol- 
lowing this corruption." 

This tentative explanation is not satis- 
factory ; even if we pass over the dropped n, 
about which much might be said, there 
is the dropped i. I has never dropped in 

oriel,' 2 "orient," or "oriole. 51 But if it 
be remembered that noria was taken into 
Spanish from the Arabic naura, it seems 
possible that the word ora may be the 
second syllable of the Arabic form. The 
earliest ' N.E.D.* quotation of noria is 
1792, and the three quotations all apply to 
the Spanish word. Searchers may possibly 
find traces of the word having come into 
English in its Arabic form, only to become 
lost after a time. 

Noria is the usual French name for the 
wheel and bucket pump. In Southern 
France this pump is extensively used for 
irrigation ; it was, until lately, made with 
ropes and earthen pots, like the sakia of 
Egypt or the Persian wheel of India, and 
it creaked like these. This primitive form 
has been superseded by the modern form, 
all of iron, and the French name has been 
imported, but good Provencaux do not use 
this name ; they keep to the old word 
pouso-raco, literally the " spew- well," only 
using the imported name when speaking 
French. To the word noria citizenship 
is refused in Mistral's ' Tresor, 1 the great 
dictionary of the Occitanian language. 



QUOTATION IN REPBINTS. Under the frontis- 
piece (engraved by E. Warren after Thurston) 
of vol. i. of the ninth edition of the * Ana- 
tomy,* London, 1800 the first of those re- 
prints than which Charles Lamb knew no 
more " heartless sight " is a quotation in 
verse over the name Penrose. The picture 
with the same words is repeated in several 
later editions. The author is the Rev. 
Thomas Penrose (1742-79, see *D.N.B. ? ), 
and the source is stanza 7 of * Madness * in 
his posthumous ' Poems/ London, 1781. I 
complete the quotation by adding the ; 
adjoining words : 
[No pleasing memory left ] forgotten quite 
All former scenes of dear delight, 
Connubial love parental joy 
No sympathies like these his soul employ, 
But all is dark within, [all furious black despair.] 

The last line rimes with 

In rage he grinds his teeth, and rends his streaming 

at the end of the preceding stanza. 

ii s. IL AUG. 20, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Byron did Penrose the honour of quoting 
two lines from the second stanza of this same 
poem in his ' Second Letter to John Murray, 
Esq., on the Rev. W. L. Bowles 1 Strictures 
on the Life and Works of Pope, 1 dated 
25 March, 1821, first published in 1835. 
See Lord Byron's ' Letters and Journals,* 
d. R. E. Prothero, vol. v. p. 578. 


Bad Wildungen. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

MISTAKE. Mr. Collins in his letter (chap, 
xiii,) states that the 18th of November is 
Monday. When in the next year Mr. 
Gardiner writes (chap, xlix.) a letter, he 
dates it " Monday, August 2." If, however, 
we compute from Monday, 18 November, 
we find that 2 August of the next year falls 
on a Saturday. After chap. xlix. the 
assumption that 2 August is a Monday is 
continued, and the events are arranged 
accordingly. How are we to account for 
this discrepancy, which is surprising, as 
Jane Austen takes all through the novel 
particular care of the dates ? 


1 VERTIMMUS.' Will any reader kindly 
give me more particulars about a play named 
4 Vertimmus,* of which all I know is that it 
was acted by the students of St. John's when 
James I. visited Oxford ? I shall also be 
thankful to be referred to books from which 
I may gather more information. 


SIR JOHN IVORY. I should be grateful for 
any biographical details of this gentleman, 
who was, I believe, knighted in 1682. He 
married in the April of that year Anne, 
eldest daughter of Sir .John Talbot of 
Lacock Abbey, co.Wilts, and it was from their 
son, John Ivory, who subsequently took the 
name of Talbot, that the future possessors of 
that property were descended. I believe, 
but am not sure, that Sir John Ivory's 
father was named William, and his mother 
Anne. The family property was situated 
at New Ross, co. Wexford. 


water vat or bowl of bronze, preserved at 
Hojland House, bearing an inscription that 
shows that it was cast in 1484 by one 
Michele Caselli, is a small figure of Buddha 
in his usual attitude surmounted by a right- 
handed svastica, the symbol of life and 
light. On another part of the bowl is a 
figure of the Virgin and Child, and between 
them the beginning of the verse in the 
Miserere " Asperges me," which shows that 
the bowl was, from the first, intended for 
Christian religious use. 

Do any of your readers know of a similar 
representation of Buddha in Christian art ? 
A great authority on Indian archaeology has 
suggested that this particular instance may 
be accounted for by the close mercantile 
connexion which existed between Florence, 
whence this bowl was brought by Lord 
Holland, and the East, and the fact that 
Buddha was introduced into the calendar of 
saint under the name of St. Joasaphat. 

5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick. 

(See 10 S. ix. 227 ; xi. 458 ; xii. 14,) Part 
II. of ' The Diaboliad * was published by J. 
Bew, 28, Paternoster Row, in April, 1778. 
Like 'The Diabolady,' it was "dedicated 
to the Worst Woman in His Majesty's 
dominions." It is noticed in Gent. Mag., 
xlviii. 178. Nine ladies are satirized in its 
pages. On p. 19 Gertrude, Duchess of 
Bedford, is indicated ; on p. 25 Elizabeth 
Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston ; on p. 38 
Caroline, Countess of Harrington. On p. 34 
Anne Luttrell, Duchess of Cumberland, may 
be hinted at. Can any correspondent of 
' N. & Q. 1 fill in the blanks ? 


do not know if the following allusion has yet 
been traced in ' N. & Q.* In ' The Autocrat 
of the Breakfast Table,' section 12, Holmes, 
speaking of personal incidents and memorials 
which strike the imagination, writes : 

" You remember the monument in Devizes Market 
to the woman struck dead, with a lie in her mouth. 
I never saw that, but it is in the booka. Here is 
one I never heard mentioned ; if any of the ' Note 
and Query ' tribe can tell the story, I hope they 
will. Where is this monument? I was riding on 
an English stage-coach when we passed a handsome 
marble column (as I remember it) of considerable 
size and pretensions. What is that? I said. 
That, answered the coachman, is the hangman's 
pillar. Then he told me how a man went out one 
night, many years ago, to steal sheep. He caught 
one, tied its legs together, passed the rope over his 


NOTES AND QUERIES. pi s. n. AUG. 20, mo. 

head, and started for home. In climbing a fence 
the rope slipped, caught him by the neck, and 
strangled him. Next morning he was found hang- 
ing dead on one side of the fence and the sheep on 
the other; in memory whereof the lord of the 
manor caused this monument to be erected as a 
warning to all who love mutton better than virtue." 

With the record, of the Sapphira of Devizes, 
who has now, I think, reached picture post- 
card honours, I am familiar, but I do not 
know where the " Hangman's Pillar " is. 

Holmes has another reference to our paper 
in Section 3, where he jokingly compares 
Homer's melas oinos with molasses : 

"Ponder thereon, ye small antiquaries who make 
barn-door-fowl flights of learning in Notes and 
Queries ! " 

I dare say there is an annotated edition 
of ' The Autocrat, l but I do not know of it. 


[' N. & Q.' has not overlooked the sheepstealer 
hanged by a sheep ; see 8 S. viii. 106, 170, 236, 334 ; 
ix. 475 ; xi. 11.] 

DIBECTOBY, c. 1660. Can any of your 
readers tell me where the following lines 
come from ? They were written about 1660 : 
Who 's this that comes from Egypt with a story 
Of a new pamphlett call'd a directory? 
His cloke is something short, his looks demure, 
His heart is rotten and his thoughts impure. 
In this our land this Scottish hell-hatch'd brat, 
Like Pharaoh's lean kine, will devour ye fatt. 
Lord, suffer not thy tender vine to bleed ; 
Call home thy shepherd which thy lambs may feed. 

[The allusion in the first two lines is probably to 
' The Directory for the Publick Worship of God ; 
agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster,' and adopted by the Scottish General 
Assembly in 1645.] 

"USONA" = U.S.A. Can any reader 
say who was the author of the title Usona as 
applied to the U.S.A., also when and where 
it was first used ? The word appears to be 
derived from the initial letters of United 
States Of North America. The eminent 
Danish philologist Prof. Otto Jespersen 
seeks, in a Continental monthly, for facts 
about the title ; but the information would 
be of interest to many besides. J. M. D. 

TBIAL IN 1776. Do any of your readers 
know of a trial in the early months of 1776 
probably February for which peers would 
have the right of giving tickets ? In a letter 
which I have from the Lord Rosebery of 
that date he promises a " ticket for the 
trial " to my great -grandfather Walter 
Spencer-Stanhope, M.P., and explains what a 
great demand there is among his friends for 

these tickets of admission. I should be 
much obliged if any of your readers could 
throw light on what trial it can have been^ 
Answers may be sent to me direct. 

(Mrs.) A. M. W. STIBLING. 

30, Launceston Place, Kensington, W. 

[The notorious Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of 
Kingston, was tried for bigamy by the House of 
Lords in April, 1776.] 

OBVENTION BBEAD. The income of a 
Salop vicarage before the Reformation is 
quoted in Owen and Blakeway's ' History 
of Shrewsbury' (vol. ii. p. 268). In the 
schedule is 

" Tithe of a culture called Hencotesley 10s. (A 
culture is a large ploughed field.) 

" His altarage is worth 10*. a year, which is. 
capable of proof, because he leases half of it for 
5s., reserving to himself obvention bread." 
Was this a gift made by the parishioners to 
their priest ? R. B. 


[The 'N.E.D.' says that an obvention in ecclesias- 
tical law is an incoming fee or revenue, especially 
one of an occasional or incidental character.] 

' ABNO MISCELLANY,* 1784. Is there any 
definite information with regard to the 
authorship of the above ? It is a thin 
octavo, printed at Florence, at the Stamperia 
Bonducciana, in 1784. Halkett and Laing 
('Diet. Anonymous and Pseudonymous 
Lit., 1 Edin., 1882) mention it as the " Arno 
Miscellany : a collection of fugitive pieces- 
By a Society called the Oziosi," and then 
add in brackets " Robert Merry, Roscoe, 
&c." They also state that it was privately 
printed, and was the precursor of the 
' Florence Miscellany.* I am aware of 
Walpole's mention of it. JOHN HODGKIN. 

Where precisely was this street in the City 
of London ? Has it been renamed, or what 
building or space occupies its site ? Pre- 
sumably by " Bernard's " is meant Barnard's 
Castle. I cannot find it in any topo- 
graphical dictionary of London. Jol 
Windet, printer and bookseller, dwelt at 
"The White Bear" in Adling Street. 


MAZES. A maze marked out in the pave - 
ment of the west porch of Ely Cathedral has- 
been there since 1870. It is said to be a copy 
of some foreign example. Can anybody 
tell me of which ? 

In ' Secret Chambers and Hiding-Places, 
by Allan Fea, mention is made of a curious 
maze of evergreens, planted in the form of a 


ii B. 11. AUG. 20, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


cross, which exists in the grounds of Myddle- 
ton Lodge, near Ilkley. Has the design of 
this ever been published ? 

Does any plan survive of the labyrinth at 
Woodstock associated with Fair Rosamond, 
which, in ruins, was yet discernible in 
Dray ton's time ? ST. S WITHIN. 

favour me with any details of the following 
Vicars of Dartmouth ? 

1653, John Flavell. 

1662, Nicholas Battersby. 

1685, Humphrey Smith. 

1709, William Prichard. 

1723, Richard Kent. 

1726, Henry Holdsworth. 

1763, John Nosworthy. 

1779, George Gretton. 

In particular, I want references to any 
portraits of or works by them. Kindly 
reply direct. 


There are two apple trees on a farm not far 
from here which frequently produce a few 
flowers in October or November. Some 
years ago I drew the attention of a working- 
man on the property to them, and he told 
me in a very grave tone that he did not like 
to see them, for they forboded 'misfortune, 
and perhaps even death. Is this super- 
stition widely prevalent, or is it confined to 
this neighbourhood only ? 


Kirton -in -Lindsey . 

COCKER. Saxon James Nicholas Cocker 
and George Thomas Cocker were admitted 
to Westminster School 9 Oct., 1817. I am 
desirous of obtaining particulars of their 
parentage and career. G. F. R. B. 

to Westminster School 23 June, 1783. I 
should be glad to learn the names of his 
parents, any particulars of his career, and 
the date ot his death. G. F. R. B. 

ROBERT DELISLE left Westminster School 
at Bartholomew-tide, 1805. Any informa- 
tion about him would be useful. 

G. F. R. B. 

any one supply the Christian names (as an 
aid to identification) of the respective 
ministers of SS. Anne and Agnes or of St. 
John Zachary surnamed as follows ? 

Boulte (1620), Kennett (1622), Rogers (1635), 
Bolton (1641), Wells (1645), Poole (1649), 
Creswell (1651), and Harrison (1652). 

Can the fourth be the Dr. Samuel Bolton 
of the Westminster Assembly, and the sixth 
Matthew Poole, the Biblical commentator ? 
I should be glad to connect the second in 
some way with the famous White Kennett, 
Bishop of Peterborough. 


is the origin of this name for the customary 
letter of thanks after having stayed with 
friends ? The more common term would 
appear to be " bread-and-butter letter. J * 


[We have heard "roofer" also used for such a 

den's ' Britannia * (ed. Gibson, 2nd ed., 
n.d., vol. i. p. 459) the following statement 
appears : 

" At a little distance [from Hingham, co. Norfolk] 
is Skulton (now Scoulton), otherwise called Burdos, 
which was held on condition that the lord of it at 
the Coronation of the Kings of England should be 
chief Lardiner, as they call him." 

No trace of this word is to be found in Skeat 
or Wright. 

Can any of your readers supply information 
as to the duties of the Chief Lardiner ? When 
was the claim to appear at the Coronation 
last exercised ? L. G. R. 

Reform Club. - 

[The Lardiner is a venerable official, as his 
Coronation duties date at least from the fourteenth 
century. See the quotations in the 'N.E.D.,' rang- 
ing from that date to 1887, and including the one 
from Camden.] 

Mr. Vavasour says in the novel ' Two Years 
Ago * that the surname Vavasour means a 
tenant farmer, "neither more nor less." 
Could you inform me on what basis this 
assertion rests ? What is the derivation of 
the surname Vavasour ? 


NIGHTS." In my young days in Cornwall 
it was a regular saying, when one bought 
any article of clothing or ornament that was 
somewhat out of the common, that it was to 
be used only on "high days, holidays, and 
bonfire nights.'* Was this saying common 
elsewhere ? R. ROBBINS. 

[It has been familiar for many years to us in 
London.] - 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 20, 1010. 

THOMAS KINGSTON. Thomas Kingston, 
cousin of Charlotte Bronte, and son of 
John Kingston (born at Towcester) and Jane 
Branwell, died in London in 1855. What 
was his profession ? Did he leave 
descendants ? and who was the husband of 
a sister of his who is said to have emigrated 
to America ? J. HAMBLEY ROWE, M.B. 


DAUGHTEBS. Goldsmith says in Essay X. : 
' ' I will still persist like that venerable, un- 
shaken, and neglected patriot Mr. Jacob 
Henriquez, who, though of the Hebrew 
nation, hath exhibited a shining example 
of Christian fortitude and perseverance.'* 
Henriquez has publicly advertised his willing- 
ness to serve the State by allowing his ' ' seven 
blessed daughters " to take up arms in its 
defence. I gather that from the tenor of the 
essay on ' Female Warriors.* Who was this 
worthy, and what became of his seven 
daughters ? M. L. R. BBESLAB. 


SOBBOW." I returned to my house here 
on the day before August Bank Holiday after 
an absence of nearly six months. On Bank 
Holiday it was found that the caretakers had 
left hardly any salt behind them. The shops 
being closed, I proposed to borrow some 
from a neighbour. One of my servants, 
a girl from Stockton Heath, Cheshire, close 
to Warrington, expressed a hope that this 
would not be done, saying, " If you ask for 
salt, you ask for sorrow." 

Is this a general proverbial saying ? 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

STOBBINGTON. What is the origin of the 
name of this Sussex town ? 


" BLEST HE AND SHE." Where may the 
following lines be found ? 

How blest is he, above all doubt, 
That never puts himself about ! 
Thrice blest is she, above all doubt, 
That never puts herself about. 


learn in what year the houses attached to th 
Abbey Church, Bath, were pulled down, an< 
if it is true that Henrietta Maria in he 
flight to Bristol slept in one of those houses. 

(US. ii. 109.) 
'HEBE is not, and there never has been, a 
athedral at Hyeres, and the inscriptions 
ecorded by W. H. S. are in the interior of 
he church of St. Louis, which, though of 
ligh antiquity, cannot claim to be the parish 
hurch of Hyeres. That honour belongs to 
he church of St. Paul, which is situated 
>n the slope of the hill below the ruins of the 
astle. The church of St. Louis appears to 
lave been built by the Templars, and after 
he fall of that body it passed into the 
lands of the Cordeliers or Franciscans, 
t is now one of the district churches of 

The first inscription quoted by W. H. S. 
was engraved in Gothic letters upon a 
:ablet which was let into the wall above the 
;omb of Guillaume or Amelin de Fos, 
^enerally known as the c ' Grand-Marquis." 
Chis tomb, which was originally placed on 
;he left of the principal door of the church, 
las completely disappeared ; but the tablet 
was taken down in 1855, when the doorway 
was widened, and placed in the sacristy, 
where it still remains. It is fairly legible, 
t the copy given by W. H. S. has one or 
two misreadings. The following is the correct 
Tanscription : 

t HIC : JACET : 


: : E FOSIS : DO 




INI : M : CC : nil : O 


which may be translated into English : 
" Here lies the Lord Guillaume de Fos, Lord 
of Hyeres, who died in the year of the Lord 
1204. Pray for him. w 

When the port of Olbia was destroyed in 
the sixth century, the inhabitants are 
believed to have taken refuge on the hill on 
which the town of Hyeres was afterwards 
built, and on which were the ruins of several 
Roman villas and farms, to which threshing- 
floors were attached. The refugees therefore 
called the fortified village which they built 
Castrum Arearum. In Provencal lero, de- 
rived from area, signified a threshing-floor, 
and thence, through Eiras, Ahires, leres, 
and other forms that are found in ancient 
charters, the name of the modern town 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hyeres is derived. The family of Fos or Foz 
(in Latin de Fossis, from the fossae, or fosses, 
which gave their name to Fossce-Mariance, 
near Fos-les-Martigues) was traditionally 
believed to be descended from Pons, a 
younger brother of Boson the elder, Count 
of Provence and King of Aries, who died in 
the year 948. This family of Fos held the 
seigneury of Hyeres from about that date 
to 1257, when it was ceded to Charles of 
Anjou, whose statue, which formerly occu- 
pied the spot on which the statue of Massillon 
now stands, will be remembered by visitors 
to Hyeres as dominating the public garden 
in the Boulevard d'Orient. 

Of the other inscription in the church of St. 
Louis I cannot offer a translation. It was 
mutilated at the time of the Revolution, 
when the church was temporarily converted 
into an oil-mill. M. Alphonse Denis, in 
his valuable work, * Hyeres Ancien et 
Moderne,* says that he found it impossible 
to decipher it ; and the old Gothic letters are 
certainly not plainer now than when he 
published the first edition of his book in 1835. 

EDWARD HATTON (US. ii. 9, 54, 96). 
The following items appear in * A Catalogue 
of English Heads ' by Joseph Ames, 1748 : 

" E. Hatton, ^Etatis SUJB 35. 1669. R. White del. 
& sc. Oval Frame, Wig, Neckcloth, Arms." P. 85. 

"Edward Hatton. W. Sherwin sc. Oval Frame, 
long Wig, Neckcloth."-?. 89. 

This Catalogue is, according to the 
dedication to the Honourable James West 
(himself apparently a collector of portraits), 
a ' ' small Endeavour to perpetuate the 
Memory of such English Persons, as had 
been collected by Mr. Nicholls, F.R.S." 

The following is in 'A Catalogue of En- 
graved British Portraits from Egbert the 
Great to the Present Time,' by Henry 
Bromley, 1793, p. 190: 

Edward Hatton, 

prefixed to his 
4 Index to Interest ' 

Painter or 

Engraver or 

W. Sherwin. 
G. Vertue. 

R. White. 

ret. 32, 1696, pre- 
fixed to his Arith- 
metick, 4to 

ad vivum 

Excepting that the description "Arith- 
met." is omitted, the above, in almost the 

same words, is in Mark Noble's ' Biographical 
History of England,* 1806 (in continuation of 
Granger's), ii. 312. Noble adds : 

" The first print is one of the best specimens of 
Sherwin's manner, as the last is one of the worst 
of White's. 

"Hatton wrote many books on arithmetic: 
amongst which were, the * Merchant's Magazine,' 
the * Comes Commercii ; or the Trader's Com- 
panion.' There is an improved edition of the latter 
by Dunn and Luckcombe." 

It will be noticed that, according to Ames, 
White's portrait was drawn in Hatton's 
thirty-fifth year, whereas Bromley and Noble 
say in his thirty-second year not when he 
was 32 years old (see ante, p. 96). Further, 
Ames gives 1669 as the date of the portrait, 
no doubt erroneously. 

In a ' Catalogue of Engraved Portraits ' 
for sale, dated 1909, issued by Suckling & 
Co., of 13, Garrick Street, is the following : 

"Hatton (Edward), Arithmetician, born 1664, 
8vo, engraved by Sherwin." 

In the Warrington Museum Library is a 
copy of * An Index to Interest J by E. 
Hatton, Philomath, 1711. The portrait is 
missing. The dedication to Hugh, Lord 
Willoughby of Parham, is signed Edward 
Hatton. At the end is a leaf containing the 
following advertisements : 

Books Written by E. Hatton. price in 

Calves Leather. 

1694. The Merchants Magazine, or Trades- 8 . d. 

man's Treasury 04 6 

1696. Decus & Tutamen (of Enlish [sic] coin) 01 6 

1697. The Collectors Companion for the [No price 

Capitation Tax given.] 

1699. Comes Commercii, or the Traders 

Companion 02 6 

1708. A New View of London or an ample 

Account of the Antient and Present 
State thereof in 2 Vol. 8 with Maps 
and Cuts 12 

1709. A Divine Help to Happiness ... ... 02 6 

1710. An Index to Interest 06 

Records Arithmetick, Revised and much Improv'd, 

particularly as to the Rules of Practice. Dedicated 
and Presented to the Duke of Gloucester : 

This advertisement leaf, although pasted in, 
is apparently contemporary with the book. 
Several of the above are not mentioned in 
Watt's * Bibliotheca Britannica,' notably 
' A New View of London,'' a very interesting 
and valuable book of reference. Of this 
book, published anonymously, Halkett and 
Laing give the author's name as Edward 
Hatton, and add : " See Gough's Topogr. 
i. 572. See an account of the author in 
Sir J. Hawkins's Hist, of music, vol. 4. 504." 

The Dominican suggested by MB. MAY- 
COCK (ante, p. 54) cannot, apparently, be the 
subject of the query, as he was only about 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 20, 1910. 

fourteen years old when William Sherwin, 
the engraver of the portrait mentioned, is 
believed to have died. 

The * Dictionary of National Biography * 
does not give Edward Hatton, arithmetician ; 
and Allibone only says "Works on Arith- 
metic, 1699-1728." 1699 is obviously in- 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

DUCHESS or PALATA (11 S. ii. 29, 99). 
The reply by LEO C., stating that the title 
Duke of Palata was conferred in 1793 on the 
Azlor family, is incorrect. Francisco Toralto 
(or Toraldo) di Aragona, Prince of Massa 
(Naples), was created Duke of Palata (prov. 
of Molise) by Philip IV. of Spain in 1646. I 
notice the query is as to a duchess ; and it is 
peculiar to the title that for about a century 
it descended through four generations of 
females, being finally inherited by the house 
of Azlor, Counts of Guara in Aragon, which 
also, in the person of the fourth Count, 
succeeded to the Dukedom of Villahermosa 
in 1761. 

Francisca, daughter and heiress of the 
first Duke by a Frezza-Orsini, married 
(1662) Melchior de Navarra y Rocafull 
(d. 1691), Viscount of La Torrecilla, Governor 
of Peru, the Tierra Firme, and Chile, who 
belonged to the Marquises of Cortes, ille- 
gitimate scions of Navarre-Evreux. Their 
daughter Cecilia,. Duchess of Palata, mar- 
ried a Count of Alba de Liste, and again 
left an heiress, Francisca Elena, wife of a 
Zapata de Calatayud, Count del Real 
(Valencia). The daughter by this union, Ines 
Maria Zapata, &c., was wife of Juan Jos6 de 
Azlor de Aragon, third Count of Guara 
(d. 1748). Since the succession of his son, 
Juan Pablo de Azlor (d, 1790), fourth Count, 
to the Villahermosa dukedom, that of Palata 
has been merged in it, and will so continue, 
unless detached at some time or another in 
favour of a cadet, the laws of succession in 
both cases being, I believe, identical. 

The original grantees, Toraldo or Toralto, 
added the patronate name " di Aragona " 
to their own by alliance with a female 
Piccolomini, descended from the Aragonese 
line of Naples, who were prodigal of the 
distinction. There is a short account of 
them in Aldimari's ' Historia genealogica 
della famiglia Carafa, 1 vol. iii. p. 343, Naples, 
1691 ; also in Mazzella's ' Descrittione de] 
regno di Napoli/ p. 743, 1601. In Aldimari's 
day the Naples branch was on the wane, 
but he states that a male line still flourished 
at Tropea, which is of interest in view of a 
work published at Pitigliano, in 1898, by F 

Toraldo, ' II sedile e la nobilta di Tropea/ 
which might possibly give some account of 
the first and second Duchesses of Palata, 
and might not be very difficult to obtain. 
The usual Spanish nobiliaries should give 
details of the others under the families 
named (see Fernandez de Bethencourt, 
' Historia Genealogica,* iii. 580, for Azlor 
alias Aragon and the Palata title). 

The transit of ducal titles between Italy 
and Spain is a curious subject : Andria, 
Bivona, Solferino, Taurisano, and many 
others are in Spanish hands. V. D. P. 

ii. 88). This is probably a copyist's mistake 
for Andrews (Andreuus), whose manor was 
formed from part of a much earlier one. 
It still exists in Cheshunt (Hertfordshire), 
which is the present spelling of the name 
Chesthunt, Chestenhunt, Chesterhunt, &c. 

SIB SAUDEB DUNCOMBE (11 S. ii. 87). 
This is undoubtedly Sir Saunders Duncombe, 
Knight ; but I can find no evidence as to the 
branch of the Duncombe family to which he 
belonged, nor as to his patent for the 

famous powder." There is a patent, how- 
ever, relating to the " Fighting of Wild and 
domestic Beasts," " de anno Quarto decimo 
Caroli Rs.," Part 4, No. 15, as follows : 

" tt. xj die Oct. con Sanders Duncombe milit. 
The sole practisinge & makinge profitt of the 
combatinge & figh tinge of wild & domestick beasts 
within the Realme of England for fowerteneyeres." 

What wild beasts were these ? 

His patent as to sedan chairs is (Part 9, 
No. 2, " de anno decimo Caroli Regis ") : 

"R. primo die Octobris con Saunders Duncombe 
mil., the sole useing and putting forth to hyre cer- 
taine covered Chaires called Sedans for xiiij en 

Again, " Paten de anno Rs. Caroli un- 
decimo," Part 11, No. 15 : 

" R. vij die Dec. con Saunders Duncombe mil' the 
sole benefitt of using or putting to hire all covered 
Chairs or hand littors within the Citty of London & 
Westm' & the p'cints thereof for the term of fower- 
tene years." 


Brief notes of his portrait and his pedigree 
are at 3 S. vii. 133. W. C. B. 

[W. S. S. also thanked for reply.] 

i. 469 ; ii. 95). In addition to the artist 
named at the latter reference the followii 
have chosen this subject : Veronese (severa 
times), Pietro Berrettini, Pieter de Grebbei 
De la Fosse, Delaroche, Franceschirii, am 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


doubtless many more ; but I happen to have 
reproductions of pictures by all of those 
named. Did Raphael ever paint a picture 
of this event ? He designed a fresco, but 
it was executed by his pupils. C. C. B. 

CHIDEOCK (US. ii. 49). Turning over the 
leaves of an old peerage book in an endeavour 
to discover the genesis of the unusual name 
Chideock, I came upon a passage in the 
records of the Winchester family which 
seemed somewhat peculiar. The first 
Marquis of that noble house, who enjoyed 
a career of uninterrupted prosperity during 
several successive reigns, was fond of 
accounting for his good fortune by saying 
" I am a willow, not an oak." This saying 
was amplified by the godson of the Marquis, 
Sir Julius Caesar, Master of the Rolls, and 
versified in the following terms : 

Late supping I forbear ; 

Wine and women I forswear ; 

My neck and feet I keep from cold ; 

No marvel then though I be old. 

I am a willow, not an oak ; 

I chide, but never hurt with stroke. 

Of course, it would be beneath the dignity 
of philology to suppose that " chide oak," 
indicated above, was the source of the name 
Chideock. At the same time, the appearance 
of the name and the rime about the same 
period in English history is, to say the 
least, a somewhat curious coincidence. 
Chideock, whatever it may signify, is a 
family name, as well as a place-name. As 
a surname, it was borne by Sir John Chideock, 
mentioned in ' The Early History of the 
[London] Merchant Taylors' Company.* As 
a place-name, it is still used to designate a 
parish in Dorsetshire. SCOTUS. 

xii. 424). I. The theory that many families 
named variously Denny, Dean, Deden, Dene, 
Dyne, &c., all have a common origin seems 
improbable. More than ten years ago a 
lady named Mary Deane wrote a book called 

The Book of Dene, Deane, Adeane ' (Elliot 
btock). In the course of a somewhat 
severe critique of this in The Genealogist 
(Js.S. xvi. 71) the reviewer wrote : 

"We must confess, too, to a feeling of sadness on 

hnding the author indulging in a belief that the 

nes, Adeanes, Deanes, and others bearing 

similar surnames, derive their cognomen from a 

ommon ancestor, as such a belief in these latter 

tys taken in conjunction with some curious 

eraldic and genealogical statements and deduc- 
tions, put a serious criticism of her work out of the 

The similarity of the arms borne by the 
various families of Dean, &c., at first sight 

seems to support the theory of a common 
origin, but can be quite as easily explained by 
the well-known tendency of new families to 
appropriate the arms of older families of the 
same or a similar name. The heralds' 
custom of allowing or granting the same 
arms to different families of the same name 
has been severely attacked by leading 
genealogists, like Messrs. Round, Barron, and 

II. The statement that Walter Fitz Other, 
" temp. Conquest '* (I believe that his name 
is not found before Domesday), bore arms is 
surprising. Surely it is now universally 
agreed that heraldry did not originate until 
towards the middle of the next century. 
Not to waste valuable space, may I refer 
H. L. L. D. to my letter in The Academy of 
11 September last year (p. 520) on this 
subject ? (In this letter Quincy has been 
misprinted as "Quiney.") What really 
happened was that the heralds assigned arms 
to Walter and his immediate descendants 
some centuries after their death, as Dr. 
Round has pointed out (Ancestor, v. 42-6). 
And the alleged descent of the Fitzmaurices 
from the same family has been questioned 
by the same eminent authority (Monthly 
Review, No. 9, pp. 102-3). 

III. The similarity of the arms of Denny 
and Windsor is curious, and it will be very 
interesting if H. L. L. D. is able to discover 
the reason of this. He suggests that a 
Denny married a Windsor heiress, or that 
a Windsor married a Denny heiress, the 
descendants assuming her name ; but there 
are at least five other possible explanations : 

(1) If the Dennys were tenants of the 
Windsors, they might have assumed a 
shield based on that of their lords, as there is 
little doubt that the arms of Le Despencer 
(' Studies in Peerage and Family History,* 
pp. 328-9) and Loring ('Memorials of the 
Order of the Garter,' p. 65) were formed from 
the arms of the Beauchamps of Bedford. 

(2) Marriage with a Windsor who was not 
an heiress, as Henry de Percy is supposed to 
have assumed his lion rampant in conse- 
quence of his marriage with a daughter of 
the Earl of Arundel, who bore a lion 
rampant (though the colours were altered). 

(3) A Windsor might have granted or 
bequeathed his arms to a Denny ; for a 
number of such cases see The Ancestor, ix. 

(4) Baseless assumption to support, or in 
consequence of, an imaginary descent, as 
the Lancashire family of Gerard concocted 
a descent from the Fitzgeralds, and assumed 
their arms (Ancestor, vii. 22-4 ; xii. 179). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 20, 1910. 

^..(5) Mere coincidence ; thus the arms of 
Percy (v. sup.) were identical with those 
of Redvers, Gold, a lion azure ; and in the 
fourteenth century the arms Azure, a bend 
gold (" dazure ove une bende dore "), were 
borne by four different families Scrope, 
Grosvenor, Carminow, and Danyers. In 
the last case, it was only the accident of a 
Scrope and a Grosvenor serving in the same 
military expedition which led to a dispute 
and to the question of right being adjudi- 
cated on, so far as those two families were 
concerned. G. H. WHITE. 


'DRAWING-ROOM DITTIES' (11 S. ii. 48, 
94). The Coster song " If I had a donkey," 
&c., consisting of six verses, by Jacob Beuler, 
was published in the ' Comic Song-Book ' by 
J. E. Carpenter of Netting HiU in 1864. The 
verses relate the story of Coster Bill Burn, 
who was brought with his donkey before 
a London magistrate. In the concluding 

Bill said, " Your worship, it's very hard, 

But 'tisn't the fine that I regard ; 

But times has come to a pretty pass 

When you mustn't beat a stubborn ass." 

I think some portion of the old ditty did 
duty in Shropshire as a nursery rime nearly 
a century ago. About seventy years ago my 
mother used to repeat it thus : 

If I had a donkey and he would not go, 
Do you think I 'd wollop him ? No, no, no ! 
1 'd give him hay, and I 'd give him grass. 
And then he'd go like another man's ass. 



As I knew this more than fifty years ago 
it ran : 

If I 'd a donkey wot wudn't go a, 
D'yo think I'd wallop him ? No, no, no. 
I'd give, him corn, an' shout " Gee-wo ! 
Come up, Neddy ! " 


My version in nursery days was 
If I had a donkey wot wouldn't go, 
Wouldn't I wallop him ! Oh, dear, no ! 

I. I. H. 

1350 (11 S. ii. 47). If the querist will glance 
over the entries in Sonnenschein's * Best 
Books,' 2nd ed., 1891, p. 473, and his 
' Reader's Guide,' 1895, pp. 359-61, he may 
perhaps discover something on sepulchral 
monuments and monumental brasses that 
may be of service. The work of Meyrick 
on * Ancient Arms ' is to some extent 

covered and carried on by a later publication, 
Brett's ' Ancient Arms and Armour,' London, 
Sampson Low, 1894, which is described as 
" a pictorial and descriptive record of the 
origin and development " of ancient weapons 
and warlike accoutrements. W. S. S. 

[The Athenceum of 23 July contained a notice of 
Mr. C. H. Ashdown's ' British and Foreign Arms 
and Armour.'] 

PHRASE (11 S. ii. 86). The earliest recorded 
Parliamentary use of this phrase that I have 
been able to trace I gave at 7 S. xii. 452. It 
was that of the late Mr. Newdegate, then 
Conservative Member for North Warwick- 
shire, who, speaking on 12 May, 1846, on the 
Corn Importation Bill, said : 

" However determined the Government might be 
to take this * leap in the dark,' it was important 
to communicate all the information that could be 
obtained as to the probable amount of corn to be 
exported from abroad in the event of the abolition 
of the Corn Laws." 'Hansard,' Third Series, vol. 
Ixxxvi. f . 422. 

The phrase, it will be observed, is 
quoted, as if it had been used previously in 
the debate. For other than Parliamentary 
uses see 5 S. vi. 29, 94, 151, 273 ; vii. 252, 
358 ; viii. 237 ; 7 S. xii. 328, 394, 452 ; 9 S. 
xi. 466. A. F. R. 

(11 S. i. 506 ; ii. 71, 111). Apart from the 
etymology of these terms, they present 
difficulties of differentiation in connexion 
with the freedom of the City of London. 
In Letter-Book K, for instance, a petition 
is recorded in which the commons complain 
to the Mayor and Aldermen of the difficulty 
of raising money for municipal and other 
purposes in the City, the chief cause being 
"the resceiving in to craftes of )> 8 cite of diverse 
and grete nombre of Foreines aswell strangiers as 
denizeins which come Inne bi Maires of J> 8 Citee and 
bi Wardeines of Craftes some for lucre to \ 
Chambre and to Craftes and some for lucre sengell 
to Ji e Mair and for Je vous pries. 1 " 
The italics are my own, and the date of the 
petition is 1433. 

Long familiarity with the City's records 
has led me to believe that a " foreigner " and 
a " stranger " were alike in their not having 
been admitted to the freedom, but they 
differed, inasmuch as a foreigner (forinsecus) 
might be living outside the realm, whilst a 
stranger (extraneus) lived within the realm, 
but outside the City. A denizen was one 
who lived within the City, but was not 
necessarily, although most probably he was 
a freeman. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The individual gain here mentioned as 
attaching to the Mayor for je vous pries refers 
to the custom, long prevalent, for the Mayor 
for the time being to enfranchise six persons 
by prayer (par prier), as recorded elsewhere 
in the Letter -Book. This I take to mean 
that the Mayor could grant the freedom of 
the City to any six persons who liked to ask 
him for it. In the year following that of this 
petition this privilege was abolished, the 
Mayor being allowed four casks of Gascony 
wine for its loss. 


Guildhall, E.C. 

I have good reason to believe that many 
English words have come from the Occitanian 
language in one of its Proven^al-Langue- 
docian-Gascon forms, and not necessarily 
through French, for it is the language of 
lands long under the dominion of our Planta- 
genet kings. And when the words came 
through French they did not always leave 
traces of their passage. We find to this day 
in Lancashire, as in Toulouse, the term 
" parapet ll used for a side-walk, for the 
paved strip provided in narrow streets per 
se para Ii ped, to protect one's feet from mud 
and cartwheels. The term is lost in French, 
and it is not mentioned by Littre. 

That there is no trace of desnisein in 
Provenal is not surprising, for the ending 
of the word is French-English, as in O.F. 
citien, Eng. citein, citeseyn. In Proven9al 
the word is desnisa, deinisa, one who has 
lost or changed nest ; z may be substituted 
for s in the root (nis, nizal), and the prefix 
is either des or dei, as reference to the 
* Tresor dou Felibrige * would show. 

Because citein of 1273 had become citeseyn 
by 1363, it does not necessarily follow that 
the change was due to a previous denzien or 
denzeyn ; the influence may have been the 
other way, though the latter words be found 
in a statute of 1 32 1 . As regards the meaning 
of deinzein, there seems to be insufficient 
evidence that it was originally " native,' 2 and 
not "meteque." "He that was born 
among them " (Josh. viii. 33) is more likely to 
mean the child of a "meteque," indigena, 
because born among the Israelites, than a 
true child of Israel. 

To the questions at the end of PROF. 
SKEAT'S reply the answers are : 1, that the 
word is not from O.F., but from Proven9al 
in the general sense of the Occitanian 
language of the South ; 2, that, as I have 
already stated, the word is from the Laneue- 
docian form deinisa, the z being due to the 
root being nia, nisau, in Lengado nizal. 

When the birth of a child is announced, it is 
usually termed a nistoun, and the children 
of the family are the nisado. " Qu'es beu, 
moun nisau ! " (" How lovely is my home ! ?? ) 
exclaims Batisto Bounet, the peasant of 
Bellogardo, in his memoirs. A. Foures, a 
quite modern Languedocian writer, lamenting 
that his friend the poet Peyrat was obliged 
to live in Paris, says of him " 1'istourian- 
troubaire, forobandit dempuei tant de terns 
de soun nizal, joubs las nivouls del nord " 
(" the historian -poet, exiled for so long from 
his home, under the clouds of the north "). 
The exile is figurative, but the expression 
shows that Peyrat, foronisa from his country 
near the Pyrenees, .had become a deiniza in 


116). In Baring-Gould's life of St. Vincent 
(' Lives of Saints,' January, p. 334) we are 
told that, by the order of Dacian, Vincent's 
body was cast into a field to become the 
prey of wild beasts and birds, but was 
defended by a raven. 

St. Meinrad, the hermit, of Swabia, who 
is commemorated the day before St. Vincent, 
on 21 January, had two pet ravens, which 
followed his two murderers, attacking them 
with beaks and claws, and then, dashing 
against the windows of a house which they 
had entered, caused their capture and execu- 
tion. The life is authentic, and is charmingly 
told by Baring-Gould, January, pp. 321-33. 
St. Meinrad is included in John and Raphael 
Sadeler's ' Sylvse Sacrse, 1 Munich, 1594, 
and a raven is perched above the saint's dead 
body, watching it ; but the Abbots of 
Einsidlen do not seem to have admitted 
these birds into their heraldic insignia, in 
which we find stags, lions, storks, dogs, and 
squirrels, as shown in Steinegger's interesting 
series of plates in his ' Idea Vitse et Mortis S. 
Meinradi, 1 " Typis Monasterii Einsidlensis,'* 
1681. C. DEEDES. 


In their interesting query N. M. & A. ask 
if there are other "instances of birds or 
mammals being kept in this fashion in other 
parts of Europe." I am reminded of the 
raven I saw some eight years ago at Merse- 
burg, a small cathedral town about ten 
miles south of Halle a. S. It was kept in a 
large stone cage in front of the palace, and 
the following story, recalling the well- 
known one of the jackdaw of Rheims, was 
told to account for its presence : A certain 
Bishop of Merseburg, whose name I forget, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. 11. AUG. 20, 1910. 

lost a valuable ring, and suspected one of his 
servants of having stolen it. The man 
vehemently denied all knowledge of the 
theft, but he was not believed, and was 
beheaded ; the stone block, with blood- 
stains, is still shown in the palace court- 
yard. Afterwards the ring was discovered 
in a raven's nest, and the bishop, in remorse, 
set apart a sum of money to maintain for 
ever a raven as a memorial of his crime and 
a warning against hasty judgments. 

In looking over the cathedral I saw (I 
believe in a window) the arms of the bishop 
in question, into which a raven entered. 
Possibly they are to be held responsible in 
some way for the presence of the raven, the 
legend being invented when the original 
reason had been forgotten ; but at any 
rate.. the raven is (or was) undoubtedly 
there, and furnishes an analogy to the Lisbon 
crows. I was informed that the allowance 
for the raven's maintenance is now made 
by the Government. H. I. B. 

THE KING'S BUTLER (11 S. ii. 108). 
The Duke of Norfolk is Hereditary Chief 
Butler of England as Earl of Arundel and 
Lord of Keningal or Kenninghall Manor, 
which is not far from Buckenham, to which 
Camden alludes. 

The Lord Mayor and citizens of London 
(generally eight) claimed the right of assisting 
the Chief Butler in his Butlership ; and the 
Mayor, bailiffs, and commonalty of Oxford 
also claimed to serve in the office of Butler - 
ship to the King, with the citizens of London. 
Both claims were usually allowed, the Oxford 
citizens being rewarded with a fee of lesser 
value than that which was given to the 
Londoners. For historical details as to the 
City claim, see * Ceremonials to be observed 
by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and 
Officers of the City of London,' London, 
1850, 8vo, chap. lx., ' Coronations,* pp. 157- 

I am not aware of any other claimants for 
the office referred to than those specified 

It was supposed to cover the remains of 
Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw 
when they were disinterred from their 
graves in Westminster Abbey. Rede in his 
' Anecdotes and Biography,' as alluded to 
by Wheatley, repeated in 1799 what was even 
then merely a tradition. Mr. Wheatley 
observes, however, that "no contemporary 
or early writer, so far as we know, alludes 

any such tradition, which has all the 
appearance of being a late invention." He 
does not mention that the obelisk bore the 

ollowing inscription : 




87). The base of the column noticed by 
MR. A. LE BLANC NEWBERY does not, I 
regret to say, belong to the fourteenth 
century, but dates from circa 1850, when the 
premises numbered 278 were built. Their 
design was quite ambitious for the com- 
mercial architecture of that period : there 
were two columns supporting the facia on the 
Pentonville Road side, and in Caledonian 
Road two half-round pilasters supported a 
pediment. The style was approaching to 

RISTER (11 S. ii. 69, 111). MR. W. D. 
PINK and the inquirer may like to read the 
following translation by George Pryce,F.S.A. y 
made for his ' Popular History of Bristol ' 
(1861) from the Latin of the Brook brass 
in St. Mary Redcliff : 

Here lies the body of the venerable man John 

Brook, once servant-at-law 
to the illustrious prince of happy memory. King 

Henry the Eighth, Judge of Assize 
to the said king in the eastern parts of England,. 

and chief steward of 
that honourable house and monastery of the blessed 

Virgin of Glastonbury, 
in the county of Somerset ; which said John died 

on the 25th day of 
December, Anno Domini 1552. And near him rests 

Johanna his wife, 

daughter and heir of Richard Americke, whose 
souls God propitiate. Amen. 


(US. ii. 66). At the Windham Club, St. 
James's Square, of which I have been a 
member for forty years, there is, and, as far as 

1 know, there always has been, a dispense 
cellar, where the butler keeps his few bottles 
of all wines in the Club for instant issue, 
the large stocks being in the main cellar, 
controlled by the secretary. I should think 
that this is a common practice in London 
clubs, and that the word " dispense " is 
used generally. The Windham was founded 
in 1828. The secretary tells me that when - 


ii s. ii. A. 20, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


small quantity of wine is ordered from a wine 
merchant for immediate drinking, it is sent 
! into " dispense." ROBERT PIERPOINT. 


! (11 S. ii. 68, 134). Perhaps MR. DENHAM is 

I referring to the journal of Capt. Woodes 

I Rogers, edited by A. C. Leslie under the 

j title ' Life aboard a British Privateer in the 

Reign of Queen Anne,' and published by 

Chapman & Hall in 1889. The only dubious 

point about the matter is that the expedition 

of Rogers was fitted out by a company of 

Bristol merchants, and not by the East India 

Company. In other respects the book, 

which gives a singularly graphic account 

of the captain's encounters with enemies in 

various parts of the world, may well be the 

publication sought. W. S. S. 

MANOR : SAC : SOKE (US. ii. 108). 
The answer to this query will be found in 
Maitland's * Domesday Book and Beyond,' 
pp. 80-128. The term manerium came in 
with the Conqueror, taking the place of 
mansa, mansio (p. 108). Prof. Maitland has 
defined a manor as a house against which 
geld is charged (p. 120) ; and although Dr. 
Round adduces reasons for the rejection of 
this definition (English Historical Review, xv. 
293), his objections bear a close resemblance 
to " exceptions which prove the rule.'* 
"Soke"- was used for "jurisdiction," "the 
right to hold a court " (Maitland, op. cit., 
p. 86). Where a lord had soke over men 
and land, justice had to be sued in that lord's 
court, so that " soke " meant not only the 
lord's jurisdiction, but also the protection of 
his sokemen from vexation in numberless 
other and distant courts. " Soke " also 
means " seeking ** (qucestio), hence the duty 
known as " soca faldse " is the duty of seeking 
the lord's fold, where the tenants' sheep or 
cattle will make manure for the lord's use. 
So also " soca molendini " is the duty of 
taking grist to the lord's mill to be ground 
there for his particular profit. 

' ' Sake " has a less comprehensive significa- 
tion than " soke.' 1 The word means a 
" matter " or " cause," and so grew to mean 
" the right to have a court and to do justice " 
(Maitland, op. cit., p. 84). 

Reference to the * N.E.D. 1 shows that 
" manor,'* "manse, 1 ' and " mese,' 1 the 
archaic form of " messuage," are all allied 
to the Latin manere, to remain. The earliest 
instance of the use of the word "manor" 
which I have seen occurs in a charter of 
William de Muntchenesy belonging to the 

last decade of the twelfth century. One 
of the witnesses to this deed was William 
"del Maner," possibly a member of the 
Cambridgeshire family " de Manerio." 
Eustace de Manerio held two knights' fees 
in 1166 of the Bishop of Ely. See ' Ancient 
Deeds,' A. 3023 ; ' Red Book of the Ex- 
chequer, 1 p. 364. W. FARRER. 

INTERCOURSE (11 S. i. 8, 154, 397, 511). 
ROCKINGHAM asks whether any certain 
information can be given as to Li Hung- 
Chang's English. If ROCKINGHAM was 
under the impression that Li Hung-Chang 
understood English well and that his pre- 
tended ignorance was only a diplomatic 
device, he was giving that statesman credit 
for an accomplishment he did not possess. 
He neither spoke nor understood English. 
No Chinese official of viceregal rank does. 

Neither was the late Dowager Empress 
conversant with our tongue. It was said 
that the late Emperor Kuang Hsu had 
studied English to a considerable extent, 
though I fancy no one knew how far his 
knowledge extended. 

Li Hung-Chang had one diplomatic 
"dodge"- of which ROCKINGHAM may 
perhaps have heard. It was not an affected 
ignorance of English (that was genuine 
enough), but a pretended inability to speak 
any Chinese except the dialect of Anhui, 
his native province. This, of course, made 
him unintelligible to such visitors as spoke 
only the Mandarin dialect. Li Hung- 
Chang frequently resorted to this device 
when inclined to be evasive. As a matter of 
fact he spoke " Mandarin '* perfectly. 

G. M. H. PLAYFAIR, H.M. Consul. 
H.M. Consulate, Foochow. 

GENERAL HAUG (11 S. ii. 66). Dr. 
Constant von Wurzbach's ' Biographisches 
Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich,' 8th 
part, Vienna, 1862, has an article on an Ernst 
Haug or Hauk, formerly an Austrian officer, 
afterwards a political refugee, who is said to 
have been a general in the Sardinian service 
in 1848 and 1849. It is stated in this article 
that after leaving Italy he went to London, 
where he edited a geographical periodical 
called Cosmos, and that the English papers 
in 1854 reported that the British Govern- 
ment were subsidizing an expedition which 
he was undertaking in the interior of 
Australia. Can this be the man asked for ? 

The Haugs seem to have been rather 
mixed up at the time when this volume was 
written ; for we are told that the above 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 20, mo. 

Haug was sometimes confused with Ludwig 
Haug (1799-1850), also an Austrian officer, 
who was an insurgent leader in the Hungarian 
revolution, and that the head of the geo- 
graphical expedition may have been the 
Ernst Haug who was a sub -lieutenant in the 
Tirolese Jager Regiment in 1843. 

Bad Wildungen. 

FOLLY (11 S. ii. 29, 78, 113). On the site 
of the present Folly Bridge, anciently called 
Grandpont, over the Isis or Thames at 
Oxford, was a tower said to have been used 
as an observatory by Friar Roger Bacon, 
and afterwards leased to a citizen named 
Welcome, who added another story, hence 
called " Welcome's Folly." The bridge thus 
acquired its present title. 

Friar Bacon's study was, in truth, no more 
than a gatehouse erected upon Grandpont in 
early times, as a defence to the southern 
entrance of the city. Tradition reported 
that when a greater man than Bacon should 
pass under it, it would fall. To this Dr. 
Johnson alludes in his ' Vanity of Human 
Wishes ' : 

When first the College rolls receive his name 
The young enthusiast quits his ease for fame ; 
Resistless burns the fever of renown, 
Caught from the strong contagion of the gown : 
O'er Bodley's dome his future labours spread, 
And Bacon's mansion trembles o'er his head. 
In Jackson* s Oxford Journal for Saturday, 
13 March, 1779, occurs the following adver- 
tisement : 

Friar Bacon's Study. 

The materials of this building will be sold by 
auction to the best bidder, on Monday next 
[15 March], at the house of Thomas Stockford, St. 
Told's [i.e., St. Aldate's], Oxford, at five o'clock in 
the afternoon. The Purchaser to take away the 
materials and clear the ground within 10 days. 
The ancient building began to be taken down 
on 6 April, 1779, a period destructive of 
much ancient work both in Oxford and in 
other historic cities. 

In The St. James's Chronicle ; or, British 
Evening Post, No. 2820, these verses will be 
found : 

Lines occasioned by the intended demolition of Friar 

Bacon's Study, Oxford. 
Roger ! if with thy magic glasses, 
Kenning, thou see'st below what passes, 
As when on earth thou did'st descry 
With them the wonders of the sky, 
Look down on your devoted walls, 
Oh ! save them, ere thy study falls ; 
Or to thy votaries quick impart 
The secret of thy magic art ; 
Teach us, ere Learning's quite forsaken, 
To honour thee, and save our Bacon. 

" The most probable view,'* says Mr. 
Herbert Hurst in his ' Oxford Topography,'- 

" is that this is the ' New Gate ' erected in the four- 
teenth century on an earlier pattern, to strengthen 
the old southern gate near to Christ Church ; and it 
is remarkable that Agas names both of them South 

In 1565 it was still considered one of the 
military defences of the city, and was also 
in use as the Archdeacon's Court. 

Anthony Wood (' City,' i. 425) repeats 
Hutten's opinion that the name of Friar 
Bacon's Study is "meerly traditionall, and 
not in any record to be found. " After dis- 
cussing the question whether the tradition 
is to be believed, he seems on the whole to 
accept it, but quietly adds in the margin : 
" But I believe all this was at Little Gate." 
So we may, if we will, believe that Roger 
Bacon discovered gunpowder in a room 
within a stone's throw of the south-west 
corner of the present dining hall of Pembroke 
College. A. R. BAYLEY. 

There is a Folly Farm at Flitwick in 
Bedfordshire, on one side of Flitwick Moor. 
Its distinguishing feature is a birch wood, 
and in its grounds is the well from which 
come the mineral waters once extensively 
advertised. There are no sham castles in 
the vicinity. W. R. B. PRIDEAUX. 

The Pines, Flitwick. 

Dendy's Folly is a tower built by a man 
of that name on the Harrow Lands near 
Dorking. Rooms were added on each side 
about fifty years ago, and it is now a house* 
Three miles further south, on the western 
side of the road to Horsham, is Folly 

Winckfield Park, Berks, is known as Folly 
John Park. 

A tower is sometimes called a Folly. 


Hilfield, Yateley. 

A short mile from Long Buckby on the 
road to Northampton is a stone-built resi 
dence known as Buckby Folly. I have 
many times tried to find out the origin of this 
name, but so far have failed to do so. 
Wetton (' Guide-Book to Northampton and 
its Vicinity, ? 1849) says : "It was once an , 
inn, called ' The Green Man.* l 

To judge by an achievement carved in 
stone on the north wall (Clerke impaling ; 
Cotes), it was probably built or owned by 
some member of the Clerke family (see 7 S 
xii. 248 ; 9 S. ii. 247). JOHN T. PAGE. 
Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 20, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The stultitia use of the word " Folly " 
has been well understood for a long period. 
Near a certain town in the Midlands stands 
a capacious house, built about fifty years ago, 
and known for a generation afterwards as 
Love's Folly, from the circumstance of the 
owner, a retired hotel-keeper possessing that 
surname, having acted as his own architect, 
and, whilst expending 90,000 bricks in the 
cellars, forgetting to provide a staircase to 
the principal upper rooms. The subsequent 
necessary alterations gave much amuse- 
ment to his friends and neighbours. 

W. B. H. 

I am grateful for several replies to my 
query. MB. MACMICHAEL'S suggestion that 
the two by-roads in this village might have 
been called the Folly and the Little Folly 
because of propinquity to *Colney Park 
will not do, because that place is at least 
a mile and a half from the village. Nor, 
I think, will the other suggested meanings 
fit in this instance. Our two " Follies *' 
are nothing but by-roads or lanes. They 
form the two sides of an irregular triangle, 
of which the main street of the village is the 
base. One inhabitant told me, with confi- 
dence, that they are called " Follies " 
because " if you start from the village, walk 
along one of them, and then along the other, 
you come back to the village again " ! 


Shenley, Herts. 

I have lately come into possession of 
copies of the Threadneedle Street Registers, 
1600-1713. If MR. CARTER will send me 
particulars, I shall be glad to forward the 
entries, as I take great interest in research 
work. The registers have been copied and 
published by the Huguenot Society, but 
can only be obtained through the Secretary 
of the Society. 

There are but few particulars of the French 
Church at Greenwich. 

Registers of many of the French churches 
are at Somerset House. 


Holyrood, 9, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

DEAN ALFORD'S POEMS (11 S. ii. 108). 
The * Poetical Works ' of Alford, published 
in 1845, do not contain all his verses, as he 
published others afterwards both in maga- 
zines and in separate volumes. ' Be Just and 
Fear Not ' is included in the selection given 
in Mr. Miles's ' The Poets and the Poetry 
of the Century,' vol. x. C. C. B. 

LIARDET (11 S. ii. 49). Probably a son 
of John Liardet, a Swiss clergyman, patentee 
of the oil cement, letters patent No. 1,040 
of 1773. The patent was contested in 
Liardet v. Johnson, and was upheld by Lord 
Mansfield. For the pamphlet literature 
which sprang up in connexion with this 
trial the catalogues of the Patent Office and 
British Museum Libraries should be con- 
sulted ; also Boase's ' Modern British 
Biography. 1 E. W. HULME. 

CAPT. R. J. GORDON (10 S. xii. 29, 138). 

"This officer died on Sept. 27, 1822, at Wilefe 

Medinet, a day's journey from Senuaar, whence he 
was proceeding in an attempt to reach the source 
of the Bahr Collittiad." John Marshall's <R.N. 
Biog.,' iv. pt. i. p. 202 ; Scots. Mag. 

He was the third son of Capt. Abraham 
Cyrus Gordon, 91st Foot, who died in 1832, 
and grandson of Dr. Abraham Gordon, 3rd 
Foot (the Buffs), who died in 1808. I have 
been unable to discover to which branch of 
the Gordons they belonged. 

Sudbury Croft, Harrow. 

Hungary in the Eighteenth Century. By Henry 
Marczali. With an Introductory Essay on the 
Earlier History of Hungary by Harold W. V. 
Temperley. (Cambridge University Press.) 

WE are told by the author in the preface that 
in 1878 the Hungarian Academy of Science 
invited him to write a history of Hungary in the 
time of Joseph II. and Leopold II. (1780-92). 
The three volumes dealing with the reign of the 
former monarch duly appeared between 1882 and 
1888, and peacefully rested on the shelves of at 
least one large library in London for about twenty 
years or more before the Cambridge University 
Press decided to publish an English translation, 
which was undertaken by the author's colleague 
and friend Dr. Arthur B. Yolland, of the Budapest 
University. Another friend, Mr. Temperley, has 
written an introductory essay on the earlier 
Hungarian history to enable the English reader 
to plunge at once in medias res. 

After another ' Introduction,' this time from 
the pen of the author himself, giving a rapid 
sketch of Hungarian history -from the Peace of 
Szathmar (1711) to the accession of Joseph II. 
(1780), the condition of Hungary at the latter 
date is described with great detail in five chapters ; 
in which the economic conditions, the social 
system, nationalities, religion, and the royal 
power and government of the State are succes- 
sively dealt with. 

The year 1711 was an important turning- 
point for Hungary. Before the expulsion of the 
Turks from the larger portion of the territory 
of the old kingdom as it existed before their 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. IL AUG. 20, 1910. 

arrival, Hungary was divided into three separate 
monarchies, ruled over by a Hapsburg, the Sultan 
of Turkey, and the semi-independent Prince of 
Transylvania respectively. The Peace of Szath- 
mar was to unite the whole nation and to be a 
compromise between the united nation and their 
sole ruler, the victorious Hapsburg. Hence- 
forth there was to be only one king, one law, 
and one army. 

Mr. Temperley's introductory essay is exceed- 
ingly well done, except that he is perhaps too 
dogmatic in places, and too severe in his judgment 
of the Magyars. He should remember the saying 
about the mote and the beam. Traces of the 
most primitive savagery exist wherever de- 
scendants of savages survive, and the true 
spirit of medievalism is to be found everywhere, 
England not excepted. The Hungarian hussar 
who stands with drawn sword before the county 
assembly hall, ready, if necessary, to resist the 
king and his soldiers, is not much more of an 
anachronism than the Lord Mayor of London 
standing behind- a cord at Temple Bar to remind 
his sovereign, in this antiquated way, of the 
ancient privileges of the City. Seventy years 
ago the Hungarian nobles still wore the hussar 
dress as their native costume, and the forms of the 
Hungarian Parliament were still mediaeval. 
Visitors from Budapest are amused in London 
by the quaint garb worn by the Beefeaters on their 
errand to explore the vaults of the Houses of 
Parliament for would-be imitators of Guy Fawkes. 
With regard to Prof. Marczali's portion of the 
work, the reader will feel inclined to agree with 
him that his best reward is the decision of 
the Cambridge University Press to publish his 
book in English. Nevertheless, even after such a 
compliment reviewers may still be of service in 
pointing out faults in the book. Thus many of the 
foot-notes might have been omitted with ad- 
vantage, because in the form in which they 
appear they are useless. For instance, on p. 203 
there is a reference to some extracts from State 
and other documents published by Prof. Marczali 
himself in a Hungarian periodical in 1881. These 
were subsequently republished in book form, 
and the student who wishes to pursue the subject 
will find that the collection is a conglomeration 
of data without any apparent order or system, 
and moreover lacking an index ; and as the page 
is not given, he will have difficulty in finding the 
passage in question. 

The three writers who are responsible for the 
present book are evidently not agreed as to who 
the Rascians really are. On p. 197 Prof. Marczali 
explains that the Serbs who followed in the wake 
of the Turkish armies and came from Ipek, in 
Old Servia, called Rascia, were and are called 
Rascians. Elsewhere throughout the portion of 
the book for which he is responsible we find, 
however, " Serbs (Rascians) " and " Rascians 
(Serbs,)" and even " Rascian Serbs," while Mr. 
Temperley has " Rascians and Serbs " (p. xx). 
The uninitiated reader will consequently be 

Next, according to Mr. Temperley, the Popes 
bestowed on two of Hungary's kings the title of 
Saint (p. xxiii). Prof. Marczali, on the other 
liand (or is it his translator ?), writes of " St. 
Stephen and the other canonized kings of Hun- 
gary," in the plural. Were there more than 
TWO ? 

There was no King Ladislas in 1514 (p. 178). 
The name of that king is given correctly as 
Wladislav in the list of rulers at the beginning 
of the book. Probably this is also the translator's 
mistake, like the passage relating to a sluice 
270 fathoms long (p. 87), which is apparently 
meant for the length of the weir. 

Maria Theresa, we are told, called Hungarian 
law a not very interesting topic for study. Many 
readers of ' N. & Q.' may have the same opinion 
about some of the other topics dealt with in the 
book, but they will probably think an account of 
the peasants, their folk-lore and superstitions, 
alluring, and be grateful to Mr. Temperley for 
calling their special attention to these subjects. 
Their gratitude, however, will be short-lived, as, 
except a brief foot-note, there is nothing to be 
found on the subject at the reference given. 
As regards the foot-note itself, the quotation 
beginning with the words " In Hungary not 
long ago " is taken from an eighteenth-century 
writer, and not from a more modern source. 

A generation ago a Regius Professor of History 
at one of our ancient universities could allude to 
the constitution of Hungary, and, according to 
Mr. Temperley, express regret that he was unable 
to discover the terms of its coronation oath. 
The professor in question must have been un- 
fortunate in his search among the books in the 
British Museum dealing with Hungarian history, 
many of which are in Latin. 

in <K0msp0tttettis. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
bo "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries "'Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested t 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages t> 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

LAWBENCB PHILLIPS ("English History in 
Rime "). Specimens of riming lines on Englisl 
kings, and references to books containing othei 
will be found at 7 S. xii. 253 ; 9 S. xi. 330 ; xii. 33. 

H. K. ST. J. S. Forwarded. 

n s. ii. AUG. 27, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 35. 

NOTES :-The Rule of the Road, 161-Shakespeariana, 162 
Nottingham Graveyard Inscriptions Florence Night- 
3 a Forbear, 165-Etymology of "Totem" 
Sough Toll at Newcastle-Franco Family-Old-Time 
English Dancing-" Egyptian Pompe "Aviation in 1830, 

nTTKRTES --Goldwin Smith's 'Reminiscences' Dictionary 
nf Mvthology-R. Mackenzie Daniel, Novelist, 167- 
Fdward R Moran-Isaac Watts's Collateral Descendants 
_ Foul Anchor "-Cromwell and Louis XIV. -Flint 
Wrplocks in the Crimean War, 168 Alabaster Boxes of 
five-Authors Wanted-Major Hudson at St. Helena- 
Beniamin Jenkins Ulcombe Church -Twopenny Post- 
,_Mohammed on the Narcissus Prayer Book Calen- 
dar-John King, Artist-Telephones in Banks-James 
Weale 169 Clarkson Clerkson Erskme Neale Ed- 
ward Felling, 170. 

REPLIES -Scotch and Irish Booksellers, 170 Charles II. 
and his Fubbs Yacht - Anglo-Sparflsh Author, 171- 
Richard Gem John Rylands Library : Dante Codex, 172 
Ozias Humphry's Papers Abbe Se.. M.P.'s Unidenti- 
fied " Storm in a teacup," 173 Ben Jonson St. Swithin's 
Tribute at Old Weston, 174 Snails as Food Francis 
Peck Arms of Women, 175 Sir John Alleyn Early 
Prinfcine Parish Armour Red Lion Square Obelisk- 
Edward Bull, Publisher, 176-Lord Mayors and their 
Counties of Origin Speaker's Chair-Sleepless Arch- 
J M Que"rard, 177 Sir Matthew Philip Authors 
Wanted Egerton Leigh British Institution, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Lord Broughton's 'Recollections 
of a Long Life." 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

OBITUARY :-H. A. Harben. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE "Rule of the Road" on land has so 
frequently afforded subject for discussion 
in 'N. & Q.' that reference to Mr. R. P. 
Mahaffy's paper read before the International 
Law Association on the 4th inst will be of 
interest. The following quotations are taken 
from the full report which appeared in The 
Times on the following day : 

Mr. Mahaffy said it was 

" strange that the custom of the road should 
differ from country to country ; that it should 
be one thing in Great Britain, Sweden, Hungary, 
Portugal, in some cities of Italy, and in some 
provinces of Austria ; and the opposite in France, 
Germany, the country parts of Italy, Spain, 
Russia, and even in the United States of America, 
where so many English institutions still remained." 

As an illustration of this I may mention 
that a friend of mine who was on horse- 
back noticed, on meeting an Italian general, 
also on horseback, at the gates of Rome, 
that his doubt as to the correct side was 

shared by the distinguished native. Rome 
perhaps follows the British, and the Cam- 
pagna the opposite, system. 

Mr. Mahaffy maintained that 
" the natural way to lead a horse was with the 
right hand, and it was desirable, when two horses 
were passing on a road, that the men leading them 
should each be between his horse and the other 
horse and man." 

He stated that this rule was followed in 
our own country roads, where 
" the rule for horses led by hand was the opposite 
from that for driven carriages, and this must 
have been the universal rule in old times, when 
heavy traffic was carried by led pack-horses." 

Mr. Mahaffy's reference to pack-horses 
reminds me that our old friend DR. DORAK 
on the 9th of July, 1864 (3 S. vi. 26), mentions 
that in an article in The Cornhill of that 
month it is said that "the old pack-horse 
roads in Wilts are still used by drovers and 
others wishing to avoid the toll-bars " ; 
and DC-RAN quotes from Sleigh's ' History of 
Leek l to show that the old pack-horse road 
in Staffordshire is still in existence. ' By 
Packhorse Track to Shere * is also the sub- 
ject of an article in The Evening News of 
the 18th inst., being No. XIII. of a series 
on ' Afoot round London.* It mentions 
"the old drove-road, or pack-horse track, 
which goes almost due west along the ridge 
of the North Downs to Guildford." 
Mr. Mahafiy went on to say : 
' It remained to be considered why the rule in 
England was changed, and he had come to the 
conclusion that it must have been changed 
gradually after the introduction of fast carriage 
driving on the English country roads, and more 
especially after the introduction of coaching. 
He had looked into various books on coaching and 
driving, and the general conclusion to which 
they pointed was that the practice of driving 
carriages became general in the early part of the 
seventeenth century .... When carriages came 
into general use, one thing at once became essential, 
and that was that the whip, which did so much 
to guide as well as to encourage the horse, should 
be free. This became even more necessary with 
the introduction of four-in-hand driving and fast 
journeys, for drivers had little control over the 
leading horse except by means of the whip." 

The driver holding his whip in the right 
hand, he would naturally keep to the left side 
of the road, so as to have room for the free 
play of the whip, and Mr. Mahaffy sub- 
mitted that this was the reason for the 
change. But then comes the question, How 
was it that no such change was made in 
France or Germany ? As regards France, 
the roads were generally made straight 
across country, and by an order of the French 
Royal Council in 1776 they were divided 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. ADO. 27, 1910. 

into four classes, the breadth of the first 
being as much as 42 ft. between fences, the 
second 36, the third 30, and the fourth 24. 
At that time our roads were much narrower, 
very few being 42 ft. wide, so that the risk of 
having the whip encumbered by keeping 
to the right in France was very much less 
than in the narrow roads of England. The 
English rule was not confirmed by statute 
till the passing of the Highway Act of 1835, 
and before that time it was clearly decided 
by the judges that " it was at best only a rule 
of convenience, and not to be adhered to 
as a hard-and-fast rule.'* Since 1835 the 
duty to keep to the left had been put upon 
all drivers, both when they were meeting 
other vehicles and when they were being 
overtaken, and failure to observe this rule 
was punishable with a fine. 

After the reading of the paper, Mr. H. F. 
Dessen's proposal that a small committee 
should be appointed to consider the desira- 
bility of a universal rule of the road on land 
was carried. 

In 'N. & Q.' this "rule absolute" was 
advocated on the 9th of June, 1866 
(3 S. ix. 482), by X. C., who considers the 
French plan of one rule for walkers, riders, 
and drivers the best : "All should pass 
meeting left arm to left arm, and over- 
taking by the left." He mentions that 
" in Belgium, Germany, and most parts of 
Switzerland the French rule of the road 
prevails. In the cantons of Switzerland next 
Italy, and in Italy itself, they drive and ride 
as in England, passing right arm to right 

On the 28th of July, 1866 (3 S. x. 63), 
T. A. H. gives what he believes to be the 
correct version of the lines on ' The Rule of 
the Road,' and states, in reply to several 
correspondents, that he has " always under- 
stood their author to have been Henry 
Erskine." The wording was : 

The rule of the road is a paradox quite ; 
For in driving your carriage along, 

If you turn to the left you are sure to go right, 
If you turn to the right you go wrong. 

On the 17th of August, 1867 (3 S.xii. 139), 
LORD HOWDEN advocates the French rule, 
which " has a rationale of its own, which 
gives it additional convenience. In passing 
to the right of a road, and not to the left, 
as in England, you have your whip-hand free, 
in case of starting, bolting, gibing, or any 
other danger of too much juxtaposition.' 1 

On the 31st of August P. A. L., although a 
Frenchman, and " desirous to chime-in with 
him," considers " the rule which obtains in 

England far more sensible and safe, inas- 
much as each ' Whip,' passing close to the 
other's right wheel, can see at a glance, and 
much better, what distance there is between 
the two, and so avoid a collision.* 1 

On the 7th of December UNEDA says that 
1 ' Keep to the right ' is the general rule of 
the road in the United States,' 1 and quotes 
from the ' Law of Roads in Pennsylvania,*' 
published in 1848, which states: "In 
England a contrary usage prevails, and it 
has often been desired that the English 
practice, as the most reasonable, should be 
here adopted.'* 

On the 28th of December T. M. M. 
explains the difference between the practice 
in England and the Continent : "In England,, 
where the habit of driving from a seat or box 
generally prevailed, and where consequently 
(the exigencies of the operation requiring 
the right arm to be free) the driver occupies 
the extreme right of the driving-seat, thi& 
condition necessitated the adherence to th& 
left side of the road. On the Continent, 
where all public vehicles were wont to b& 
driven by postillions, whose proper seat is on 
the left or near horse, the same condition 
involved a recurrence to the opposite or right 
side of the road." 

On the llth of June, 1881 (6 S. iii. 468), 
JEHU points out that on the Continent, 
" curiously enough, the English rule obtains 
on the railways, owing no doubt to the first 
lines having been planned by English 
engineers" ; and he considers it "remark- 
able that America should not have followed 
the mother country in the rule of the road." 
SIB, J. A. PICTON on the 9th of July points out 
that on the Continent " the usual method 
is to drive with reins, in which case it is- 
as easy to pass on one side as the other, and 
the ordinary preference of the right hand 
naturally impels to the right." There is 
much more on the subject in the same 
volume ; and on the 28th of January,. 
1882, J. P. quotes the Act of Parliament 
regulating the rule of the road for Ireland. 

A. N. Q. 


'TEMPEST,' IV. i. 64 (11 S. i. 323). The 

Thy banks with pioned and twilled brims 
is exhaustively treated in the notes to the 
Furness Variorum edition of the play ; and 
the conclusion one reaches from a perusal 
of them seems to be that no direct allusion 

ii s. ii. AUG. 27, 1910.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to peonies or any other flowers was intended 
by the poet. " Pioned " is an old English 
word, as Holt, Henley, and Knight long ago 
pointed out, which signified "dug 3 " or 
" trenched " ; while Spenser in ' The Faerie 
Queene,' ii. 63, when speaking of the wall 
built by Constantino from the Forth to the 
Clyde, uses the substantive " pyonings ' J 
in the sense of entrenchments : 

With painful pyonings 
From sea to sea, he heapt a mighty mound. 

The 'N.E.D.,' it should be noted, favours 
this etymology. 

" Twilled 5? is a much harder nut to crack, 
but Henley's note (Var. ed., p. 196), I 
think, explains it sufficiently : 

" The giving way and caving in of the prims of 
those banks occasioned by the heats, rains, and 
frosts of the preceding year are made good by 
opening the trenches from whence* the banks them- 
selves were at first raised, and facing them up 
afresh with the mire these trenches contain." 

" Twilled " is here understood to be derived 
from Fr. touiller, which, according to Cot- 
grave, meant "filthily to mix, or mingle,' 3 
"besmear." Thus the bank, being heaped 
up again, is " trimmed " or decorated by 
" spongy April " with flowers " to make cold 
nymphs chaste crowns." ' The Century 
Dictionary ' takes a somewhat similar view 
by rendering "twilled" as "ridged" or 
" terraced." It is necessary, if possible, to 
establish a close association of idea between 
the two epithets, "pioned " and " twilled " : 
a want which this interpretation apparently 
goes far to supply. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

After inquiries among competent 
authorities I am unable to find any endorse- 
ment of the local clergyman's view advanced 
by The Edinburgh Review that a marsh 
marigold is called in Shakespeare's district 
a peony. Consequently, until further 
evidence appears, I must decline to accept 
a suggestion which on the face of it is not 
convincing. KEL MEZZO. 

"AN-HEIRES" (11 S. i. 323). Custom can- 
not stale the infinite variety of sobriquets 
with which mine host of the Garter lards his 
comrogues. Among his pleasantries are 
Kaisar," " Pheezar, n " Cavaleiro- justice," 
" guest -cavaleire," " Francisco " (or " Fran- 
(joyes "), " Castilion-King -Urinal,'* " Hector 
of Greece," " Bohemian-Tartar," &c. ; and 
here I believe we should read Al-feres. This 
Spanish word, meaning (in military parlance) 
an ensign, and spelt " alfaras," " alfares," 

"alferes," " alferez," is used by Jonson,. 
Beaumont and Fletcher, &c., and is the sort 
of title that would be after the heart of 
bully host. As it is of Arabic origin, a 
hyphen after Al, the article, would be 
correct, and usual in early times. K. D. 

Several emendations have been proposed 
for the word " an-heires," namely, "On, 
here," " On, heroes," " On, hearts," and 
" cavaliers " the last being the one favoured 
by MR. TOM JONES ; see the note s.v. in 
Rolfe's edition of the play. Theobald's 
substitution of " mynheers," however, look& 
the most likely, if one has regard to the inter- 
course that sprang up between the people 
of the two great Protestant powers at the 
close of the sixteenth century. 

N. W. HLLL. 

' 2 HENRY IV., 5 I. ii. 45 (11 S. i. 323, 504). 
Payne Collier gives " thorough " instead 
of "through" in "And if a man is 
through with them in honest taking up.'* 
" Taking up '* a bill or account is a common 
phrase, and so I read the sentence as 
" And if a man is particular in paying his 
bills, then they insist on security for any 
accommodation he may require." 

Vermilion, Alberta. 

' TITUS ANDRONICUS,* V. i. 99-102 (11 S. 
i. 324, 504). I think correspondents at 
these references must be at fault in their 
interpretation of the line 

As true a dog as ever fought at head. 
Surely the reference is to bull-baiting. The 
object of the dog in this " sport " was that 
termed "pinning and holding," that is, to 
seize the bull by its nose and then not to 
let go. A dog which did not at once go 
for the head of the bull would be utterljr 
useless for that purpose. F. A. RUSSELL. 
4, Nelgarde Road, Catford, S.E. 


All that he hath writ 
Leaves living art but page to serve his wit. 

The expression " but page to serve his 
wit " in these, the last lines of the epitaph 
on the monument at Stratford, requires 

Mr. Sidney Lee in his ' Great Englishmen 
of the Sixteenth Century * (article ' Shake- 
speare's Career - ), commenting on the above 
lines, observes : 

" These words mean only one thing : At Stratford- 
on-Avon, his native place, Shakespeare was held to- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. n. AUG. 27, 1910. 

njoy a universal reputation. Literature by all 
other living pens was at the date of his death only 
fit, in the eyes of his fellow- townsmen, to serve * all 
that he had writ ' as page boy or menial. There he 
was the acknowledged master, and all other writers 
his servants. The epitaph can be explained in no 
other sense." 

Mr. Lee interprets the word " page," 
therefore, as meaning an inferior a page 
boy or menial. It does not appear that 
there is any reason for doubting the correct- 
ness of this explanation. 

It is practically certain that the epitaph 
was not composed by any one living in 
Stratford. As Halli well -Phi llipps observes 
{' Outlines, 1 p. 285): 

" It is not likely that these verses were composed 
either by a Stratfordian or by any one acquainted 
with their destined position, otherwise the writer 
could hardly have spoken of Death having placed 
Shakespeare ' within this monument.' " 

It is thus evident that we must look else- 
where than in Stratford for the author. 
It is hardly necessary to state that there is 
no external evidence of any kind indicating 
the authorship. We are obliged, accord- 
ingly, to depend wholly upon the internal 
evidence of the epitaph itself. I return, 
therefore, to the consideration of the ex- 
pression " but page to serve his wit, 51 
and give the following reason for believing 
that Francis Bacon may have been the 
author of the epitaph. 

In Spedding's ' Works of Francis Bacon,* 
there is given by the editor an introductory 
preface to Bacon's ' Advancement of Learn- 
ing. 1 In this preface Spedding mentions the 
following facts. The ' Advancement l was 
published in 1605. It consists of two books, 
or parts. The first book was probably 
written some few years before the second. 
But the second book, as Spedding states, 
is " much the more important of the two." 

It appears that Bacon had shown the 
MS. of the first book to his friend Tobie 
Matthew, and in 1605, when the work was 
published (or shortly afterwards), Bacon 
sent a copy of the printed volume, now 
containing the more important second part, 
to Matthew, with a letter from which 
Spedding gives the following extract : 

''My work touching the 'Proficiency and Ad- 
vancement of Learning ' I have put into two books, 
whereof the former, which you saw, I account but 
as a Page to the latter." 

Here we have the same expression " but 
[as a] Page " that occurs in the epitaph. In 
both instances the expression is used to 
designate the relation existing between an 
inferior and a superior. 

It would be interesting to ascertain (if 
possible) whether any author other than 
Bacon, writing between 1605 and 1623, had 
used the word " page " with the unusual 
meaning attached to it, as above. Inquirers 
into this problem, I may state, will obtain 
no information from the * New English 
Dictionary. 1 Sir James Murray's staff of 
readers has not reported any such definition 
under the word " page.' 2 



* 2 HENBY IV.,' IV. i. 139 : 

And bless'd, and graced, and did, more than the 

Surely drowsiness must have come over 
Theobald when such an acute and judicious 
critic substituted for " and did," which is 
the reading of all the Folios in the above 
line, Thirlby's conjecture " indeed, n which 
the Cambridge editors have introduced into 
the text. Not only is there no necessity 
for any such change, but there are cogent 
reasons why we should adhere to the 
text of the Folios, the words objected 
to forming, so to speak, the very bone 
and muscle of Westmoreland's speech. 
" All the country's wishes and prayers," he 
tells us, 

Were set on Hereford, whom they doted on. 
And bless'd, and graced, and did, more than the 

Aye, "and did." Not all the blessings and 
gracings of all the world would have set 
Hereford on the throne without good 
resolute action, and that Westmoreland very 
well knew, and that Shakespeare took care to 
make Westmoreland express, which he did by 
adding, with a bold stroke of his pen, the 
words "and did": they blessed Hereford 
more than they did the king, they graced 
Hereford more than they did the king ; 
they did more for Hereford than ever they 
did for the king. *' Did " here is a notional 
verb, as the grammarians call it, and not an 
auxiliary. Modern usage would insert after 
it the preposition "for," but between modern 
English and Elizabethan English, as Mr. 
Daniel Jones in his recent lecture has 
reminded us, there is a vast difference. 
Shakespeare cuts it short ; but of his 
meaning there can be no doubt, any more 
than there can be in that remarkable 
expression in ' King Henry VIII.,' "That 
am, have, and will be, *' which is a triumph 
of Shakespearian brevity. 

7, Lyndhurst Road, Exeter. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 27, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



HAVING lately transcribed all the monu- 
mental inscriptions in the disused church- 
yards and Nonconformist burial-grounds of 
old Nottingham, I have thought that the 
references to families connected with other 
places or persons buried elsewhere might 
perhaps be acceptable to readers of ' N. & Q.' 
The Baptist Cemetery contains only three 
such references, viz. : 

Cook Lock, Bedford Villa, "died at Clophill, 
Beds and was interred at that place." 

A daughter of "The Rev. John Wilson of 
Matlock Bath." 

Parker, "late of Kettering in Northamptonshire." 

The following allusions to outside places 
occur in St. Peter's Churchyard : 

Carr, "of Kiddall, near Leeds." 

Carter, "late of Lightcliffe, near Halifax." 

Chawuer, "Vicar of Church Broughton, and 
Perpetual Curate of Scrapton." 

Newham, of "Wilford." 

North, " of Southwell." 

Panton, "gentleman, late of the City of Chester." 

Sargent, " of Ruddington." 

Thompson, "gentleman, late of Arnold." 

Tompson, "late of Bradmore." 

[An illegible memorial appears to contain a 
reference to the East Indies.] 

The following items are taken from the 
Congregationalist burial-ground : 

Wilson, "many years pastor of a Christian Church 
at Matlock Bath, Derbyshire." 

Sharwood, "of Charter-house Square, London, 

who died at Nottingham, on his way home from 

Derbyshire, where he had been visiting his Friends." 

Carlill, " of Hull." 

Price, " late of Warwick." 

Turner, " late of London." 

Smith, "of Keyworth in this county." 

Bradley, "interred in Abney Park Cemetery, 

Swann, "who died in London, and was interred 
m Eunhill Fields." 

Howard, "interred in Kensal Green Cemetery." 

The following items are taken from the 
Mary's Church supplementary burial- 
grounds, Barker Gate, which also embrace 
the small ground of the Stoney Street Baptist 
Chapel : 

Sheltou, late of Ketton, Rutland. 

Gray, of Leeds. 

Smith, "a native of Leicester." 

Wood, " born at Crich in Derbyshire. ' 

Gascoyne, of Colsterworth, Lincolnshire. 

baxby, "of Redford in this county." [No doubt 

Retford Leland refers to " Retheford, of sum 

soundid Redford."] 

Storkes, "born at Belton, near Grantham." 
Harrison, " late of Woolsthorp, by Belvoir Castle." 
Goodacre, 'born at Long Clawson, Leicestershire." 
Parker, "late of Thrinkstone in the county of 

Garton, of Basford, Notts. 

Glasskin, of Lenton. 

Heard, "born at Markn'eld in Leicestershire 

baptized at Barton." 

Taylor, died at Port Macquarrie, New South 

Taylor, died on his passage from Tahiti to 

Taylor, died at Manchester, interred in Harpur- 
hey Cemetery. 

Smith, of Peckham, Surrey. 

Possibly some of the foregoing references 
may prove helpful to inquirers associated 
with the places referred to, who would 
hardly be likely to institute searches in 

I hope in another instalment to supply 
similar particulars relating to the remaining 
disused Nottingham graveyards. 

39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

STOCKER FAMILY. If the giving of life 
entitles one to ancestral respect, at least one 
London family has cause to regard the famous 
maiden who has just died as a main factor in 
its family tree. Hardly had Miss Nightingale 
landed in the Crimea before she had to plunge 
into the horrors of the field of Inkerman. 
Underneath a pile of actual corpses was a 
seemingly lifeless body which she ordered to 
be carried to the hospital, where she nursed 
it back to life, giving the rescued soldier 
a memento of their meeting. 

This soldier, now many years deceased, 
Sergeant Benjamin Stocker, one of the most 
highly respected non-coms, in the Army, 
lived to serve in many stations, ending in 
charge of the training depot at Monken 
Hadley. After the Crimea he married a 
young widow of Devizes, a descendant of 
Sir George Rooke (for the famous admiral 
left descendants in spite of dictionaries), 
and had a large family. The eldest child, 
Mrs. Annie Phessie, the light and life of a 
large circle in Dulwich, died especially 
beloved only a few months before her father's 
rescuer. A son of the same name followed 
in his father's footsteps, and was given a 
commission for signal services in the Boer 
War and other campaigns. These children 
united three distinct Rooke families from 
distant points in England and Ireland, 
Sergeant Stocker's own mother being a 
Rooke of a Devon Quaker family. He was 
born at Honiton, where a great-aunt, Mrs. 
Mary Stocker, left a legacy conditional on the 
life of her cat. Her will in the Prerogative 
Court files has occasioned countless fictitious 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. IL AUG. 27, 1910. 

and facetious variants. The main stem of 
these West-Country Stockers was at the 
adjoining Colyton, where Sergeant Stocker 
derived by descent his given name from an 
ancestress of the family of the famous first 
Harvard graduate, Benjamin Woodbridge, 
Puritan Vicar of Newbury and chaplain to 
Charles II. Like the Wiltshire Rookes, 
the Stockers of the Devon and Somerset 
border go back to London. Sir William 
Stocker was one of three Lords Mayor in the 
fatal year of Bosworth Field ; and the 
well-known Jekyll family derive from the 
heiress of Stoke Newingt on, Margaret Stocker, 
who gave her son the earliest known 
example of a "middle 22 name, viz., John 
Stocker Jeykll. ALNWICK. 

that the account of totem in the new edition 
of my (larger) ' Etymological Dictionary * is 
not quite right ; it was copied from * The 
Century Dictionary.* But actual reference 
to the Algonkin dictionary by Cuoq shows 
that it can be bettered. The word ote means 
(1) a family in one tent; (2) a family, 
tribe ; (3) a family mark or cognizance. 
A suffixed -m indicates possession ; and the 
prefixing of a personal pronoun to a form 
ending in -m gives the equivalent of a 
possessive pronoun. Hence, by prefixing 
ot, meaning " he," to otem, we obtain ototem, 
meaning " his family mark " ; whence our 
English a totem, in which the word has been 
misdivided and misrepresented. 


Newcastle Chronicle of the 3rd inst. stated 
that at midnight on that day the " thorough 
toll " of Newcastle would be collected for 
the last time. The toll originated so far back 
that the date is unknown, but it was granted 
for repairing the city walls. In later years 
the amount received something like 8,OOOZ. 
per annum has been used for the upkeep 
of the streets. 

It would seem that this Newcastle 
"thorough toll 2 ' is the last of its kind. 
Should this not be the case, some reader of 
'N. & Q.' will perhaps kindly inform me 
of any others still in existence. A. N. Q. 

FRANCO FAMILY. Since the sensational 
sale at Christie's on 8 July of Gainsborough's 
portrait of Raphael Franco, a good deal of 
interest has been excited in the various mem- 
bers of this family of wealthy eighteenth- 
century Anglo -Jewish merchants . Some bio - 
graphical details of Gainsborough's sitter 

will be found in the report of the sale 
published in The Times of 9 July. Raphael 
Franco himself died on 8 November, 1781, a 
year or so after the portrait was painted. 

From The Times of 1789 I have copied two 
paragraphs which future writers may be 
glad to know of. They apparently refer to 
two members of the same family : 

" The executors of Mr. Franco have filed a bill of 
very great length against the Patentees of Drury 
Lane Playhouse, and the executors of Mr. Garrick. 
One of the variety of the objects of this bill is to 
restrain them from pulling down the Theatre. "- 
April 2. 

" Tha Prince has repurchased his favourite horse 
Escape of Mr. Franco for 1,700 guineas, originally 
knocked down by Tattersall at the Prince's sale for 
90 guineas, so that there are ups and downs in this 
world, even with horses." May 14. 


had shown to me a leading article on 
' Dancing * in The Times of 20 July, in which 
it is said : 

"Dancing is a serious art with most primitive 
peoples ; and it was a serious art in England not 
so long ago. There is nothing frivolous or romping 
in our old dance tunes or in the measures of our. 
old dances, but often something plaintive in the 
music ; a solemn gravity in the dancers' movements. 
If you see an old dance, such as a Pavane, well 
danced, you cannot but be aware of a curious 
significance in it as if it were some kind of religious 
ritual. The dancers seem to be occupied with some 
secret and beautiful business of their own, which 
is quite unrelated to the ordinary facts of life." 

From a recollection dating back nearly 
ninety years, I do not agree with this. In 
my younger days in Eastern Cornwall there 
was much gaiety in many of the country 
dances, as well as in the jigs which came 
from olden time ; and when we wished to 
describe a particularly joyous occasion, we 
used to say that " it was a regular rigadoon," 
which palpably recalled an old-fashioned 
dance that had gone out of popular use even 
before my day. R. ROBBINS. 

" EGYPTIAN POMPE." John Agmondes- 
ham of Barnes, Surrey, in his will, dated 
1597, and proved 1598 (71 Lewyn), desired 
to be buried * ' without Egyptian Pompe, 
for by death men cease from their labors." 
This is a use of Egyptian as an adjective 
which I have not seen elsewhere. 


found a reference in a contemporary weekly 
paper that a M. Chabrier read a paper on a 
"Daedalian apparatus" before the Paris 
Academy of Sciences on 6 September, 1830. 

L. L. K. 

ii s. ii. A. 27, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their name's and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Will you, of your courtesy, allow me to 
appeal through your columns for a little 
information ? 

I am editing Mr. Goldwin Smith's 
' Reminiscences,' and I am over and over 
again puzzled by references to people who, 
apparently, nourished before I was born. 

Who, for example, was ** Hemming Ji of 
The Saturday Review? Who was "Sally 
Ward," afterwards Mrs. Bigelbw Lawrence 
she who was often to be seen at Lady Ash- 
burton's salon at The Grange ? WTio were 
Robert and Samuel Kell of Bradford ? 
Patrick Comyn was evidently a good com- 
panion, a playgoer, and, I think, a friend 
of Smyth Pigott ; but of his birth, life, and 
death I have found no particulars. Who, 
too, was "Temple" under whose tuition 
Goldwin Smith learned to plead at the Bar ? 
Who was " Prof. Simpson of Belfast, 31 circ. 
1860? Who was "Bishop Spencer, then 
[circ. 1840] ministering in Paris " ? And 
will some one tell me who was " Mrs. Jones 
of Pant-y-Glass 1l (if I have the name 
right), of whom the Duke of Wellington was 
"'foolishly fond" ? 

I need scarcely say how grateful I shall be 
to any of your correspondents who will be 
kind enough to write to me direct, for I am 
working three thousand miles away from the 
British Museum and the Bodleian. 

The Grange, Toronto, Canada. 

one recommend a good dictionary of 
mythology, on the order of Lempriere's 
Classical Dictionary,' but thoroughly up to 
date, complete, and not virginibus puerisque ? 
If there is no good one in the English 
language, do any of the readers of * N. & Q.' 
know of such a dictionary in French or 
German ? "W r s 

T i . .. TT * VT ' . 


; [Such dictionaries are continually being revised 
in accordance with new theories of mythology.] 


Mr. Thompson Cooper contributed to the 

Dictionary of National Biography l a short 

sketch of, Robert Mackenzie Daniel, author 

of the once widely read, but now forgotten 
novels, ' The Scottish Heiress, 1 1842 ; ' The 
Gravedigger,* 1843 ; ' The Young Widow,' 
1844; 'The Young Baronet/ 1845; and 
* The Cardinal's Daughter, 1 1847. Mr. Cooper 
cites as his authority William Anderson's 
' Scottish Nation, 4 but appears not to have 
seen the much fuller account in Taifs Maga- 
zine for July, 1847, from which Anderson's 
is evidently condensed, and which is duly 
noted in Poole's ' Index. 1 The writer in 
Tait, followed by Anderson and Mr. Cooper, 
states that Daniel 

" was born in Inverness-shire in the year 1814. His 
father was a small landed proprietor or laird within 
a short distance of the county town, and Robert was 
the youngest child of a rather numerous family. 
His school education having been completed in 
Inverness, young Daniel was sent at the age of 
fifteen to Marischal College, Aberdeen. Here he 
remained for the space of three years, diligently 

pursuing his studies On quitting Aberdeen he 

removed to Edinburgh, from the desire of his friends 
that he should now direct his studies with a view 
to the bar, which was also his own inclination at 
this period. In prosecution of this object, he entered 
the office of a Writer to the Signet, at the same 

time attending the law classes at the University 

After a residence of four years at Edinburgh, Mr. 
Daniel began to abandon the idea of following the 

profession of an advocate He bethought him that 

he might meet with success as a literateur in Lon- 
don, and, accordingly, we find him there in the 
latter part of 1836." 

One does not readily believe that the 
greater part of this circumstantial account, 
printed a few months after Daniel's death, is 
pure romance ; but I can find no confirma- 
tion of the story. When Daniel matricu- 
lated at Marischal College in 1831, he 
described himself as "filius Joannis, merca- 
toris in urbe Peterhead " (see my ' Fasti 
Acad. Marisc.,' ii. p. 473) ; and he was a 
student at Marischal College for only one 
session. The late Mr. William L. Taylor, 
the bibliographer of Peterhead, writes 
(Scottish Notes and Queries for February, 
1892, p. 142) : 

" Robert Mackenzie Daniel was the eldest sou of 
John Daniel, clothier and marine insurance broker, 
Peterhead. Born in Peterhead about 1815 ; trained 
as a writer in the office of the late Provost Alex- 
ander, solicitor, Peterhead, and for a time with 
Messrs. Gamack and Forbes, solicitors, Peterhead. 
After that he devoted himself to literature." 

Can any one suggest an origin for the 
Inverness and Edinburgh legend ? To add 
to the confusion about Daniel, the * Eng- 
lish Catalogue of Books, 1835-62,' p. 187, 
assigns the five books above named to 
his widow, who herself was a novelist of 
some reputation. Allibone's 'Supplement,' i. 
p. 445, enumerates no fewer than eighty 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL AUG. 27, mo. 

volumes from her pen during the years 1846- 
1877. What was her maiden name, and 
when did she die ? P. J. ANDERSON. 

University Library, Aberdeen. 

EDWABD R. MOBAN. Some seventy or 
eighty years ago this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the journalistic world of 
London. He was at one time sub -editor of 
The Globe, and a well-known wit and diner- 
out. In Willis's Current Notes, i. 9, is a short 
account of a dinner given by Richard Bentley 
on 23 November, 1839, to a circle which 
included Luttrell, Moore, Campbell, Ains- 
worth, Jerdan, Moran, Lover, Barham, and 
" Boz. n I think it would puzzle a publisher 
of the present day, even with the assistance 
of the Perpetual Secretary of the new 
Academy of Literature, to gather round him 
such a group as this. Moran, I learn from 
this note, died on 6 October, 1849. I should 
be glad to know more of his career. 


Are there any collateral descendants of Dr. 
Isaac Watts, the hymn-writer of Southamp- 
ton, living ? 

Isaac was born on 17 July, 1674, and died 
a bachelor on Friday, 25 November, 1748. 
He had three brothers : 

1. Richard, the physician (born 10 Feb- 
ruary, 1675/6 ; died 14 April, 1750), who left 
only one daughter Mary, who married her 
cousin (?) James Brackstone, the bookseller. 

2. Enoch, the sailor (born 11 March, 
1678/9), who was alive on 25 November, 
1748 ; see p. 70~2 of Milner's Life. 

3. Thomas (born 20 January, 1679/80), 
who was probably the father of " my nephew 
Thomas Watts of Colchester,** mentioned in 
Isaac Watts's will. 

There were four sisters : 

1. Mary No. 1, who evidently died in 

2. Mary No. 2 (born 31 October, 1681), 
who married John Brackstone in 1707/8, 
and had four children Joseph, Mary, Sarah, 
and Matilda. 

3. Elizabeth (born 15 August, 1689, died 
11 November, 1691). 

4. Of the fourth, Martha, I have no par- 

My great-great-grandfather Peter Watts 
(No. 1) of Southampton had a son Peter 
Watts (No. 2), who was born 14 December, 
1747, and "received into the Church'* of 

Holy Rood, Southampton, on 30 May, 1748, 
"having been baptized before.' 1 He was 
born one year before Isaac died, and I 
cannot help thinking that his father Peter 
(No. 1) was the son of Enoch or Thomas 
Watts. Can any one clear up this point ? 

My mother Cecilia Ann BuU (born 1834, 
died 1895), the daughter of James Peter 
Howard (born 1801, died 1865) of White- 
heads Wood Park, Shirley, bore a striking 
resemblance to Isaac Watts. 

James Peter Howard's father was William 
Howard (born 1771, died 1858), who married 
Ann Watts (born 1777, died 1843), the 
daughter of Peter Watts (No. 2). 


Vencourt, King Street, Hammersmith. 

"FouL ANCHOB.'* Writing on 'Naval 
Flags * on Wednesday, the 17th inst., The 
Morning Post names ' ' the Admiralty * Foul 
Anchor * which is not foul.' 1 It has round it 
the cable which " fouls SJ an anchor, a lands- 
man would have thought. Foul or not foul, 
where does this cable date from ? The 
symbol perhaps older than our Christian 
"Hope" is to be found on the earliest 
tombs in churches of Milan, Ravenna, and 
Palermo, in exactly the Admiralty form. 


CBOMWELL AND Louis XIV. Referring to 
the invincible soldiers of Cromwell, one of the 
generals of Louis XIV. is reported to have 
forwarded to his royal master the following 

laconic dispatch: "They came before , 

knelt down and prayed, and got up and took 
it." Was it Turenne in connexion with 
some siege in the Low Countries ? I shall 
be very greatly obliged if any of your readers 
will inform me. HOWABD RUFF. 

The Royal Society of St. George, 
241, Shaftesbury Avenue, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

Can any reader tell me if flint-lock guns or 
rifles were used in the Crimean War ? King- 
lake, vol. v. pp. 152-3, mentions rifles and 
firelocks ; also, pp. 164-5, 307, 367, note, 

Does " firelock " imply flint ? I know 
that flint-locks were given to our soldiers 
going to India in 1849. Were some of these 
drafted to the Crimea ? 


[" Firelock " and " musket" were used for Brown 
Bess, the old smooth-bore, and "rifle" for the 
Minie, taken to the Crimea by the Guards.] 

ii s. n. A. 27, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


author of the passage indicated beneath b 
traced ? 

'* Do not keep the alabaster boxes of your lov 
and tenderness sealed up until your friends ar 

dead Flowers on the coffin cast no fragranc 

backward over the weary way." 

I have recently translated it for a Bavarian 
magazine, and have received several letter 
inquiring as to the authorship. J. M. D. 

I should be obliged if any correspondent coulc 
tell me the source of 

Stern death 
Cut short his being and the noun at once, 

and of 

As it fell out upon a day 

Lazarus sickened and died, 
There came two serpents out of hell 

Forthwith his soul to eruide. 

D. M. L. 

officer was at St. Helena during Napoleon's 
captivity. Can any reader inform me as tc 
his career ? CLEMENT SHORTER. 

wish to learn of the parentage, baptism, anc 

marriage (with Ann ) of the above. 

He was probably a native of Monmouth- 
shire or Glamorganshire, or possibly of 
Bristol. He was born 1712-13, married 
between 1736 and 1746, and died 1783, being 
buried at Chepstow. A direct reply wiU 
greatly oblige STANHOPE KENNEDY. 

13, Draper's Hill, Basingstoke. 

ULCOMBE CHURCH. In the 'National 

Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland * 

(London, Virtue & Co., 1868) is the following 

statement under Ulcombe : 
" The church, dedicated to All Saints, originally 
longed to the Priory of Christ Church, Canter- 
try, from whom it was wrested in the Danish 
irs, but restored in 941; in 1220 it was made 

collegiate by Archbishop Langton," &c. 

Can any of your readers give me the 

>rigmal authority for this statement ? The 
lurch is a building of the thirteenth or 

fourteenth century over an earlier Norman 

(perhaps Saxon) one. 

Ulcombe Place, near Maidstone. 

croft writes that he owes much to the gift 
of memory, but, inasmuch as he was born 
I May, 1841, he probably owes his reminis- 
cence of the " twopenny" postman to 
memory's understudy, imagination. He 

declares in ' The Bancrofts : Recollections 
of Sixty Years' (p. 28) : "The 'twopenny 5 
and ' general l postmen, with their royal-blue 
or scarlet coats . . . .1 remember quite clearly." 


Mr. Oswald Crawfurd in his ' Round the 
Calendar in Portugal, 1 1890, p. 114, gives the 
following quotation from Mohammed, but no 
reference for it is supplied : 

"Mahomet once addressed this saying to his 
disciples, who, if they were materialists, must have 
thought it a dark one : ' If thou hast a loaf of 
bread, sell half and buy the flowers of the narcissus ; 
for bread nourisheth the body, but the flowers of 
the narcissus the soul.? " 

Can any one tell me what was Mr. Crawfurd's 
authority for this ? EDWARD PEACOCK. 

some time after 17 December, 1866, an 
article appeared in The Ecclesiologist dealing 
with the Prayer Book Calendar, and specially 
with the black-letter saints. I am anxious 
to copy the article in question, should I be 
able to obtain the loan of it. Please reply 

58, Hallgart Street, Durham. 

JOHN KING, ARTIST. Can any Devon- 
shire or Bristol correspondent of * N. & Q. 1 
help me to trace portraits or other paintings 
by this artist ? He was born at Dartmouth 
1788, exhibited at the Royal Institution 
and the Royal Academy, and painted many 
Bristol men. Details of his career will 
oblige. T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 

recent issue of The Red Magazine states that 
' it is well known that telephones are not in 
ise in any of the English banks." Surely 
his is an error. Can readers of * N. & Q.* 
nform me whether or not they are in general 
ise in English banks ? 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

JAMES WEALE. I should like some 
nformation regarding this collector of Irish 
>ooks and MSS. His library was sold by 
Svans in February, 1840. He was probably 
n engineer by profession, as he gave evidence 
efore a Lords 1 Committee on the question 
f the water supply of the metropolis, and 
may possibly have been a brother of John 
Veale, the publisher of technical works, who 
ppears in ' D.N.B.* 

Kensal Lodge, N.W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. n. AUG. 27, 1010. 

CLARKSON. George Clarkson was ad- 
mitted to Westminster School 12 Sept., 
1768, and William Clarkson 18 May, 1772. 
Information concerning their parentage and 
career, and the dates of their respective 
deaths, are desired. G. F. R. B. 

CLERKSON. H. C. Clerkson was admitted 
to Westminster School 26 April, 1808 ; E. S. 
Clerkson 19 Jan., 1809 ; and Frederick Clerk- 
son 27 March, 1811. I should be glad to 
obtain any information concerning them. 

G. F. R. B. 

ERSKINE NEALE, 1804-83. What was the 
name of his mother ? The ' Diet, of Nat. 
Biog. z fails to give information on this point. 

G. F. R. B. 

EDWARD FELLING, D. 1718. Who were 
his parents ? When and where in Wiltshire 
was he born ? When and whom did he 
marry? There are no answers to these 
questions in the * Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xliv. 274. 

G. F. R. B. 


(11 S. i. 423.) 

WITH such available materials as Dickson 
and Edmond's ' Annals of Scottish Printing,' 
Mr. Aldis's ' Books printed in Scotland 
before 1700,' Edmond's ' Aberdeen Printers, 
Mr. W. J. Couper's invaluable * Edinburgh 
Periodical Press, 1 and several others that 
might be mentioned, W. C. B.'s Scottish 
list could easily be largely increased. The 
names enumerated below, designed as 
supplementary to those given by W. C. B., 
have in a few cases been selected as indicating 
early printers or booksellers in different 
localities, but for the most part they have 
been culled almost at random from books 
that came nearest to hand at the moment 
of writing. 

One slight slip I may be permitted to point 
out in W. C. B.'s interesting list. Under 
Falkirk he puts " John Reid, printer, 1776." 
This, I think, is wrong. There was a John 
Reid in Falkirk about the time indicated, but 
he happened to be a minister of the Gospel, 
not a printer. Probably W. C. B. has mis- 
read Daniel for John. The career of Daniel 
Reid as a printer in Falkirk extended from 
about 1760 to 1785. He. was printing books 
in 1776. 

The list that follows makes no pretence 
to completeness ; in fact, it would require 
another list almost as long to do justice to 
omitted towns and districts where books 
were sold and printing carried on during the 
eighteenth century. The dates appended 
merely signify that the name appears on 
the title-page of some book at the time 

Aberdeen. (See Edmond's ' Aberdeen Printers ' 

for fuller list.) 
D. Melvill, bookseller, 1622 (contemporary 

with Baban). 

J. Chalmers, printer, 1759. 
Angus & Son, booksellers, 1782. 
J. Chalmers & Co., printers, 1789. 
Mrs. Thomson, bookseller, 1789 
W. Knight, bookseller, 1799. 
Arbroath. (See Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. iii.) 

[Anon.] printer, 1799. 
Bathgate (Linlithgowshire). Thomas Mair, mer- 
chant, 1785 (sold books : kept a general store). 
Broughty Ferry, near Dundee. Thomas Bever- 
idge, general dealer, 1733 (sold books and 
Campbeltown (Argyllshire). (See ' Books printed 

in Scotland before 1700.') 
[Anon.] printer, 1685. 
Carron (Stirlingshire). Daniel Reid, printer, 


Cessford (Roxburghshire). J. Weir, general 
dealer, 1742 (provision merchant: sold books). 
Dumfries. Robert Rae, printer, 1718. 

E. Wilson, bookseller, 1782. 
Dunbar. J. & G. Miller, booksellers, 1789. 

George Miller, printer, 1795. 

Dundee. (See Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. iii.) 
[Anon.] bookseller, 1683. (See ' Books printed 

in Scotland before 1700.') 
T. Colvill & Co., printers, 1775. 
Dunfermline. (See Mr. Beveridge's ' Biblio- 
graphy of Dunfermline.') 
James Beugo, bookseller, 1729. 
Gavin Beugo, printer, 1762. 
Edinburgh. Chapman & Millar, printers, 1508 

(first Scottish printers). 
T. Bassandyne, printer, 1576 (printer of 

" Bassandyne " Bible). 
E. Raban, printer, 1620 (went to St. Andrews, 

and then to Aberdeen). 
J. Watson, sen., printer, 1687 (printed at 


John Moncur, printer, 1714. 
Robert Brown, printer, 1719. 
John Macky, bookseller, 1719. 
J. Mossman & Co., printers, 1721. 
John Paton, bookseller, 1721. 
R. Fleming & Co., printers, 1727. 
James McEuen, bookseller, 1727. 
Thomas Heriot, printer, 1730. 
Lumisden & Robertson, printers, 1735. 
Alexander Alison, printer, 1738. 
W. Smith, bookseller, 1747. 
Hamilton & Balfour, printers, 1753. 
Gideon Crawfurd, bookseller, 1755. 
Walter Ruddiman, jun. & Co., printers* 1755. 
Hamilton, Balfour & Neill, printers, 1769. 
William Duncan, bookseller, 1765. 

ii s. ii. AUG. 27, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edinburgh (continued). David Paterson, printer, 

Murray & Cochran, printers, 1774. 

John Gray, printer, 1775. 

J. Bell, bookseller, 1776. 

William Creech, bookseller, 1776. 

James Donaldson, printer, 1777. 

P. Anderson, bookseller, 1782. 

J. Balfour, bookseller, 1782. 

J. Dickson, bookseller, 1782. 

W. Gordon, bookseller, 1782. 

W. Gray, bookseller, 1782. 

J. Robertson, printer, 1782. 

J. & E. Balfour, booksellers, 1783. 

Archibald Constable, bookseller, 1798. 

J. Guthrie, bookseller, 1798. 

J. Ogle, bookseller, 1798. 

Elgin. (See bibliography appended to ' County 
History of Inverness.') 

[Anon.J bookseller, 1798. 
Falkirk. Daniel Eeid, printer, 1766. 

J. Buchanan, bookseller, 1783. 

Patrick Mair, bookseller and printer, 1785. 

T. Johnston, printer, 1799. 

Glasgow. (See ' Literary History of Glasgow ' in 
'Maitland Club Publications.') 

J. Sanders, bookseller, 1625. 

William Duncan, printer, 1742, 

J. Newlands, bookseller, 1747. 

Daniel Baxter, bookseller, 1749. 

John Hall, printer, 1749. 

Alexander Adam, printer, 1773. 

J. Bryce, bookseller, 1780. 

J. Duncan, printer, 1782. 

Dunlop & Wilson, booksellers, 1782. 

D. Niven, printer, 1790. 

Ebenezer Miller, printer, 1793. 

W. Miller, bookseller, 1793. 

James Smith, bookseller, 1793. 

Gillies & Dymock, booksellers, 1796. 

M'Lean & Co., booksellers, 1797. 

James Imray, bookseller, 1799. 

M. Ogle, bookseller, 1799. 

Haddington. Baillie Cadel, bookseller, 1747. 
Hawick. George Caw, printer, 1784. 
Inverness. (See bibliography in ' County History 
of Inverness.') 

[Anon.] bookseller, 1761. 

[Anon.] bookseller, 1780. 

Jedburgh. C. Inglis, general dealer, 1742 (pur- 
veyor of food and literature). 

T. Caverhill, bookseller, 1747. 
Kelso. Palmer, printer, 1782. 

James Ballantyne, printer, 1796. 
Kilmarnock. J. Paton, bookseller, 1747. 

Peter M'Arthur, printer, 1781. 

.J. Wilson, printer, 1786. 
Kirkcaldy. A. Webster, bookseller, 1747. 
Leith. W. Coke, bookseller, 1779. 
Linlithgow. G. Paton, bookseller, 1747. 
Linton (Roxburghshire ). W. Johnston, general 

dealer, 1742 (supplied books and groceries). 
Maybole (Ayrshire). (See ' Books printed in 
Scotland before 1700.') 

[Anon.] printer, 1694. 

Montrose. (See Scottish Notes and Queries, 
vol. iii.) 

David Buchanan, printer, 1776. 
Paisley. George Caldwell, bookseller, 1781; 

John Neilson, printer, 179k 

Perth. (See ' Books printed in Scotland before 

W. Lauder, bookbinder, 1591. 

Alexander Mitchel, bookseller, 1733. 

A. Norry, bookseller, 1747. 

Andrew Sharp, bookseller, 1781. 

J. Taylor, printer, 1781. 

James Morrison, printer, 1794. 

G. Brown, bookseller, 1799. 
St. Andrews. (See ' Annals of Scottish Printing.') 

John Scot, printer, 1552. 

E. Baban, printer,1620 (then went to Aberdeen). 

P. Bower, bookseller, 1789. 

James Morrison, printer, 1795. 
Stirling. Robert Lekprevik, printer, 1571. 

J. Jaffery, bookseller, 1747. 

William Anderson, bookseller, 1777. 

William Paterson, bookseller, 1780. 

W. Christie, bookseller, 1787. 

Charles Randall, printer, 1795. 

W. S. S. 

Mr. E. B. McC. Dix has kindly sent me 
his ' List of Books, Pamphlets, and News- 
papers printed in Monaghan, in the Eigh- 
teenth Century,' Dundalk, 1906 (being 
No. IV. of " Irish Bibliographical Pam- 
phlets "), which gives these names : 

William Wilson, 1770. 

John Brown, 1787-96. 

James Walker, 1795. 

Stephen Goggin, 1798-1800. 

Robinson & Duffy, 1800. 

W. G. B. 

ii. 107). In a collection of ' Sketches ' 
which I have written, and which is in the 
press and will shortly be published under t he 
title of 'The Rose Goddess, &C., 1 I have 
given some facts about the Fubbs yacht, and 
also an original letter of Charles II. to the 
Duchess of Portsmouth in which he addresses 
her as " Fubs.' 1 CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

ii. 119). MB. W. SCOTT'S theory seems 
highly probable, and I think that I can help 
to identify Mendizabal's secretary whom 
Borrow saw in February, 1836. 

At that date, and for many years before 
and after, Mendizabal's private secretary 
was my late mother's father, Frederick 
Bolland Moore (born 1799, died 1875), 
youngest son of John Moore of Buntingford, 
Herts. The fact that Borrow uses the ex- 
pression " his secretary " suggests that it 
was not a Secretary to the Cortes (who 
would, perhaps, have been called by Borrow 
a Secretary of State) whom he saw in the 
Spanish minister's room, but a secretary 
attached to Mendizabal's person, and I 
am inclined to think that by the expressions 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 27, mo. 

"private secretary" and "his secretary" 
('The Bible in Spain,* 5th ed., 1894, p. 84) 
Borrow intended to designate the same 

My grandfather was in constant attendance 
upon Mendizabal during the greater part 
of his public life in Spain, in France, and in 
England and it seems the most reasonable 
thing in the world that he should have been 
present at Borrow's interview with the 
Spanish Prime Minister. At least, it is cer- 
tain that Mr. F. B. Moore was the person 
who in 1836 would best have answered the 
description of Mendizabal's secretary. 

An apparent difficulty is that my grand- 
father was not an author, though he might 
well have been described as " a fine, intel- 
lectual-looking man." Apart, however, from 
the considerations urged by MB. SCOTT, it 
seems possible that Borrow's subsequent 
informant may have confused my grand- 
father with his elder brother John, who was, 
from time to time, employed by the English 
Government in missions both to Spain and 
Russia, and who, as the author of a book of 
travel called ' A Journey to Odessa,* may 
have enjoyed some slight literary fame, 
though whether he wrote anything in 
Spanish I do not know. 

Ought we, however, to look for much 
from Borrow in the way of verification of 
references ? He saw, at his memorable 
interview with the famous minister, " a 
fine intellectual-looking man," evidently 
the minister's secretary. The occasion was 
a great one for Borrow ; he improved it, as 
an artist, such as he, would. His word- 
picture of Mendizabal is perfect, and exactly 
agrees with a lithograph of the minister 
by M. Gauci after a drawing by J. Notz, 
which is before me as I write. The secretary, 
too, impressed Borrow. Perhaps he recog- 
nized him as an Englishman, though he 
does not say so. Afterwards he talks of 
his adventure with the Prime Minister to 
people whom he met, some or one of whom 
"subsequently informed" him that the 
secretary was a distinguished literary man, 
and so forth. 

With such materials, did not Borrow write 
about Mendizabal's secretary just what 
might have been expected of his highly 
developed artistic temperament ? 

Maycroft, Fyfield Road, Walthamstow. 

RICHARD GEM (11 S. ii. 121). I beg 
for a little space in your columns to express 
my thanks for the article on my ancestor 
Dr. Gem, physician to the Embassy at Paris 

in the time of the Revolution. It contains 
many interesting particulars that are new to 
me, though I am acquainted with the infor- 
mation given in the ' Life of Huskisson l and 
in the ' Journal * of Mrs. Dalrymple Elliott. 
I should be glad to be allowed to inform 
MR. COURTNEY that Richard Gem, the 
doctor, was not, as he supposes, the son 
of the Mr. Gem who settled in Birmingham ; 
the latter is the one referred to by Nash as 
Lord of the Manor of Dodford. In con- 
nexion with this it has always struck me 
as absurd that Thomas Gem is described in 
Nash as having an estate of 160Z. a year at 
Dodford, as he owned five other properties 
in the county. 

Dr. Richard Gem had inherited from his 
father a small estate, separate from these, 
called Fockbury. S. HARVEY GEM. 

Goodrich House, Ross-on-Wye. 

(11 S. ii. 46). If MINIME had turned to 
10 S. iii. 483 and 10 S. xii. 449 he would 
have seen that I had quoted from this 
Dante codex or Landi MS. at the first 
reference, and included a notice of it at the 
second under the heading ' Dante MSS.* 
The possession of it by the John Rylands 
Library had therefore already been recorded 
in ' N. & Q. s 

The allusion to Dr. Cossio's excellent 
aperpu of it in the June Antiquary is more 
to the point, and I take this opportunity, 
since MINIME chronicles the Doctor's sug- 
gested title (" Codex Mancuniensis ") for 
the MS., of stating that in the July issue of 
the same journal I ventured to controvert 
its suitability, on the ground that the MS. 
has nothing Mancestrian about it save its 
present " local habitation." It was neither 
transcribed nor discovered here. " Codex 
Landianus " would be preferable, but in- 
volves confusion with the celebrated. Codice 
Landiano in the Biblioteca at Piacenza. 
" Codex Pratonensis " would indicate its 

I might, on second thoughts, have qualified 
the statement as to the birthplace by sub- 
stituting the description " presumptive birth- 
place," seeing that the copyist evidently 
resided at Volterra in 1426, although the 
transcription of the ' D. C. 1 was, according 
to the subjoined note, appended to the 
' Paradiso,* completed ten years earlier : 

" Scripta fuit p'me bartholomeum landi de landis 
de prato notarium, et completa fuit die xxviiij Junii 

As, then, the Codex originated either at 
Prato or Volterra, I offer as an alternative 

n s. ii. AUG. 27, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to " Codex Pratonensis " the title " Codex 

Volterranensis." Either, in any case, is 

i preferable to Dr. Cossio's for the reasons 

given above. 

Another point. I do not quite grasp the 

Doctor's inference that " from another 

; passage of the manuscript we know that 

; ten years later [from the completion of the 

MS.] the notary was still engaged on the 

Codex,' 1 for the passage refers rather to an 

i Italian version of Cicero's ' De Senectute * 

than to the transcription of the ' D. C., 1 

i unless the Doctor understands by " Codex " 

i the entire MS. volume. If so, the word is 

; misleading as applied to both, for Landi 

distinctly states that his Dante MS. was 

finished in 1416, whereas the translation was 

apparently completed in 1626. The passage 

i runs thus : 

"Queste cose q avute che dire della Vecchiegca 
alia quale voglia iddio che voi pervegnate accio che 
quelle cose che damme avete udite per experienga 
provare possiate. Ammen." 

The *' voi n is probably addressed either to 
the reader or a friend, and the double m in 
damme and Ammen was a vicious duplica- 
tion not infrequent in Italian MSS. of that 
period. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on.-M., Manchester. 

Almost all these papers, with deeds relating 
to the family, were in the possession of 
William Upcott at the time of his death 
(1846). When offered for sale, the original 
correspondence in 8 folio volumes was 
purchased by a Mr. White for 20Z., and he 
also secured the parcel of deeds and family 
papers and the MS. biography of Ozias 
Humphry. The memorandum books that 
M. F. H. has seen were bought by Rodd for 
Dawson Turner, and at his sale in 1859 they 
were secured by Boone for the British 

[ have reason to believe that the volumes 
>f original correspondence were broken up, 
^s many of the letters that formed part of 
them have come to my notice. The three 
volumes of Upcott Papers gathered by the 
|late F. Hendriks, F.S.A., contain a large 
number. C. Britiffe Smith's volume of 

>cottiana also has several of considerable 
interest.. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

ABBE SB.... (11 S. ii. 47). One might 

naps reasonably conjecture the name to 

that of the Abbe Sieyes (1748-1836), 

tesman, author, and scholar, who was a 

nspicuous figure in French Revolutionary 

'tory in the end of the eighteenth century 

and the beginning of the nineteenth. In 
Carlyle's ' French Revolution * he is repre- 
sented as playing a prominent part as a 
" constitution-builder/* while in Brougham's 
* Statesmen of the Time of George III., 1 
Third Series, his portrait is sketched in not 
altogether sympathetic colours. His achieve- 
ments as a book-collector, which are under- 
stood to have been considerable, have been 
completely overshadowed by his public 
services. W. SCOTT. 

M.P.'s UNIDENTIFIED (10 S. xii. 69, 314). 
The only details relating to Nathaniel 
Rogers, M.P. for Hull 1717-27, given in 
' The History of Kingston-upon-Hull,* by 
J. J. Sheahan (published 1864), are (p. 245) : 

"1716. William Maister died, and Nathaniel 
Rogers was chosen in his place. 

"1722. Sir William St. Quintin and Nathaniel 
Rogers. In 1723, June 30th, St. Quintin died, and 
was succeeded in Jan. 1724, by George Crowle. 

" 1727. Lord Mickelthwaite and George Crowle.' 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

" STORM IN A TEACUP " (11 S. ii. 86, 131). 
What Erasmus says concerning the 
passage in Cicero * De Legibus, 1 iii. 16 (36), 
referred to by ASTARTE (ante, p. 131), viz., 
" Excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo, ut 
dicitur, Gratidius, quos post films ejus 
Marius in ^Egaeo excitavit mari," is worth 
noting. After a dissertation mainly on the 
word " simpulum," Erasmus writes : 

"Proinde non absurdum mihi videtur, si quis 
existimet sumptam allegoriam & jpuerorum lusu, quo 
solent per fistulam angustam in simpulum inflantes, 
quasi fluctus quosdam et aquae strepitum excitare." 

'Adagia .Erasmi ' et al., under ' Occulta,' s.v. 

'In simpulo,' col. 1395 of the edition of 1599, or 
p. 548 of the edition of 1670. 


I am inclined to believe that compilers 
of dictionaries have had a good deal to do 
with the development of the phrase " storm 
in a teacup. 1 * There are no doubt numer- 
ous variants, some of them very early, as 

storm in a cream bowl," "storm in a 
boiling pot, u " storm in a cup, 11 " storm in a 
puddle n ; but that any instance can be 
cited of " storm in a teacup " occurring 
earlier than the last century I am inclined 
strongly to doubt. As has been already 
pointed out, the phrase is now commonly 
used as a translation of the proverb quoted 
by Cicero * De Legibus, 1 " fluctus in simpulo, 
ut dicitur, excitare 3 * (meaning literally 
" to stir up waves in a ladle, as the saying 
is "). It sometimes appears in the form 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. n. AUG. 27, 1910. 

"" storm in a teapot," as in Hoyt and Ward's 
' Practical Quotations,' 1883. In an edition 
of Ainsworth's ' Latin Dictionary,' 1812, 
Cicero's proverb is quoted, but without an 
English rendering. An edition of 1802 
does not contain the Latin proverb. Dr. 
E. A. Andrews of America, who completed 
his Latin lexicon based on that of Freund 
about 1854, included the proverb, and 
rendered it in English as " a tempest in a 
teapot." It appears, with the same inter- 
pretation, in a Latin dictionary issued by 
Ohambers about 1866, and again in Dr. 
Smith's ' English-Latin Dictionary,' pub- 
lished in 1870. There are, of course, several 
variants, such as " tempest in a teacup," 
"tempest in a slop-basin," "tempest in a 
puddle," and " tempest in a spoon." The 
French have the saying " une tempete dans 
un verre d'eau." My suggestion is that 
"" tempest in a teapot " is transatlantic in 
origin, and is the source out of which " storm 
in a teacup " and " storm in a teapot " 
liave arisen. W. SCOTT. 

BEN JONSON (11 S. ii. 67, 132). Would 
Hot " unbored," in M. E.'s first quotation, 
be an allusion to that period of adolescence 
in " females " which rendered them as yet 
unable to appreciate verse ? In our own 
time the ears of girls were not usually bored 
for earrings until about the age of fifteen, 
except, I believe, in cases where the boring 
was supposed to affect the eyesight bene- 

2. In Bailey's 'Dictionary,* 1740, the 
word " sliding," as applied to courage, means 
easily daunted. 

3. The Rev. T. L. O. Davies in his ' Supple- 
mentary Glossary ' gives " strummel " as a 
cant term for straw, while in East Anglia 
" strumel " is a cant term for a loose, long 
head of hair. " Strummel -patch'd " would 
therefore appear to be touzle-headed, re- 
sembling tossed hay or straw. 


1. "Most unbored ears for verse "=ears 
unpierced, impervious to the charm of verse. 

2. "A sliding reprehension at my hands *' 
=a passing reproof : perhaps a cuff with the 
open hand administered in passing, which 
does not hurt much. 

3. " Strummel -patch'd." There is an old 
cant word " strummel," meaning " straw." 
The phrase will therefore signify " patched 
with straw," thereby increasing the dis- 
comfort of the "goggled-eyed grumble- 
dories." What are " grumbledories " ? Are 

they fish which are said to emit a grunting 
or grumbling sound when drawn out of the 
water ? W. S. S. 

In the extract given by MB. BAYLEY in 
his reply " strummel " remains detached 
and unexplained. Gifford and his supple- 
mentary editor, Col. Cunningham, give the 
passage in the form ' ' strummel-patched, 
goggle-eyed grumbledories," but subjoin 
no commentary. In his ' Archaic Dic- 
tionary l Halliwell states that in Norfolk 
"strumel" (sic) signifies "a loose, long, 
and dishevelled head of hair." If " patched' 2 
also, as MB. BAYLEY says, means ' ' long, 
dishevelled -haired," then it seems plausible 
to conclude that the two words are designed 
to complete a twofold epithet, the one doing 
duty in giving emphasis to the other. 
" Patched," one would be disposed to con- 
clude, is the intensifying member of the 
combination. On the whole, it appears 
easier to attach a reasonable meaning to 
" strummel - patched " than to interpret 
separately each constituent part of that 
probable compound. 

With regard to " grumbledories," it may 
not be out of place to note that HalliwelPs 
definition of " dory "is "a drone bee." 
With this to go upon, there should be little 
difficulty in reaching a conclusion regarding 
the special significance of "grumbledories." 

HUNTS (11 S. ii. 126). The name of the 
place mentioned in The Daily Telegraph 
as "Old Neston" is Old Weston. I think 
Glenfield-cum-Branstone, Leicestershire, has 
no connexion with St. Swithin ; but the 
custom of strewing a church with rushes, 
hay, and the like is known in many pi 
which are in the same condition. 


The Outlook for the 13th inst. has a v< 
interesting article on * Rushbearing at 
Grasmere,' which shows that the ancient 
custom described is still kept up in severa 
places besides villages near Grasmere. 


Bridges, the historian of Northampton-' 
shire, states s.v. West Haddon : 

"It is the custom here to strew the pews wit 
straw from Christmas to Candlemas." 

See also 8 S. viii. 206, 298 ; xii. 36, 274. 

[Further contributions on the general question 
strewing rushes, &c., in churches are not invited.] 


ii s. ii. AUG. 27, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SNAILS AS FOOD (11 S. ii. 125). ST. 

;SwiTHiN seems to have been unfortunate 

in his experience of snails. Let me recom- 

i mend him to try one of the snail and oyster 

restaurants in the neighbourhood of the 

Gare de Lyon in Paris. I have enjoyed 

, them there, as also in Rouen and at Chartres. 

I should not so much care for them in a 

menu. They are best as a snack. 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Doncaster. 

It may interest ST. SWITHIN to know that 

I snails are regularly hunted for in Wiltshire, 

i and sold in Swindon Market, being con- 

! sidered nourishing, especially in cases of 

consumption or after illness. 

The sort found most often is the common 
i garden snail, Helix aspersa. Helix pomatia, 
1 which is known as the " Roman snail," 
; and is the sort eaten on the Continent, is 
not found near here. T. S. MASKELYNE. 
Basset Down House, Swindon. 

An old woman who lived in the village 

"where I was born over sixty years ago used 

to make up " simples " for various sorts of 

ailments. One was a " snail broth,"- which 

was said to be good for children and young 

persons who were " in decline,"' as con- 

i sumption was then called, and also for 

[children with "tickle tummies" children 

j who "turned" at ordinary food. How 

she made the snail broth was her secret, 

but it was not all snail, for with salt and 

I spices it was palatable. As a rule, anything 

I which this woman made " Old Nanny " 

she was called was taken readily and 

" without faces." She gathered snails at 

night, and herbs for she was "a yarb- 

wmnan" in the morning. It was usual, 

when a person " felt tickle,"- to say, " Oh, 

get some sneel broth." 

Snails used to have several virtues, and 
it was a sure cure to rub a wart with a little 
white snail, if afterwards you threw the 
snail over the left shoulder, and forbore to 
look where it went to. THOS. RATOLIFFE. 
v\ orksop. 

FRANCIS PECK (11 S. ii. 68, 136). 
There were at least four men of this name, 
all in holy orders. 

1. Francis Peck the antiquary (1692-1743). 
He was curate of King's Cliff in Northamp- 
tonshire in August, 1719, and afterwards 
Kector of Goadby Marwood in Leicester - 
i shire and Prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral. 

e was probably one of the Pecks of Wake- 
and Knossington, as his portrait 
opposite p. 192 of vol. ii. of Nicholses ' His- 
of Leicestershire 1 shows the arms of 

that family. His name does not appear 
on their pedigree at p. 879 of the same 
volume ; but he may have been a younger 
son of Robert Peck (who died 1695) and 
Elizabeth (? Jephson) his wife, who are 
mentioned therein. Elizabeth's surname is 
left blank by Nichols. 

2. Francis Peck (1720-49), son of the 
antiquary by Anne, daughter of Edward 
Curtis of Stamford. He was Rector of 
Gunby, Lincolnshire. 

3. Francis Peck, Rector of Saltwood with 
the chapel of Hythe annexed, to which he 
was inducted June, 1674. He died in 1706, 
and probably was the father of the West- 
minster scholar of Trinity mentioned by 
G. F. R. B. 

4. Francis Peck, A.B., Rector of Orle- 
stone, Kent, 15 February, 1710, resigned 
1715. It is just possible that he may have 
been the Old Westminster above referred to 
who graduated A.B. in 1709. The dates 
show that hejtnay also have been the author 
of * To vi/'os ayiov l and the memorial verses 
on Queen Anne mentioned by MB. SCOTT ; 
but both of these works are generally attri- 
buted to the antiquary. 

I should be glad of further information 
as to the pedigree of any of the above. 

W. A. PECK. 
Lincoln's Inn. 

ABMS or WOMEN (US. ii. 109). Boutell 
teaches that the second wife's arms should 
" occupy the lower part of the space origin- 
ally occupied by those of the former wife, 
or that part of the shield which in a quartered 
shield would be termed the fourth quarter " 
(' Heraldry, Ancient and Modern,* p. 224). 

The arms of the departed wife should be 
relegated to the second quarter. If the 
new-comer be an heiress, her contribution 
to the husband's bearings must, I think, 
be blazoned on a shield of pretence at 
fesse point. ST. SWITHIN. 

The husband* impales the arms of his wife 
during her lifetime, i.e., if she is not an 
heiress. If, however, she is an heiress, and 
sole representative of her father's family, 
then her husband bears her arms over his 
own on an escutcheon of pretence. Her 
son would not, however, bear his father's 
shield, with his mother's impaled arms, but 
would have only his father's arms, i.e., if 
his mother was not an heiress ; but if she 
was an heiress, then he would quarter his 
mother's arms in the usual way. It will be 
seen that quarterings may be multiplied in 
cases of the wives when they are heiresses. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 27, 1910. 

The following passage from Clark's ' In- 
troduction to Heraldry ? seems to answer 
the question proposed. Quoting Gerard 
Leigh on the bearing of several coat -armours 
pale-wise in one escutcheon, it says : "If 
a man marry two wives, the first shall be 
placed on the sinister side of the chief part, 
and the second's coat on the base impaled 
with the husband." Information is also 
given as to men who marry three, four, five, 
six, or seven wives. See ' Introduction to 
Heraldry,'- pp. 57-8. W. S. S. 

SIR JOHN ALLEYN (11 S. ii. 88). The 
ex -Lord Mayor of this name died in August 
or early in September, 1545. His successor 
as Alderman of Lime Street Ward was 
elected on 10 September of that year 
(Guildhall Records Repertory, 11, fo. 199 ; 
Letter-Book Q, fo. 144 b). I have hitherto 
understood that he was the testator 
whose will, dated 3 August, 1545, and 
proved 15 January, 1545/6 (P.C.C. 1 Men), 
is stated by MB. WAINEWBIGHT to have 
been made by a brother of the same 
name. No other will which can be assigned 
to the ex-Lord Mayor is to be found in P.C.C. 
records, and the dates I have quoted cer- 
tainly suggest the identification of the 
civic magnate with the testator. If, as 
MB. WAINEWBIGHT states, he had a brother 
also named John, the fact of his will being 
made and proved at those dates is a singular 
coincidence. I should like to know the 
authority for the existence of this brother. 
It should be noted that the testator of the 
will referred to is described as a knight, and 
I can find no trace of a second Sir John Aleyn 
contemporary with the Lord Mayor. 



WHEBE (11 S. ii. 126). 'A Chronological 
Index of the Towns and Countries in which 
the Art of Printing is known to have been 
Exercised, 1 1457-1829, will be found in 
Timperley's 'Dictionary of Printers and 
Printing, 1 1839, pp. 963-6. See also Power's 
' Handy Book about Books,' Appendix, 
1870. WM. H. PEET. 


(10 S. xii. 422; 11 S. ii. 130). In our 
Parish Magazine for the current month it 
is stated that 

" in the time of Edward VI. we are told that every 
parish church in the Isle of Wight possessed its 
gun. They were made of brass, and cast by 
* Richard and John Owoine Bretheren.' The guns 
of Calbourne and Shalfleet churches were sold 

about 1808, the sale of that of Calbourue being 
noted in the parish register of that year. Caris- 
brooke Church gun was in 1850 sold for 30. to raise 
funds to build a wall round additional burying- 
ground. Brading gun, the only one of these church 
guns now remaining on the island, lies at Numveil 
on the lawn there. It has the name of the Owoines 
on it, and the date 1549. In 1683 twenty church 
guns mustered at Carisbrooke Castle." 


156). Mr. Wheatley in his ' London Past 
and Present ' (vol. iii. pp. 155-6) quotes 
from Ralph's ' Critical Observations,' 4to> 
1771, p. 13, the paragraph given in MB. 
ALECK ABBAHAM'S query from the John 
Wallis reissue of 1783, and further informs 
us that 

"The watch-houses and obelisk have long since 
been removed, and the enclosure was turned into a 
public garden in 1885 at a cost of 327/.,' under the 
superintendence of the Metropolitan Public Garden* 

I may add that Red Lion Square garden 
was acquired by the London County Council 
in 1894, and is now maintained by the 
Council. It has an area of half an acre. 


He published in 1830 "The Christian 
Physiologist : Tales illustrative of the Five 
Senses,* edited (really written) by the author 
of ' The Collegians,' i.e., Gerald Griffin. 


Kensal Lodge, N.W. 

The details furnished by MB. CLEMENT 
SHOBTEB respecting Edward Bull perhaps 
admit of a few small additions. In a London 
Guide-Book for 1854 Bull's circulating 
library in Hollis Street is recommended as 
one of the best of its kind in London. The 
date indicates that Bull's business was 
carried on in his name after his decease. 
Between 1827 and the year of his death he 
published somewhere about sixty different 
works, more than half of which were three - 
volume novels, most of them quite "un- 
known to Lowndes. n The following selection 
from his better -known publications may give 
some idea of the sort of book he produced : 

1829. T. K. Hervey's Poetical Sketch-Book, Aus- 

tralia, &c., post 8vo, 8s. 6d. 

1830. Caunter's Island Bride, a Poem, post 8vo, 

10*. 6d. 

1831. Assassins of the Paradise, a Poem [by B. 

Pote], 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
1831. Chartley the Fatalist, a Novel [by DaltonJ 

3 vols., post 8vo, 11. 8s. 6d. 
1833. Mrs. Sheridan's Aims and Ends, a Novel 

3 vols., post 8vo, II. lls. Gd. 

ii s. H. A. 27, IMG.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1834. Frolics of Puck, a Novel [by George Soane], 
3 vols., post 8vo, II. 7s. 

1837. Addison's Indian Reminiscences, 8vo, 14s. 

1838. Count Cagliostro the Charlatan [by T. A. 

James], 3 vols., post 8vo, II. Is. 
c 1840. Burke's Portrait Gallery of the Female 
Nobility, 2 vols., royal 8vo, 3/. 3s. 

1841. Williams's Alice Russell and other Tales, 

post 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

1842. Leaves from Eusebius, translated by the Rev. 

H. Street, post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

It would serve no useful purpose to name 
; the other works, most of which are now 
, entirely forgotten. W. SCOTT. 

OF ORIGIN (US. ii. 108). Fuller's ' History 
jof the Worthies of England,' printed 1662, 
jnew edition by John Nichols, published 1811, 
contains a list under each county. Fuller 
'writes : 

" I begin the observing of their Nativities, from 
Sir William Sevenoke, grocer, Lord Maior 1418. 
For though there were Lord Maiors 200 years 
before, yet their Birth-places generally are unknown. 
It was, I confess, well for me in this particular, 
that Mr. Stow was born before me, being herein 
the heir of endevours, without any pain of my own.'' 

Fuller has only one under Cornwall, 
inamely, Sir Richard Cheverton, skinner. 

The different counties whence the London 
Lord Mayors hailed will be found duly set 
forth, excepting the earlier ones, in ' Some 
Account of the Citizens of London and their 
(Rulers from 1060 to 1867,' by B. B. Orridge, 
JF.G.S., 1867 (Part IV., 'A Calendar of the 
Mayors and Sheriffs of London from 1189 to 
1867 '). Sir Richard Chiverton was the 
first of that county who became Lord Mayor, 
and Sir Robert Geffery the second (1657 
iand 1685). J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

I contributed a series of articles on Lord 
Mayors of London who were natives of 
Northamptonshire to Northamptonshire Notes 
\ind Queries. See vols. ii.-vi. (First Series). 

A paper on ' The First Mayor of London 

(Henry Fitz Aylwin) ' appeared in The 

!>quary, 1887, vol. xv. W. S. S. 

COMMONS (11 S. ii. 128). As a Freemason 
as well as one keenly interested in Parlia 
'urntary affairs, I should be specially glac 
f MR. JOHN ROBINSON would complete his 
query on this subject by stating the name 
of the London newspaper in which appearec 
the account he refers to, with the date o: 
publication, as well as of the local journal 

,nd especially of the " Masonic publication 
whose representative came North to report 
the Royal Duke's proceedings " an instance 
3f enterprise in Masonic journalism which 
s sufficiently striking to deserve full record. 

P. G. D. 

Presumably in the fire of 1834 the Speaker's 
chair was destroyed. There is no evidence 

the contrary in the ' Report of the Lords 
of the Council * on the destruction of the 
Houses of Parliament, and Brayley and 
Britton ('Westminster Palace 1 ) do not 
mention the chair or its preservation, 
although they would hardly have overlooked 
so interesting a point if it had occurred. 

It is scarcely probable, in view of the fact 
;hat it was wanted at once, that, having 
Deen saved, it would have been sold or lent 
to a Masonic lodge at Sunder land. Plate 
xxxix. of the last -mentioned work ('The 
House of Commons as fitted up in 1835 ? ) 
shows a chair with canopy supported by 
bwo fluted Corinthian columns surmounted 
by the royal arms. Perhaps before 1839 
this had been replaced by another, and so 
it may have come to the Masonic lodge, 
and with slight alterations it would be 
eminently suitable. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

THE SLEEPLESS ARCH (US. ii. 88, 135). 
Mr. J. Meade Falkner's delightful novel is 
'The Nebuly Coat,' of arms that is, not 
"Cloud." J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

87). The two chief contemporary authorities 
in such a matter differ as regards Querard's 
first name. ' La Litterature franQaise con- 
temporaine, 1827-49 ' (torn, vi., 1857, p. 100), 
by Felix Bourquelot, the continuation of 
' La France litteraire,' gives the name as 
Jean, and it is to be supposed that those who 
entered into a long lawsuit with Querard 
(the results of which are given in a foot-note) 
would know his name correctly. On the 
other hand, 6mile Regnard, the writer in the 
' Nouvelle Biographie Generale * (torn, xli., 
1862, p. 302), who takes Querard's part in the 
controversy, gives the name as Joseph. 

In such cases, failing absolute proof, the 
presumption is in favour of the less common 
name. W. R. B. PRIDEAUX. 

Reform Club, S.W. 

There is an article by Gustave Brunet on 
Querard, and published with a portrait in 
Le Bibliophile francais, vol. i., p. 73. The 
portrait gives the initials " J. M.," but, 
curiously enough, his name is not once given 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 27, 1910. 

in full. All through he is spoken of simply as 
" Querard." The writer of the article says 
Querard was born at Rennes in 1796, and 
died in 1865, presumably in Paris. 

59, Piccadilly, W. 

Most biographies that I have seen give 
the name as " Joseph Marie Querard." 
My impression is, however, that his full 
name was Joseph Jean or Jean Joseph 
Marie Querard. The pseudonym quoted 
seems to lend countenance to this conclusion, 
" Jozon " being apparently a " faked " 
presentment of Joseph and Jean. 


(US. ii. 24, 73, 94, 133). A few words in 
reply. I wrote (p. 73) : " Anstis quotes 
from Sprott's ' Chronicle " the fragment 
published by Hearne." I gave the reference 
to Anstis, Numb, xlviii. ; it is there printed 
" Fragment relating to Ed. IV. published by 
M r Hearne at the End of Sprott's Chron., 
p. 294, 295," &c. I gave a transcript of the 
passage on p. 295, from Sprott's ' Chronicle,' 
Hearne' s edition itself. The fragment is 
not only "bound in the same volume, " 
but is an integral printed portion of the 
volume, and when I used the word " Sprott," 
it was intended to be " Sprott, qua book,'* 
and not " Sprott, qua chronicler or author,'* 
and my references show this. There is 
therefore no foundation for saying that I 
identified the anonymous chronicler with 
Sprott, or that I attributed this fragmentary 
document to Sprott. 

The name " John Stone " was a slip in 
copying, and I am obliged for its having been 
pointed out. The name should have been 
" Rauffe losselyn, draper." 


The instance, cited by MB. F. H. HELTON 
(ante, p. 134), of Sir John Dethick in no 
way invalidates the position of MB. PINK. 
There were many such cases, as no one 
knows better than MB. PINK. But after the 
restoration of Charles II. honours conferred 
during the Protectorate were regarded as 
null and invalid, and "Sir" John Dethick 
was not accorded the style and precedence 
of a knight from May, 1660, until the dignity 
was conferred upon him by his lawful 
sovereign in April, 1661. 

There is no instance, so far as I know, of 
a man already a knight i.e., so constituted 
by recognized lawful authority receiving 
simple knighthood afterwards. The case of 

a simple knight being admitted into a 
higher order of knighthood is different, and 
does not affect the original question as to 
the assumed knighthood of the Bath con- 
ferred on Philip in 1465. 

In my reply on p. 134 there is an obvious 
slip of the pen. As the context shows, it is 
Wyche (not Coke) who is omitted in Fabyan's 


MB. RELTON is right as to Sir John 
Dethick, Bt. As is well known, all the 
honours conferred by the Protectors Oliver 
and Richard were disallowed at the Resto- 
ration ; therefore the instance of double 
knighthood referred to cannot apply to the 
matter discussed. Several others of Crom- 
well's knights were reknighted by Charles II., 
and for the same reason. W. D. PINK. 

ii. 129). The quotation in ' The Last Days 
of Pompeii,' Book II. chap, ix., is from 
Leigh Hunt's 'The Feast of the Poets' 
(1814). Apollo makes a hasty descent upon 
earth with intent to summon the poets to a 
feast, and the god's appearance is described 
near the beginning of the poem : 
For though he was blooming, and oval of cheek, 
And youth down his shoulders went smoothing and 


Yet his look with the reach of past ages was wise, 
And the soul of eternity thought through his eyes. 



Is the "Hero of the Plains of Maida" 
necessarily a poetical quotation at all, any 
more than the "Hero of Waterloo" as 
applied to Wellington, or the " Heroes of 
Alma " as applied to the killed or survivors 
of that battle ? Both the latter figure on 
the London signboard ; and the ' ' Hero of 
Maida," Sir John Stuart, is commemorated 
in the sign of a tavern, No. 437, Edgware 

EGEBTON LEIGH (11 S. ii. 68, 114). | 
I would point out to MB. ABKLE that 
Egerton Leigh to whom he refers was boi 
according to Burke's ' Landed Gentry, 
25 October, 1752. Therefore he coulc 
hardly have been the Egerton Leigh wl 
was admitted to Westminster School 19 June 
1771. G. F. R. B. 

INSTITUTION (11 S. i. 429, 518). The best 
and fullest account of the British Institutior 
is Thomas Smith's ' Recollections,* publis 

ii s. ii. AUG. 27, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I860. See also John Pye's ' Patronage of 
British Art, 1 1845 (pp. 302-4) ; and ' Account 
of all the Pictures exhibited in the Rooms 
of the British Institution from 1813 to 1823, J 
by the Rev. James Dallaway, 1824. 



Recollections of a Long Life. By Lord Broughton 

(John Cam Hobhouse). With Additional Ex 

tracts from his Private Diaries. Edited by his 

Daughter, Lady Dorchester. Vol. III. 1822- 

1829. Vol. IV. 1829-34. (Murray.) 

THE earlier volumes of this work (noticed 10 S. 

xii. 99) perhaps exceed in variety of interest 

those before us, which are mainly concerned with 

home politics, and the discussions concerning 

Byron, his memoirs, and books af^ter his death, 

which is recorded on p. 35 of vol. iii. Once again 

j we note the passionate admiration which his 

friend cherished for the poet, and the jealous care 

of his memory evoked by false or prejudiced 

statements concerning his life. Hobhouse's 

genius for friendship is one of the most delightful 

I of his many virtues. 

There is a good deal of downright comment of 
an unfavourable sort in his political musings, 
i some of which may be taken cum grano salia ; 
but he shows everywhere abundant appreciation 
of men of letters worthy of regard, such as Walter 
Scott. The political changes and characters of 
his time have been noted by many historians, and 
the summary before us will need some knowledge 
of their work to make it intelligible. Granted 
that, Hobhouse on politics is entertaining enough, 
a ud distinctly above his age in honesty of purpose. 
We cannot wonder that he found the Duke of 
Wellington's political course occasionally extra- 
ordinary, or that he was frank about the in- 
rous gaiety of King William when the Fourth 
1 George had ceased to live. Throughout he shows 
amid the tumult of politics a taste for " elegant 
learning," as it was then styled, and a shrewd 
sense of his own position without the vanity 
common among prominent politicians. 

His care for Byron and Byron's memory shines 

throughout the volumes. He did not lack 

malicious and unfair assailants, but he treated 

them all with excellent temper. Moore, who 

appears constantly in the same connexion, cuts 

a very poor figure beside him. Hobhouse frankly 

admits that he liked Byron " a great deal 

>o well to be an impartial judge of his character," 

but, with his usual good sense, goes on to appeal 

) two trustworthy witnesses who knew the poet 

One of Byron's failings was a desire to 

'stify people, and we are told that he per- 

suaded Barry, his banker at Genoa, that he had a 

rticular affection for three geese which he 

meant to keep as long as he lived. 

Besides the ' Diary,' we find, as in the earlier 

umes, fragments of the book of ' Recollections' 

iserted here and there. But though politics 

, as we have said, the main theme, other 

matters of interest turn up. Under the date 

9 May, 1824, we find details which remind us of 

the manners of this present century. Miss Stocks 
had been in a balloon accident : 

" Denman told us that whilst Miss Stocks waa 
lying almost insensible on the bed, four news- 
paper reporters and four gentlemen of the balloon 
committee insisted upon being admitted to her ! ! I 

" Denman also told us that when the Queen 
was dying he saw two reporters in her ante- 
chamber, and Peter Finnerty, reporter for the 
Chronicle, actually rode on the box of the carriage 
that carried Denman and Brougham back to 
London, after they had taken their last leave of 
the Queen. A newspaper-ridden people _we are ! " 

The volumes are completed by some choice 
illustrations, a Table of Administrations during 
the period they cover, and a capable Index, for 
which we are duly grateful. 


ALL interested in first editions should obtain 
Mr. Francis Edwards's Catalogue 305, for it in- 
cludes those of Ainsworth, Arnold, Borrow, 
Browning, Coleridge, Dickens, Keats, Lamb, Mere- 
dith, Rossetti, Swinburne, Tennyson, Thackeray, 
and many others. The first item is A'Beckett'a 
'Comic History' in the original parts, 111. Among 
the Ainsworths is 'Jack Sheppard,' 9/. 10s. Under 
Robert Browning is 'Bells and Pomegranates/ 
32J. 10s. Byron's Hours of Idleness,' large paper, 
is priced 181. There is a complete set of the Cruik 

shank Almanacks, 181. ; also ' My Skecch-Book,' 
14., and Kenrick's ' British Stage,' including the 
unfinished sixth volume, 501. The Dickenses in- 
clude ' Copperfield,' original parts, 71. 10s., and the 
' Carol,' 61. 10s. Under ' The Germ ' is a complete 
set of the four parts, 401. There is a first edition of 
'Endymion,' in citron morocco by Bedford, 27. 
Under Lamb we find ' Elia,' 2 vols., blue levant 
141. , and ' John Woodvil,' 12/. Under Swinburne is- 
the rare first edition of ' The Queen Mother,' 36/. 
Under Tennyson is ' Poems,' 1836, full calf by 
Riviere, 141. ; also ' Poems by Two Brothers,' 1827,. 

'London' and Planta's ' Picture or Paris,' with the 
coloured costumes of the lower orders, 9 vols., 
12mp, full calf by Morrell. 11. 7s. There are 
original drawings by Cruikshank. Under Fuller 
Worthies Library is a complete set, 251. ; and 
under Sette of Odd Volumes is a complete set as 
issued, 1880-1905, 451. There are in addition works. 
under Gold and Silver Plate, and under Pottery 
and Porcelain. 

Messrs. J. & J. Leighton's Part XIV. of their 
Catalogue of Early Printed Books runs from Ci to Cy. 
The labour of compiling must be very great, for 
nearly eight thousand items are already recorded. 
There are thirty -one editions of Cicero, including the 
first English translation of the ' Paradoxes,' which 
is extremely rare, and is the only book printed by 
John Redman at Southwark. There is no date, 
but it was before 1540. Under Claude le Lorrain ia 
the rare original edition, 3 vols., original calf, Boy- 
dell, 1777-1817, 251. Under Cologne is a rare Missal, 
printed on vellum, of the date 1494. The earliest 
known to Hain is 1498, and to Brunet 1506. Among 
Common Prayer Books is the second of Edward VI., 
London, 1552, 1751. There is one of the earliest 
poems m praise of tea, Petit's ' Thea,' 1685. At 
the end is a list of other early works containing: 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. AUG. 27, 1910. 

descriptions of the herb. There are several works 
under Cosmography. Among editions of Ptolemy 
is the Venice edition of 1511. The inscriptions 
were printed from type in red and black after the 
maps had been worked off. The first chart shows 
part of America under the name Terra Sanctse 
Crucis, as well as the islands of Cuba and His- 
paniola; also " regalis dornus " and " terra labora- 
torum," being thus the first map recording the 
discoveries of Cortereal in 1500. On the extreme 
east is a portion of " Zampagu. Ins.," i.e. Japan. 
There are many works under Costume. A remark- 
ably sound and clean copy of Cranmer's Bible, the 
rare November edition, 1541, is 2SL 

The Appendix contains a complete description of 
an Apocalypse Block- Book with two folding plates, 
and also includes a description of an uncut Caxton, 
' The Golden Legende,' the first largely illustrated 
book printed in England, incomplete as usual, but 
measuring 15f in. by 11 in., only one other as large 
being known, viz., that now in the Public Library 
at Cambridge (Bishop Moore's Collection), which 
exactly corresponds with the present example as 
regards the sheets with the head -lines in large or 
small type, as the case may be. It is dated West- 
minster, William Caxton, 20 Nov., 1483, and the 
price is 850Z. Among items of more recent date is a 
sketch of the life of Cowper, 1803, extra-illustrated, 
and with seventeen autograph letters of the poet, 
and other letters, 95. The Catalogue is full of 

Messrs. Maggs Brothers devote their Catalogue 
258 to Autograph Letters and Manuscripts. All 
collectors should obtain a copy. There are a thou- 
sand items, many of them being most valuable. 
Among those which will appeal to American readers 
of ' N. & Q.' are a letter of John Quincy Adams to 
Governor Sullivan, 15 April, 1801, on the questions 
between America, Britain, and France, 161. 15s. ; 
Jefferson on the burning of Washington and its 
Library, 21 September, 1814, 521. 10s. ; George 
Washington to Governor Walton, concerning nego- 
tiations with the Indian tribes, 24 August, 1789, 
I&L 18s. ; three letters from General Greene, c. 1780, 
to Sumner ; one from Paul Jones to Jefferson, Paris, 
5 October, 1785, dealing with the dispatch of the 
ill-fated expedition under Perouse, 1251. ; and one 
from Wendell Holmes to John Dougall, referring to 
the death of his only and much loved daughter, 
3. 18s. There is also a collection of documents re- 
lating to the Revolutionary War. Under Bonaparte 
and Napoleon are letters and autographs. A fine 
signature of Elizabeth is 18. 18s. ; a letter of 
Charles I., 581.; one from Queen Henrietta Maria 
to the Pope, expressing her gratitude to him, 
45. ; and one from Marie Antoinette, 10/. 10s. 
There is a magnificent Stuart collection, 420/. 
Under Napoleonic Wars is a collection of procla- 
mations by Bliicher, 251. Under Nelson is a letter 
to Ladv Hamilton, 42. ; also a letter to his sister, 
from the Victory, 11 January, 1805: "Very little 
has been done in the Prize way, indeed I am afraid 
my pursuit lays another way, I never did or could 
turn my thoughts to money, 14. 14s. A collection 
of Madame de Maintenon's letters is priced 130/. 
In one of four letters of Fox (price 211.) he says : 

"The law for any one who has Ambition is 

undoubtedly the finest profession in the World " 
Among letters of Gladstone is one to Russell, 
Carlton House Terrace, 7 August, 1871: " First, there 
has, I am well convinced, been a deliberate plan at 

work from an early period of the Session to obstruct 
business of the Government We have unde- 
niably at this time an unusual number of obstre- 
perous and invincible talkers." There are several 
letters of Dr. Johnson ; in one to Mr. Dilly he 
writes : " I wish to distinguish Watts, a man who 
never wrote but for a good purpose," 111. ijs. 
Under Le Sage is a letter of 6 pages, 4to, 75Z. We 
cannot close this notice without mentioning that 
under Tennyson Hallam is a series of 33 unpub- 
lished autograph letters from Arthur Hallam to 
Tennyson's sister, '3501. 

The 135th Catalogue of Mr. Ludwig Rosenthal is 
well worth the attention of collectors of books and 
MSS. ; for it is seldom that Mr. Rosenthal does not 
offer rare things, the mere account of which causes 
the expert to envy. The pages of illustrations at 
the end of this Catalogue give some idea of the 
incunabula, Horse, MSS., and engravings from 
various countries offered by the famous Munich 
house. Here we find Chinese water-colours ; a 
Biblia Germanica of Strasburg, 1466 ; a Boccaccio of 
1494; a Dutch caricature of the seventeenth cen- 
tury; Spanish books of Hours ; and three woodcuts 
of Lichtenberg's ' Pronosticatio in Latino,' Modena, 
1492. This example, in accordance with Mr. Rosen- 
thal's excellent practice, is annotated with biblio- 
graphical references to Hain, who had not seen it, 
and Proctor, and it is added that no mention of the 
book has been discovered in any sale or library 

[Notices of other Catalogues held over. ] 

HENRY ANDRADE HARBEN. Readers of * N.&Q.,' 
and especially lovers of London topography, 
will learn with regret of the death of Mr. H. A. 
Harben, which occurred in London on Thursday, 
the 18th inst. He took his B.A. degree at London 
University, was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
and filled many public offices. From his residence, 
Newland Park, Chalfont St. Giles, he wrote at 
10 S. iv. 276 on Newlands, Chalfont St. Peter. His 
contribution to the Tyburn discussion will be 
remembered by readers of 'N. & Q.' One of his 
last articles was that 011 St. Austin's Gate (11 S. i. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed : 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery- 
Lane, E.G. 

RAVEN ("French original of 'Not a drum was 
heard ' "). This was a,jeu d* esprit of Father Prout. 

W. M. In preparation. Announcement will be- 
made later. 


u s. ii. SEPT. 3, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 36. 

NOTES: Stone Capital in the Old High Tower, West- 
minster, 181 Tottel's 'Miscellany,' 182 Huntingdon- 
shire Poll-Books, 183 Plan tagenet Tombs at Fontevrault, 
184 Russian Saying Tammany and England, 185 
Belgian Students' Song Dickens's 'Haunted Man' 
Belt Family General Wolfe on " Yankees," 186. 

QUERIES: "Teest" "Scruto" Sir W. Stephenson 
Secretaries to the Lords Lieutenant of Ireland Islington 
Historians, 187 Bell's Editions of the Poets Gibbon on 
the Classics Oatcake and Whisky as Eucharistic Ele- 
ments Kipling and the Swastika Authors of Quotations 
Wanted, 188 Shakespeare and Peeping Tom Duke of 
Grafton, East Indiaman Book-Covers : " Yellow- Backs " 
Anonymous Works ' Le Paysan Perverti ' ' Julian's 
Vision' 'A Day with Cromwell 'Father Smith, the 
Organ Builder, 189 Theophilus Feild F. V. Field- 
Frank Nicholls " Sovereign " of Kinsale Legacy to 
Lord Brougham Basil the Great, 190. 

REPLIES : Bibliography of London, 19(1 'Oliver Twist ' 
on the Stage " Staple " in Place-Names, 191 "King" 
in Place-Names, 192-' The Case Altered' E. I. C.'s 
Marine Service " Highdays, Holidays, and Bonfire 
Nights " Liardet American Words and Phrases, 193 
Names Terrible to Children Moke Family Spider's 
Web Goldsmith's 'Deserted Village ' Dickens on 
Royal Humane Society, 194 Sir John Ivory Saint. 
E vremond, 195 ' Vertimmus ' " Collins " = Letter of 
Thanks St. Swithin " Denizen " Lieut -Col. Glegg, 
196 Usona=U.S.A. Amaneuus as a Christian Name 
Adling Street Elizabeth and Astrology Bath and 
Henrietta Maria, 197 Asking for Salt Father Peters 
and Queen Mary Lardiner at the Coronation English 
Sepulchral Monuments ' Drawing - Room Ditties ' 
W. Hucks Apple Tree flowering in Autumn, 199. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: "The Poems of Cynewulf '' Fifty 
Pictures of Gothic Altars.' 


IN ' The Graphic Illustrator,' edited by 
Edw. W. Brayley (author of ' The History 
and Antiquities of Westminster Abbey '), 
1834, pp. 87, 88, is an article signed B. 
(? Brayley) which says : 

" There is scarcely in English sculpture a more 
choice relic of antiquity than the unique CAPITAL 
which forms the subject of the present article ; 
and the preservation of which is wholly due to the 
persevering tact of our late lamented friend, 
Mr. Capon, whose talents as a correct archi- 
tectural draughtsman were unrivalled. From 
his drawings, now in the possession of Mr. Britton, 
(to whose kindness we are indebted for their use,) 
; the attached wood-cuts have been executed." 

The particulars of the discovery are said 
j by the writer to have been condensed from 
I Mr. Capon's own notes. 

" During the short reign of King Richard III., 
a gateway was erected at the north-west ex- 
tremity of the Palace Court, at Westminster, 
*s a means of communication between the 

?alace and the premises belonging to the Abbey, 
t stood almost directly facing the gate of the 
Sanctuary, but a little to the north of it, and is 
represented both in Ralph Aggas's Plan of London, 

Siblished early in Queen Elizabeth's reign, and in 
ollar's View of the New Palace Yard, engraved 
about the year 1640. Subsequently all the 
gateway was pulled down, except the south wall, 
which seemed as a separating wall between the 
well-known Mitre Tavern, in Union Street, and the 
Horn Tavern, which stood at the western ex- 
tremity of the Palace Yard. In June, 1807, 
when the taverns and other houses in Union 
Street were demolished, to make way for the 
' improvements ' (so styled) at Westminster, the 
remaining wall was taken down, and in that wall, 
distinguished by its size from the other stones, the 
Capital was found. By sedulously attending the 
workmen, Mr. Capon preserved the sculpture 
from any further damage than what it had 
received when built up in the wall in King Richard 
the Third's time .... After keeping it with great 
care for many years, Mr. Capon eventually sold 
it for one hundred guineas, to the eccentric Sir 
Gregory Page Turner, Bart .... 

" It has an indented legend on the abacus, 
that, in connexion with the sculpture itself, 
decidedly refers to the bestowing of some grant, 
or charter, by King William Rufus, to Gislebertvs, 
Sub-Abbot of Westminster." 

The prominent figures on one of the four 
sides had been " chopped off." 

As to the other sides, No. 1 shows the 
King holding a roll or charter, with the 
Abbot on one side and a monk on the other. 
On the abacus is WILLELMO SECVN and two 
broken letters. 

No. 2 shows the Abbot bearing the 
charter and (?) a key, a monk on each side. 
The remaining inscription is v . SVBABBE . 

No. 3 represents the Abbot as standing 
before a kind of reading-desk, held by an 
attendant, on which are the open Scriptures, 
with the words EGO SUM on the dexter page. 
Behind the Abbot is another figure, partly 
mutilated, who is also holding a book. The 
letters remaining on the abacus appear to 
read thus : E . CLAVSTBV . ET BELL . ; but the 
last two, from their broken state, are perhaps 

At the end of his article B. says : 

" To what particular grant, or instrument, 
these sculptures refer is unknown .... Were the 
manuscripts yet preserved in the muniment room 
of the Abbey church carefully examined, this 
regretted desideratum might probably be supplied.* ' 

With the subscriptions " Wm. Capon, 
del., 11 and " N. Whittock, sc., n the three 
woodcuts (from the same blocks) appear in 
Brayley and Britton's ' History of the 
Ancient Palace and late Houses of Parlia- 
ment at Westminster,' 1836, pp. 416, 445, 
446. Engravings of the three compart- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. n. SEPT. 3, 


ments, on a reduced scale, also appear on 
plate xxxv. A short description and account 
are given in the letterpress. 

In this book the gateway is called (p. 444) 
the "High Tower at Westminster'* (ref. 
Strype's Stow's * London, 1 vol. ii. p. 634) 
and "The Queen's Majesty's Gate, in King 
Street" (ref. ibid., p. 635). Brayley and 
Britton also quote from Maitland's ' History 
and Survey of London, 5 1772 (and 1756), 
vol. ii. p. 1341, where it is said that the 
gate on the west of New Palace Yard 

"called Highgate (a very beautiful and stately 
edifice) was situate at the East End of Union- 
street ; but it having occasioned great Obstruc- 
tions to the Members of Parliament in their 
Passage to and from their respective Houses, the 
same was taken down in the year 1706." 

Brayley and Britton then speak of the 
demolition of -the remnant of the gate in 
June, 1807, and the discovery of the capital. 

Dean Stanley in his ' Historical Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey,* 3rd ed., 1869, p. 422, 
or 5th ed., 1882, p. 362, refers to this 
capital as found in 1831. This error per- 
haps arises from his having read a short 
account of it in The Gentlemarfs Magazine 
of 1831, pt. i. p. 545. (He erroneously 
refers to pt. ii.) 

The Gentlemarfs Magazine contains a 
short report of the exhibition, at a meeting 
of the Society of Antiquaries on 2 June, 
1831, by John Britton, of a " drawing by 
the late Mr. Capon of a carved capital found 
some years since within the precincts of 
Westminster Abbey. u Reproductions of the 
three inscriptions are given, which are not 
quite correct, if those which appear in 
' The Graphic Illustrator * and Brayley and 
Britton's ' History of the Ancient Palace ? 
are so. 

Dean Stanley refers to ' Vet. Mon.,' 
vol. v. plate xcvii. p. 4. I have failed in my 
attempt to verify this reference at the 
British Museum. Concerning the capital 
which was found in 1807, Brayley and 
Britton say (p. 445) that it 

" must have been executed to commemorate the 
bestowal of some valuable grant or confirmation, 
by King William Rufus, on Gislebertus, Abbot of 
Westminster. In all probability, therefore, it 
had formed part of a building within the Abbey." 

It may perhaps have found its way back 
to the Abbey. If it has not, it would be 
interesting to know where it is, if it still 
exists, and whether it could not be restored 
to the Abbey, where it ought to be. 

According to ' Pater son's Roads,* 16th 
ed., 1822, Sir Gregory Osborne Page Turner, 
Bt., to whom apparently the capital was sold 

by Mr. Capon, occupied two houses, viz., 
Battlesden Park, near Hockliffe and Milton 
Bryant, Beds, and another (no name given), 
near Black Thorn Heath and Bicester. 

According to G. E. C.'s * Complete 
Baronetage,' 1906, the Page Turner estates in 
Beds, Oxon, and Middlesex passed in 1902, 
on the death of the widow of the 6th 
baronet, to Mr. Frederick Augustus Blaydes. 
He in 1903 assumed the name of Page 
Turner in lieu of Blaydes. 



(See ante, pp. 1, 103.) 

UNDER Ploche or the Doubler Puttenham 
treats of various kinds of repetitions of 
words, some commendable, as in the case 
of a passage from Sir Walter Raleigh and 
one from an unnamed work of his own ; 
and others which are 

" nothing commendable, and therefore are not 
observed in good poesie, as a vulgar rimer who 
doubled one word in the end of every verse, thus : 
adieu, adieu, 
my face, my face." 

Arber, p. 211. 

He refers to poems such as the following, 
which I cannot help thinking he had in his 
mind, although he does not give any of the 
eleven words that Turbervile repeats as 
" accoy " is repeated here : 

For to revoke to pensive thought, 
And troubled head my former plight, 
How I by earnest sute have sought 
And grief ull paines a loving wight, 
For to accoy, accoy, 
And breede my joy, 
Without anoy, makes saltish bryne 
To flush out of my vapord eyne. 
' The Lover abused renownceth Love,' p. 206. 

Note the title of Turbervile's sonnet ; it 
tallies with one of Sir Thomas Wyatt's, 
printed in Tottel, p. 55. Very often when 
we find such agreement we shall find that 
Turbervile has copied not only his title, 
but also his theme and much of his language 
from poems in Tottel. 

The poet frequently alters the form of 
words, and consequently their sound, some- 
times to make up his rime, sometimes for 
purposes of euphony. This practice is not 
always attended with happy results, especi- 
ally in the case of the vulgar rimer, who, 
lacking art and copiousness of language, 
abuses the licence, and strains words to make' 

ii s. ii. SEPT. 3, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


up his own deficiencies. Amongst other 
words Puttenham cites evermare for evermore, 
wrang for wrong, and fright for fraight. 

Fright for fraight or fraught occurs at 
least three times in Turbervile, and one 
instance is to be found in ' The Lover to 
Cupid, s p. 81, the poem which furnished the 
critic with the material for his censure of 
the word " roy " : 

Whose volumes when I saw 

with pleasant stories fright, 
In him (I say) above the rest 
I laid my whole delight. 

The other cases will be found in the ' Verse 
in prayse of Lord Henry Howarde, Earle of 
Surrey, 2 p. 17, and in the ' Disprayse of 
Women,' &c., p. 104. 

The last passage from Turbervile in ' The 
Arte of Poesie ' remains to be dealt with. 
It contains a fault which not^only filled the 
cup of Puttenham's wrath, but also made 
it overflow : 

"It is no small fault in a maker to use such 
wordes and termes as do diminish and abbase the 
matter he would seeme to set forth, by imparing 
the dignitie, height, vigour or majestie of the cause 
he takes in hand .... as another of our bad rymers 
that very indecently said. 

A misers mynde thou hast, thou hast a Princes 
pelfe." Arber, p. 266. 

This fault comes under Tapinosis or the 
Abbaser, and one can see the old courtier 
with his face turned to Queen Elizabeth in 
every word that he writes concerning it. 
He says " pelfe " is a lewd term to be given 
to a prince's treasure. Again we are re- 
minded of E. K. ? s address to Gabriel Harvey, 
prefixed to Spenser's ' Shepheards Calender.' 
But just at this time Puttenham had no 
place at Court ; he was writing his book, 
as he tells the queen, because he wanted to 
do something to fill up his idle time, and 
he was not unwilling to stir himself in her 
Majesty's service if she would be gracious 
enough to make trial of him. And, certainly, 
he would never abase the treasure she paid 
for service by giving it such a lewd name as 
" pelfe. n The offensive phrase occurs in 
an epigram, ' Of a Ritch Miser z : 

A Misers minde thou hast, 
thou hast a princes pelfe ; 

Which makes thee welthy to thine heire, 
a beggar to thy selfe. 

Collier, p. 281. 

Near the end of his book (p. 281) Putten- 
ham narks back to Turbervile's unfortunate 
phrase thus : 

" Another of our vulgar makers, spake as 
illfaringly in this verse written to the dispraise of 
a rich man and covetous. Thou hast a misers 
Dxinde (thou hast a princes pelfe) a lewde terme 
to be spoken of a princes treasure, which is no 

respect nor for any cause is to be called pelfe,. 
though it were never so meane, for pelfe is properly 
the scrappes or shreds of taylors and skinners,, 
which are accompted of so vile price as they be 
commonly cast out of dores, or otherwise bestowed 
upon base purposes : and carrieth not the like 
reason or decencie, as when we say in reproch of 
a niggard or usurer, or worldly covetous man, 
that he setteth more by a little pelfe of the world, 
than by his credit or health, or conscience. For 
in comparison of these tresours, all the gold or- 
silver in the world may by a skornefull terme be 
called pelfe, and so ye see that the reason of the 
decencie holdeth not alike in both cases." 

In my next article, which will conclude 
those on Puttenham and Turbervile, I 
propose to give a list of Tottel passages 
quoted by Puttenham, and indicate the 
places where they may be found in both 
works. I am aware that some of these have 
been traced by others, but my information 
may be useful because it is, I think, complete^ 

(To be concluded.) 


THE following is a list of those (with two 
exceptions) in my possession. It is the 
first printed account of the poll-books of 
this county. For those of other counties 
see 6 S. iv. 433 ; vi. 310 ; 10 S. viii. 76, 
177, 453, 477 ; x. 124. 

1. A | Poll | taken before | Edward Leeds, Esq., I 
High-Sheriff of the County of | Huntingdon, I 
March 29th, | 30th, j 31st, | April 1st | 1768. 

Candidates. polled> 

Peter, Earl Ludlow, of the Kingdom of 

Ireland 804 

John, Lord Viscount Hinchingbrook . . 855 
Sir Robert Bernard, Bart 666 

Cambridge, | Printed by Fletcher and Hod- 
son : | and sold by Mr. Jenkinson, in Hunting- 
don ; Messrs. Fletcher and Hod | son, in 
Cambridge ; Mr. Biggs, at St. Ives ; Mr. 
Claridge, at St. Neots ; Mr. Knapp, at Peter- 
borough ; Mr. Belton, at Kimbolton | ; and 
Mr. Hyatt, at Bedford. 

[1768] 8vo, pp. 48, vellum, printed on one 
side of page only. 

2. A State | of | the Poll | for the | election I of | 
Representatives in Parliament | for the | 
County of Huntingdon j on the 13th and 14th 
of May, 180"i. 


The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Hinching- 
brook, | the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Proby | 
and | William Henry Fellowes, Esquire : 

William Squire, Esq., Sheriff. 

Cambridge : Printed and Sold byF. Hodson, 
| Sold also by Mrs. Jenkinson, Huntingdon. I 
Price 3s. 6rf. 

[1807] 8vo, pp. 48, index vii. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [ii s. n. SEPT. 3, 1910. 

3. A | State of the Poll | for the | Election of 
Representatives in Parliament | for the 
. County of Huntingdon, | on | The 25th, 26th, 
I 27th, and 29th of June, 1818. 

The Bight Hon. Lord Frederick Montagu, | 
and William Henry Fellowes, Esq., | and j 
Williams Wells, Esq. 

Was nominated, but without his consent, and | 
did not make his appearance at the | Hustings 
during the Election. 

Thomas George Apreece, Esq., | Sheriff. 
Huntingdon : | Compiled, Printed, and pub- 
lished, by and for | Thomas Lovell. 
1818, 8vo, pp. 64. 

-4. A | Copy of the Poll | for | Two Knights of 
the Shire, | for the | County of Huntingdon, | 
which | Commenced at Huntingdon | on Thurs- 
day, the 15th, and Ended at the Close of Tues- 
day, the 20th June, | 1826. 

Candidates. Votes. 

William Henry Fellowes, Esq. . . . . 911 
Lord John Russell . . . . . . 858 

Lord Mandeville 968 

Thomas Skeels Fryer, Esq., Sheriff. 
Mr. R. W. Allpress, Under-Sheriff. 
W. Reader, Esq., Assessor. 
Huntingdon : | Printed and sold by A. P. 
Wood ; and | may also be had of Hodson | 
and Hatfield, Cambridge ; and of Sherwood, 
Gilbert ; | and Piper, 20, Paternoster Row, 

[1826] 8vo, pp. vii+80, with index. 

-5. A View of the Poll for the County of Hunting- 
don at the Election beginning the 6th and 
Ending the 10th of August, 1830. 

Published from the Sheriffs' Poll-books by 

William Hatfield, Gazette Offices, Huntingdon, 
Price one shilling, and may be had of any of 
the Agents of The Huntingdon Gazette, 'and 
Cambridge Independent Press. W. Hatfield, 
Printer, Gazette Office, Huntingdon. 

[1830] Single sheet, printed on one side, 
20 in. by 25 J in. 

6. An, 8vo volume was also published for this 

7. The Poll | for | Two Knights of the Shire | 
for the | County of Huntingdon | which | com- 
menced at Huntingdon | on Thursday the 5th 
and closed on Saturday the 7th of May | 1831 | 
with copious Tables, Index, &c. 

Cambridge : | Printed and Sold by Weston 
Hatfield, Black Bull Court | Sidney Street. | 
Also sold by R. Edis & A. P. W T ood, the Gazette 
Office, Huntingdon I Price 2s. 6d. 

[1831] 8vo,pp.72. 

8. A | Copy of the Poll, I taken at the General 
Election | for the | County of Huntingdon, | 
on Monday and Tuesday 7th and 8th of August, 
1837. | Arranged by permission I From the 
Poll Books of" the Sheriff. 


Edward Fellowes, Esq 1392 

George Thornhill, Esq . . 1332 

.John Bonfoy Rooper, Esq. .. .. 990 

John Dobede, Esq., Sheriff. 
William P. Isaacson, Esq., Under-Sheriff. 

Huntingdon : | Printed and published by 
Robert Edis, High Street. To be had of all the 
booksellers in the county, and of | Simpkin, 
Marshall and Co., London. 

1837, 8vo, pp. iv.+86, with index. 

9. The Poll | taken at | the Election | of | Two 
Knights of the Shire | for the | County of 
Huntingdon | at the | General Election, Thurs- 
day, April 2, 1857. 

James Rust, Esq. .. .. .. 1192 

Edward Fellowes, Esq. .. .. .. 1106 

John Moyer Heathcote, Esq. .. .. 1106 

Sir John Henry Pelly, Bart., High Sheriff. 

Clement Francis, Esq., Under-Sheriff. 

Edward Maule, Esq., Auditor. 

Huntingdon : | Printed and published by 
Robert Edis : To be had of all Booksellers in 
the County: and of Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 

1857, 8vo, pp. 82. 

10. General Election | 1859 | The Poll | taken at | 
The Election | of | Two Knights of the Shire | 
to serve in Parliament | for the | County of 
Huntingdon | before | John Dunn Gardner, Esq., 
Sheriff | on Thursday, 5th May, 1859. 


Edward Fellowes, Esq. 
Lord Robert Montagu 
John Moyer Heathcote, Esq. 

Price One Shilling. 

S. Neots : | Printed and Sold by David R. 
Tomson ; to be had of all Booksellers in the 

1859, 8vo, pp. 80. 

11. Another issue with different title-page and an 
index. 8vo, pp. 89. 

12. 13. The Bodleian Library has two MS. Poll- 
Books, 1710 and 1713 (see Gough's MS. 
Huntingdon 3). 




Thanks to M. Mory of Boulogne-sur-Mer, 
' N. & Q. 1 was the first English paper to 
draw attention to the good work being 
carried on by M. Magne at the Abbey of 
Fontevrault. While excavating the nave 
of the church he has had the good fortune to 
bring to light the tombs of the Plantagenet 
kings of England. Six members of the 
Angevin house were buried in the vicinity 
of the transept, although only four statues 
remain : those of Richard Cceur de Lion, 
Eleanor de Guyenne (mother of Richard I.), 
Henry II. Plantagenet, and Isabella of 
Angouleme. The Daily Telegraph of the 
23rd of August contained illustrations of 
these, as well as of the basement in which 
the tombs and the four coffins were dis- 
covered ; and on the following day the 
paper gave a view of the abbey itself. It 

ii s. ii. SEPT. 3, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


was found that during the alterations 
made in the sixteenth century, the builders 
had not hesitated to shorten the tomb of 
Henry II., for when M. Magne opened it, the 
head and a portion of the trunk were dis- 
covered to be placed at the feet of the 

Henceforth the Plantagenet kings will 
find a worthier resting-place for their remains 
within the restored abbey ; but in a leader 
which The Daily Telegraph of the 24th of 
August devotes to the subject, regret is 
expressed " that the crumbling frames of 
two of the most famous of our kings must 
still be denied a resting-place in English 

In the illustrated edition of Green's ' Short 
History,' vol. i. p. 212, is an illustra- 
tion, taken from Stothard's i Monumental 
Effigies,' of the effigy of Henry II. from his 
tomb at Fontevraud. Every one knows how 
much we owe to the editors of this work, 
Mrs. Green and Miss Kate Norgate, for the 
enthusiasm and labour they have bestowed 
on the history of the Angevin kings. 

Mrs. Green in 'Henry II. 1 ("Twelve 
English Statesmen ") gives a graphic de- 
scription of the "sudden, terrible thunder 
that broke from the still air " when on 
the 4th of July, 1189, Philip met Henry 
at Colombieres, and made his crushing 
demands : 

" Both kings fell back with superstitious awe, for 
there had been no warning cloud or darkness. 
After a little space they again went forward, 
and again out of the serene sky came a louder and 
yet more awful peal. Henry, half fainting with 
uttering, was only prevented from falling to the 
ground by the friends who held him up on horse- 
back while he made his submission to his rival 
and accepted the terms of peace." 

Then for the last time he spoke with his 
faithless son Richard. As the formal kiss of 
p< -ace was given, the count caught his 
father's fierce whisper, " May God not let me 
die until I have worthily avenged myself on 
thee ! " 

"The great king's pride was bowed in the 
"rtremity of his ruin and defeat. ' Shame ! ' he 


Henry survived the signing of the treaty 
but two days. He died on the 6th of July, 
1189, and on the following day 

"his body was borne to Fontevraud, where his 
sculptured tomb still stands. To the astonished 

lookers at the great tragedy, the grave in a con- 
vent church, separated from the tombs of his 
Angevin forefathers and of his Norman ancestors, 

>r from his English kingdom, seemed part of the 

strange disasters foretold by Merlin and inspired: 
messengers. But no ruler of his age had raised for 
himself so great a monument as Henry. Amid the 
ruin that overwhelmed his imperial schemes, his 
realm of England stood as the true and lasting 
memorial of his genius. Englishmen then, as English- 
men now, taught by the ' remembrance of his good 
times,' recognized him as one of the foremost on the 
roll of those who have been the makers of England's 

Every Englishman will feel grateful to 
M. Magne and to the French Government 
for these important and interesting dis- 

(To be concluded.) 

JAPHET. In a translator's foot-note to a 
novel of Russian exile I read that formerly 
in Russia and Poland it was said that 
Japhet was the father of the nobility, Shem 
of the Jews, and Ham of the peasants and 
humble classes. Apparently the name 
" Ham ?s still clings to peasants in some 
districts. FBANCIS P. MABCHANT. 

Streatham Common. 

curious early mention of Tammany, and in 
connexion with England, is to be found in 
No. 16 of The Oracle : Bell's New World, 
published in London 18 June, 1789. Under 
the heading ' United States J is a com- 
munication from Albany, New York, 
saying : 

"Yesterday, April 23, being the Anniversary of 
St. George, the Patron Saint of England, the day 
was celebrated by the Sons of St. George and Gentle- 
men Visitors who dined together at Lewis's Tavern. 
After dinner [eleven] toasts were drank." 

Of these, the third was "The United 
States of America' 1 ; the fourth, "That 
llustrious Son of St. George, George Washing- 
ton, President of the United States M ; the 
ninth, " The King of Great Britain. May a 
speedy and lasting Alliance take Place 
between that Nation and the United States, 
on the basis of reciprocal interest " ; and 
the tenth, " May the Sons of St. George, St. 
Nicholas, and St. Patrick, long smoke 
together the Calumet of Cordiality in St. 
Tammany's Wigman " (? Wigwam). 

A special interest attaches to the mention 
of " St. Tammany's Wigwam " in this 
paragraph, and notably to the date of that 
nention, for, according to the generally 
accepted history of the Society of Tam- 
many or Columbian Order, the famous New 
York organization distinct, however, from 
;he purely Democratic "Tammany" held 
ts first meeting on 12 May, 1789, just three 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. IL SEPT. 3, 1910. 

weeks alter the drinking of this toast in the 
capital of New York State. ' The World 
Almanac and Encyclopaedia for 1910,' pub- 
lished at New York, gives (p. 547) the 
following account of it : 

" This organization was formed in 1789, being the 
effect of a popular movement in New York having 
primarily in view a counter-weight to the so-called 
* aristocratic' Society of the Cincinnati. Itwasessen- 
tially anti-Federalist or democratic in its character, 
and its chief founder was William Mooney, an 
upholsterer and a native-born American of Irish 
extraction. It took its first title from a noted 
ancient, wise, and friendly chief of the Delaware 
tribe of Indians, named Tammany, who had, for the 
want of a better subject, been canonized by the 
soldiers of the Revolution as the American patron 
saint. The first meeting \vas held May 12, 1789. 
The Act of Incorporation was passed in 1805. The 
Grand Sachem and thirteen Sachems were designed 
to typify the President and the Governors of the 
thirteen original States. William Mooney was the 
first Grand Sachem. The Society is nominally a 
charitable and social organization, and is distinct 
from the General Committee of the Tammany 
Democracy, which is a political organization, and 
cannot use Tammany Hall without the consent of 
the Society." 

It may be added that the officers, in 
addition to the Grand Sachem, the thirteen 
Sachems, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, are a 
Sagamore and a Wiskinskie whatever these 
presumably Indian terms may precisely 

[The 'N.E.D.' treats "Sagamore" as=Sachem.] 

students'- song dates from the ^cole des 
Mines at Liege about 1883. How much 
older than that it may be I cannot say ; but 
it seems worth putting on record as a more 
or less faithful transcript of what Belgian 
students used to sing in chorus a quarter of a 
century ago. I decline to be responsible for 
all the calembours, as it was taken down by 
word of mouth, and I have never seen it in 

Je crois qu'il y a un : 

II n'y a qu'un seul Dieu 
Qui regne au firmament. 
Je crois qu'il y a deux : 

II y a deux testaments : 
L'ancien et le nouveau. 

Je crois qu'il y a trois : 

II y a trois-cadero. 
Je crois qu'il y a quatre : 

II y a Quatre'rine de Russie. 
Je crois qu'il y a cinq : 

II y a saint du Palais Royal. 
Je crois qu'il y a six : 

II y a le six-teme me"trique. 
Je crois qu'il y a sept : 

II y a que cet-air-ci m'embete: 

Je crois qu'il y a huit : 
II y a huitres d'Ostende. 

Je crois qu'il y a neuf : 
II y a n'oeuf a la coque. 

Je crois qu'il y a dix : 
II y a dis-moi si tu m'aimes. 

Je crois qu'il y a onze : 
II y a on s'amuse ici. 

Je crois qu'il y a douze : 
II y a d'ou-ce-que-tu-viens ? 

Je crois qu'il y a treize : 
11 y a tres-sympathique. 

Je crois qu'il y a quatorze : 
11 y a qu'a ta soeur done faite ? 

Je crois qu'il y a quinze : 
II n'y a qu'un seul Dieu 
Qui regne au firmament ! 


GHOST'S BARGAIN.' I do not recollect 
having seen it noted that the illustration 
at p. 105, ' The Exterior of the Old College,' 
after C. Stanfield, R.A., embodies a view of 
St. John Baptist Hospital, Sherborne, 
Dorset, better known as the Alms House, 
which dates from the fifteenth century. 
Dickens (1848) describes the domicile of the 
Haunted Man as " squeezed on every side 
by the overgrowing of the great city," 
which obviously does not point to Sher- 
borne ; but a comparison of his friend Stan- 
field's drawing with any illustration of the 
cloister and chapel, parts of the building 
mentioned, shows the identity too con- 
clusively to admit of question. W. B. H. 

BELT FAMILY. This family (see 8 S. 
xii. 128) became extinct on the death of 
William John Belt of Lincoln's Inn. His 
father Robert Belt of Bossall (died 1839) 
married Margaret Gordon (1785-1872), sister 
of Capt. Peter Gordon the explorer (referred 
to at 10 S. iii. 283, 324 ; 11 S. ii. 126). Mr. 
W. J. Belt was keenly interested in the 
history of his family, and a pedigree of his 
mother's ancestors, written in 1887, is in 
the possession of General William Gordon, 

118, Pall Mall, S,W. 

Skeat in his Dictionary, quoting from 
Webster, gives an example of the word 
" yankee '' as used in 1765 in a poem 
published in Boston, and also states, on 
the authority of Dr. W. Gordon's ' History 
of the American War,'- 1789, that the word 
was used by the students at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, as far back as 1713, and 

ii s. ii. SEPT. 3, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


carried thence into general use with the 
meaning of excellent. 

It may be of interest to note that the 
word as a name for the American colonists 
was evidently well known in 1758. In 
Mr. Beckles Willson's ' Life and Letters 
of James Wolfe,' on p. 376, is a letter frorr 
Wolfe to General Amherst, written on 
19 June, 1758, during the siege of Louisburg 

"DEAR SIR, My posts are now so fortified thai 
I can afford you the two companies of Yankees, anc 
the more as they are better for ranging and scouting 
than either work or vigilance." 

As Wolfe had come almost directly from 
England, he must have picked up the 
word quickly, and probably not in a com- 
plimentary sense, as his opinion of the 
colonial troops under his command was 
very low. . L. F. G. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" TEEST." This is said to be the name 
for a small anvil which is set in a socket on 
the ordinary anvil or bench. I should be 
glad to know if the term is in ordinary 
English use among blacksmiths or others. 
Is anything known as to the etymology or 
source of the word, or of its occurrence 
before 1877 ? J. A. H. MUBKAY. 


" SCRUTO." This word is given in ' The 
Century Dictionary * (1891) with the follow- 
ing definition : "In theaters, a movable 
trap or doorway, constructed of strips of 
wood or whalebone, which springs into 
place after being used for quick appearances 
and disappearances." I have not met with 
the word in its simple form anywhere else, 
but the compound scruto-work occurs in 
two quotations from Punch : " Gorgeous 
transformations, on which paint, coloured 
foils, Dutch metal, ossidew sloats, scruto- 
work, gas-battens, and all the resources of 
* sink and fly * have been lavished " (5 Feb., 
1859, p. 58), and " A land of sloats and stays, 
I And scruto-work and profiling, | And 
shivering coryphees " (12 Jan., 1861, p. 14). 

I should be glad to be furnished with any 
earlier example of the word, or any informa- 
tion about its use or etymology. 


one tell me who was the wife of Sir William 
Stephenson, Lord Mayor of London in 1764 ? 

SiY William left his large fortune between 
his three daughters. Of these Anne married 
John Sawbridge, Lord Mayor of London in 
1775 ; and Alice became the wife of her 
cousin Henry Stephenson of East Burnham, 
Bucks, and Cox Lodge, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
and was the mother of the second Countess 
of Mexborough. Who was Sir William's 
other daughter ? and who is the male repre- 
sentative of Sir William Stephenson' s family ? 
Was there any foreign blood in the family ? 

Answers can be sent direct to 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' supply me with 
a list of Secretaries to the Lords Lieutenant 
of Ireland from the Restoration to the death 
of Anne ? I have made a rough list for 
myself, which, however, has many lacunae,. 
(I do not mean Secretaries of State in Ireland, 
which was a different office. ) 

Also I should be glad to know the dates 
o death of Sir Paul Davys and Sir John 
Davys, Secretaries of State in Ireland temp. 
Charles II. ; Sir William Davys, Chief Justice 
of King's Bench 1680-87 ; Sir Edward Smith, 
Chief Justice of Common Pleas 1665-9 ; 
Henry Hene, Chief Baron of Exchequer 
1679-87 ; Thomas Kelly, Justice of Common 
Pleas 1784-1801 ; and Edward Webster, 
Secretary to Lord Lieutenant 1717-20. 


obliged for any reference to biographical 
data relating to John Nelson, 1779-1835(?), 
or Samuel Lewis, jun., 1810(?)-1871(?), 
the historians of Islington. Of the first 
named it is known that he was born in 
Southwark and was the grandson of Robert 
Nelson, author of ' The Festivals and Fasts,' 
&c. It was this that brought him to the 
notice of John Nichols, F.S.A., who en- 
trusted him with the material brought 
together for the history of Islington. I am 
nformed that a great deal of his correspond- 
ence still exists, and should very much like 
:o have sight of it. 

Lewis was the son of the Rev. S. Lewis, a 
very popular local clergyman. Apparently 
his was considered his only claim to 
posthumous fame, but his history is a very 
rood work, although not profound. In its 
^reparation he must have had the friendly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. 11. SEPT. 3, 1910. 

assistance of some better -known antiquaries, 
as his other writings do not indicate any 
special ability in this direction. 


should be obliged to any one who could tell 
me how many works were published by 
Bell in his " British Library from Chaucer 
to Churchill," with the names of the several 
authors. In 116 vols. lately picked up, I 
find 23 that are not in Cooke's list (see 7 S. 
xii. 107, 213). 

Cooke speaks of Johnson's as well as of 
Bell's editions. What do Johnson's editions 
comprise, and are these in size octodecimo, 
as Cooke' s and Bell's ? The engravings in 
Cooke exceed those in Bell in number, but 
in both they are of the highest order, being 
after Kirke, Corbould, Bewick, Singleton, 
Neagle, Anker Smith, Stodart, Angelica 
Kauffman, Cipriani, Bartolozzi, Grignion, 
Sherwin, &c. HAROLD MALET, Col. 

library a copy of the third edition of ' A 
View of the Various Editions of the Greek 
and Roman Classics, with Remarks, by 
Edward Harwood, D.D. 1 Pinned on the 
fly -leaf is a piece of paper with the following 
MS. note : 

"Edwd. Hibjame, January, 1799. The observa- 
tions herein inserted are those of Edw. Gibbon, Esq. 
1 copied them from his MSS. observations inserted 
in the third edition, which descended with other 
books to Lord Sheffield, who gave it to Mr. Wood- 
ward, by whose kindness I obtained the privilege of 
extracting them. I have reason from what Dr. 
Raine said to believe the remarks just, and 
Dr. Symonds thinks the same, particularly his 

observations on ." 

Something is evidently missing here ? Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q.* give information 
concerning the present whereabouts of 
Edward Gibbon's copy ? Gibbon's remarks 
are about sixty in number, and some are 
decidedly curious and interesting. Here are 
three specimens : 

" I am by no means ungrateful for the discovery 
of this Mythological Hymn [to Ceres] ; yet I should 
be far more delighted with the resurrection of the 
* Margites ' of Homer, the picture of private life and 
the model of antient Comedy. What a Universal 
Genius ! We may think indeed of Shakespeare and 

" West has learning, good sense, and a tolerable 
style of versification. But Gray and Dryden alone 
should have translated the Odes of Pindar, and they 
did much better than translate." 

"Le Theatre des Grecs, par le pere Brumoy 

Like most of the Jesuits, Brumoy was a literary 
bigot and a superficial scholar. Instead of studying 
the original, he uses and abuses the Latin ver- 
sion " 


25, Speenham Road, Brixton, S.W. 

ELEMENTS. The Rev. J. B. Craven, D.D., 
in his ' Journals of Bishop Robert Forbes * 
(London, 1886, p. 182), states that 

" Mr. John Maitland was attached to Lord Ogilvie's 
regiment in the service of Prince Charles, 1745. He 
administered the Holy Eucharist to Lord Strath- 
allan on Culloden field (where that nobleman 
received his death wound), it is said with oatcake 
arid whisky, the requisite elements not being 

Dr. Craven tells me that the story came 
to him from the late Rev. J. F. S. Gordon,. 
D.D. I should be glad to learn what autho- 
rity there is for it, and whether the use of 
oatcake and whisky as Eucharistic elements 
is recorded in other instances. 


University Library, Aberdeen. 

uniform six-shilling edition of Rudyard 
Kip ling's works (Macmillan & Co.) there 
is stamped, in a medallion on the cover, an 
elephant's head in profile, with a lotos 
flower depending from the trunk, and a 
swastika in a space opposite the point where 
the right eye would be. In this case the 
upper extremity of the vertical bar of the 
figure is turned to the right of the beholder ; 
but inside the cover, where there is a circle 
enclosing the author's autograph ensigned 
by another swastika, the bar is turned to the 
left. I do not doubt the symbolism of the 
variation, and should like to know what 
Mr. Kipling means to indicate (1) by using the 
sign at all, and (2) by using it in these two 
forms. Does any correspondent of ' N. & Q.* 
hold a clue ? ST. S WITHIN. 

Can any correspondent supply the complete 
p 0em se t to music, and a favourite parlour 
song say forty years ago part of which are as 
follows ? 

Then come to me and bring with thee 

The sunny smile of former years, 
If smiles so bright will lend their light 
To cheer a brow long used to tears. 

I will not let one sad regret, 
One gloomy thought, our meeting chill, 

But for thy sake I'll try to make 
This altered brow look cheerful still. 

Roncegno, Austrian Tyrol. 

I should feel grateful if you or one of your 
readers would enlighten me as to the author- 
ship of the poem commencing "Adieu, 
plaisant pays de France," sung by Mary, 
Queen of Scots. J- HILL. 

["Adieu, charmant pays de France," is from 
Beranger's ' Adieu de Marie Stuart.'] 

ii s. ii. SEPT. 3, 1910. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the readers of ' N. & Q. 1 tell me anything 
of a brass casting I possess ? In the middl< 
is a half-length representation of Shake 
speare, with his name in the semicircular top 
but why below should appear a nickname 
" Peeping Tom n ? Is there any idea thai 
Shakespeare wrote a play entitled ' Peeping 
Tom s ? It is only a suggestion, but 
Peeping Tom belonged to Coventry, which 
is in Warwickshire, Shakespeare's county, 
and so there is a sort of leaning to the idea 
that he may have brought out a play con- 
nected with the story of Lady Godiva. 
Replies may be sent to me direct. 

Stowe-Nine-Churches Rectory, Weedon. 

WARREN HASTINGS. Can any one in the 
companionship of ' N. & Q. s tell me any 
thing about the Duke of Graf ton, East India 
man, in which Warren Hastings sailed for 
India for the second time on the 23rd of 
March, 1769 ? It was on board this vessel 
that he met the Baron and Baroness von 
Imhoff, the latter of whom he subsequently 
married. I have the log of the succeeding 
voyage, 1771 to 1773, when Samuel Bull was 
her commander. Can any one tell me who 
was her commander on the former eventful 
voyage ? 

According to a legend in the family at Fal- 
mouth, the Duke of Grafton was lost on 
the Nantucket Shoals about 1777. In 
the drawing-room at " Marlborough," Fal- 
mouth, is a splendid painting of the ship 
in three positions in the Thames by Robert 
Cleverly (1747-1809, see 'D.N.B.'), the 
well-known marine painter of those days. 

I rather fancy that Samuel Bull was 
related to the Thomas Bull inquired for at 
7 S. ix. 327 by MAC ROBERT. I have the 
pedigree of the family back to 1727. 


any reader inform me of the date of origin of 
the covers of cheap novels in vogue last 
century, and sometimes called ' ' yellow 
backs " ? The covers consisted of paper 
boards of a yellow colour bearing a pictorial 
design, . usually printed in colours. Is there 
any printed matter on the subject ? 


ANONYMOUS WORKS. Can any reader of 
( N. & Q. 1 kindly oblige me with the name of 
the author of (1) 'The Gaol Chaplain, 1 (2) 
' Notes from the Diary of a Coroner's Clerk, 1 

(3) ' Leaves from the Diary of a Freemason J ? 
I should also be glad to know if the author 
of these wrote any other books. The author 
was evidently educated at Exeter Grammar 
School, under Dr. Lempriere, and was after- 
wards, I believe, a master in the school 
with one Osborne, and eventually took 
Holy Orders. Inquiries made locally have 
not been successful. 

19, Park Road, Exeter. 

' LE PAYS AN PERVERTI.' Will any one 
kindly give me the name of the author of 
* Le Paysan Perverti * and a list of his other 
works ? BLADUD. 

' JULIAN'S VISION.* Can any reader 
kindly oblige me by saying who is the author 
of ' Julian's Vision,* which was published, 
I think, about 1897 ? N. L. T. 

'A DAY WITH CROMWELL.' The author 
in his preface states that ' A Day with Crom- 
well : a Drama of History in Five Acts * 
(8vo, 80 pp., 1869, printed by Odell & Ives, 
Princes Street, Cavendish Square) was 
written to relieve the writer " from the too 
engrossing pursuits and cares of an active 
career in science,' 1 and that it was "sub- 
mitted to the ordeal of representation on the 
stage at the suggestion of an accomplished 
actor, Mr. J. C. Cowper." The time of the 
play is limited to twenty-four hours, 
8-9 May, 1657, and the scene is the palace of 
Westminster at the height of the Protector's 

Perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q. 1 can 
solve the question of the authorship of this 
anonymous work. R. B. 


UPHAM. In this churchyard is a tomb- 
stone said to have formerly been in the 
chancel to the memory of Anne, wife of 
Mr. Bernard Smith, who is quaintly described 
~>s " one of His Majesty's servants, and 
hief of all that this nation has known in the 
art of making organs." Can any of your 
readers inform me who Mrs. Smith was, and 
what was her connexion with tlpham ? It 
eems strange that, unless she was con- 
nected with the place, the famous organ- 
guilder should have selected for her burying- 
place an out-of-the-way country village, 
>f which the only claims to celebrity are 
liat it was the birthplace of Edward 
Y"oung, author of the * Night Thoughts ' ; 
hat it contains the grave of Sir Robert 
balder, who fought a battle with the French 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. n. SEPT. 3, 1910. 

fleet shortly before Trafalgar ; and that its 
church was used as a stable by Cromwell's 

Mrs. Smith died in 1698, her husband ten 
years later. E. L. H. TEW. 

Uphara Rectory, Southampton. 

THEOPHILUS FEILD was admitted to 
Westminster School in July, 1720, aged 12. 
Particulars of parentage and career are 
desired. G. F. R. B. 

FBANCIS VENTBIS FIELD was admitted to 
Westminster School 14 January, 1772. 
Particulars of parentage and career are 
desired. G. F. R. B. 

FBANK NICHOLLS, 1699-1778. I should 
be glad to know what authority